Ligand methyl viologen

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Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of methyl viologen (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C12H14N2
methyl viologen
ZWRUINPWMLAQRD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Synonyms:
methylviologen, oxidized methyl viologen, oxidized methylviologen, paraquat, paraquat radical, paraquat[side 1], paraquat[side 2]

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (3 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
H2 + oxidized methyl viologen = H+ + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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H2 + oxidized methyl viologen = reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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paraquat + NADPH = ?
show the reaction diagram
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In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (2 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
urocanate + reduced methyl viologen + H+ = dihydrourocanate + methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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nitrous oxide + reduced methyl viologen = nitrogen + H2O + methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (134 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
oxidized methyl viologen + reduced coenzyme F420 = reduced methyl viologen + oxidized coenzyme F420
show the reaction diagram
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H2 + oxidized methyl viologen = H+ + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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NAD+ + 2 oxidized methyl viologen + 2 H2 = NADH + 3 H+ + 2 reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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H2 + oxidized methyl viologen = reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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H2 + methyl viologen = H2S + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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formate + methyl viologen = CO2 + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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formate + methyl viologen = CO2 + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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formate + oxidized methyl viologen = CO2 + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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formate + methyl viologen = CO2 + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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methyl viologen + NADH = reduced methyl viologen + NAD+ + H+
show the reaction diagram
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pyruvate + CoA + methyl viologen = acetyl-CoA + CO2 + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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phenylglyoxylate + methyl viologen + CoA-SH = benzoyl-S-CoA + CO2 + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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H2 + NADP+ + 2 oxidized methyl viologen = ? + NADPH + H+ + 2 reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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CO + methyl viologen + H2O = CO2 + reduced methylene blue
show the reaction diagram
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2-oxoglutarate + CoA + oxidized methyl viologen = succinyl-CoA + CO2 + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + H2O + oxidized methyl viologen = 3-phospho-D-glycerate + reduced methyl viologen + H+
show the reaction diagram
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hexanal + H2O + oxidized methyl viologen = hexanoate + reduced methyl viologen + H+
show the reaction diagram
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arsenate + methyl viologen = arsenite + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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reduced coenzyme F420 + methyl viologen = ?
show the reaction diagram
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paraquat + NADPH = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
hydroxylamine + methyl viologen = NH3 + H2O + ?
show the reaction diagram
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nitrite + methyl viologen = NO + oxidized methyl viologen + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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trimethylamine N-oxide + oxidized methyl viologen + H+ = trimethylamine + reduced methyl viologen + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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hydroxylamine + H2O + methylviologen = NO + reduced methylviologen + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
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dimethylsulfide + H2O + oxidized methyl viologen = dimethylsulfoxide + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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oxidized methyl viologen + CoB + CoM = reduced methyl viologen + CoM-S-S-CoB + H+
show the reaction diagram
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H2 + oxidized methyl viologen + CoM-S-S-CoB = reduced methyl viologen + CoB + CoM + H+
show the reaction diagram
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nitrite + methyl viologen = nitrate + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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thiosulfate + methylviologen = sulfide + ?
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + H2O + paraquat[side 1] = ADP + phosphate + paraquat[side 2]
show the reaction diagram
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Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (135 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
H+ + reduced methyl viologen = H2 + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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H+ + reduced methyl viologen = H2 + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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formate + reduced methyl viologen = CO2 + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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CO2 + reduced methyl viologen = formate + methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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epoxyqueuosine34 in tRNA + reduced methyl viologen = queuosine34 in tRNA + methyl viologen + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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H2 + reduced methyl viologen = methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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acetate + H+ + reduced methyl viologen = acetaldehyde + H2O + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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arsenate + methyl viologen = arsenite + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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6-hydroxynicotinate + reduced methyl viologen = 6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydronicotinate + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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urocanate + reduced methyl viologen + H+ = dihydrourocanate + methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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nitrate + reduced methyl viologen = nitrite + methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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oxidized coenzyme F420 + reduced methyl viologen = reduced coenzyme F420 + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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reduced methyl viologen + nitrate = methyl viologen + nitrite
show the reaction diagram
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nitrite + reduced methyl viologen = ammonia + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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reduced methyl viologen + nitrate = oxidized methyl viologen + nitrite + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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nitrate + reduced methyl viologen = nitrite + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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nitrite + reduced methyl viologen = NH3 + oxidized methyl viologen + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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nitrate + reduced methyl viologen = nitrite + oxidized methyl viologen + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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nitrite + reduced methyl viologen = NH3 + H2O + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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hydroxylamine + reduced methyl viologen = ammonia + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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NADP+ + reduced methyl viologen = NADPH + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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dimethyl sulfoxide + reduced methyl viologen + H2O = dimethyl sulfide + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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thiosulfate + reduced methyl viologen = sulfite + hydrogen sulfide + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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sulfite + reduced methyl viologen + H+ = hydrogen sulfide + oxidized methyl viologen + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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sulfite + reduced methyl viologen = hydrogen sulfide + oxidized methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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S-adenosyl-L-methionine + reduced methyl viologen + formate acetyltransferase-glycine = 5'-deoxyadenosine + methionine + methyl viologen + formate acetyltransferase-glycine-2-yl-radical
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + H2O + paraquat[side 1] = ADP + phosphate + paraquat[side 2]
show the reaction diagram
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Enzyme Cofactor/Cosubstrate (4 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE

Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (13 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
administration at 0.01 mM to roots results in remarkable induction of enzyme gene expression and dramatic increase of gene activity
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activates plastidic isozymes by 10fold by direct action on the enzyme, no activation of the cytosolic isozyme
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induces IDO expression in the lung
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0.5 mM, oxidative stress induces Pseudomonas putida FprA but not FprB
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the specific activity of the enzyme increases up to 2fold after oxidative conditions imposed by methylviologen, expression of NP-Ga3PDHase in plants is induced by high treatments with methyl viologen
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paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production including superoxide anions in BV-2 cells is accompanied by translocation of the p67phox cytosolic subunit of NADPH oxidase to the membrane. Paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production is inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenylene iodonium. Apocynin and diphenylene iodonium also rescue cells from paraquat-induced toxicity. The inhibitors for protein kinase C delta or extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 can partially attenuate paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production and cell death
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activation
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the activity of DHAR significantly increases from 1 d after treatment with 0.05 mM and thereafter declines gradually to the control level
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strictly dependent on
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activates 6.7fold at 10 mM
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generator of superoxide radicals
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4 mM, 40% stimulation
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Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (10 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
noncompetitive for F0
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at micromolar concentrations
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slightly inhibits
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inactivation
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ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit is significantly decreased by the treatment with the herbicide
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Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

kcat Value (Turnover Number) (8 results)

EC NUMBER
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/S]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM [1/S]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
3.6
-
-
20
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pH 7.0, 30°C
62
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pH 8.4, 85°C, with crotonaldehyde
62
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with crotonaldehyde as cosubstrate, at 85°C

KM Value (63 results)

EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0052
-
-
5
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at pH 8.0, 80°C
0.44
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electron donor: xanthine
0.068
-
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2.9
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pH 8.4, 85°C, with crotonaldehyde
0.007
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pH 9.3, 40°C
0.15
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with trimethylamine N-oxide, pH 6.9
0.25
-
-
0.07
-
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Ki Value (1 result)

EC NUMBER
KI VALUE [MM]
KI VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
-
-

References & Links

Links to other databases for methyl viologen

ChEBI
PubChem
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PubChem