Ligand Insulin

Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.

Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
Insulin

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (7 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
insulin + ascorbate + O2 = ? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-

Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (38 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
insulin + ascorbate + O2 = ? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + dithiothreitol = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + dithiothreitol = reduced insulin + oxidized dithiothreitol
show the reaction diagram
-
L-arginyl-tRNAArg + insulin = tRNAArg + L-arginyl-[insulin]
show the reaction diagram
-
4-nitrophenyl sulfate + insulin = ? + 4-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + rac-3-aminobutanamide = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
Insulin + H2O = Hydrolyzed insulin
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
insulin + H2O = NH3 + ?
show the reaction diagram
-

Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (12 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
thioredoxin + insulin disulfide = thioredoxin disulfide + insulin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
insulin disulfide + NADPH + H+ = insulin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
insulin disulfide + dithiothreitol = insulin + dithiothreitol disulfide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
insulin disulfide + glutathione = insulin + glutathione disulfide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
pro-insulin + H2O = insulin + insulin signal peptide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
Proinsulin + H2O = Insulin + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
Proinsulin + H2O = Insulin + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
Proinsulin + H2O = Insulin + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
proinsulin fusion protein + H2O = insulin + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-

Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (66 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
insulin stimulates 11beta-HSD1 activity and expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-220025, but not the ERK inhibitor U-0126 or the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, prevent insulin stimulation of 11beta-HSD1 activity
-
stimulates, in pregnant women with types 1 diabetes insulin effect on the enzyme activity is lower than in the control. In the group of pregnant women with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes the effect of insulin is decreased as compared to control
-
causes 5fold increace of activity
-
increases BVR tyrosine autophosphorylation
-
is effective in counteracting the stimulation of BHMT activity and mRNA levels produced by triamcinolone in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells
-
Gpat1 is upregulated by insulin
-
treatment of adipocytes with insulin increases DGAT2 mRNA
-
Insulin promotes conversion of GPa to GPb via protein kinase B activation
-
tyrosine phosphorylation of OGT increases significantly after a 10 min insulin treatment
-
promotes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of enzyme without an effect on beta subunit, and activation of enzyme, insulin increases the amount of geranylgeranylated Rab3 and Rab4 proteins
-
stimulating effect is abolished when lactate is added
-
stimulates PI3K activity
-
stimulation
-
high glucose or high insulin rapidly increase inactivating Ser366 phosphorylation of eEF2 kinase
-
causes weak activation
-
insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in rats increases AMPK phosphorylation and alpha2AMPK activity in the arcuate nucleus/dorso-mediobasal hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus
-
combination of 100 nM dexmethasone with 100 nM insulin appreciably enhances lipoprotein lipase activity
-
insulin therapy increases both PAP1 activity and lipin mRNA expression in diabetic patients
-
induces the enzyme in diabetic rats
-
increases the phosphorylation of multiple sites, markedly increases the amounts of lipin and PAP activity in the soluble fraction, effects of insulin are attenuated by rapamycin or by inhibiting PI 3 kinase
-
stimulates
-
in part, may activate GPI-PLC, via phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C/intracellular Ca2+, which may consequently stimulate the release of GPI-renal dipeptidase
-
human recombinant insulin, 30% activation at 10 ng/ml
-
stimulates indirectly the release of RDPase in association with Ca2+ in a concentration-dependent manner (half maximal release at 0.58 nM)
-
alters the hypothalamic activity of soluble PAP-I
-
0.001 mM, stimulates the cleavage of the extracellular domain of Klotho
-
the stimulatory effect of insulin on adenylyl cyclase is decreased to 28% in the presence of 0.1 mM Ca2+
-
incubation with insulin for 45min led to a more than twofold activation of the enzyme
-
treatment of hepatocytes induces the expression of only the heavy enzyme subunit
-
ACC specific activity is increased in response to insulin
-
insulin treatment at early stage of diabetes (1-week diabetic animals) results in hyper-stimulation, but it is ineffective in restoring the activity in 1-month diabetic animals
-
control of Na,K-ATPase activity and expression
-
insulin reverses the effect of copper and stimulates retrograde trafficking of ATP7B from the canalicular membranes, consistent with the enhanced ability of ATP7B to sequester copper away from the cytosol. Physiological concentrations of insulin increase endogenous ATP7B activity in cultured hepatic cells and in tissues by 40%, whereas glucagon inhibits this activity by 70%. The opposite effects of the hormones on ATP7B activity involve receptor-mediated signaling pathways and membrane-bound kinases PKA and PKB/Akt
-
increase of mRNA and protein levels of ATP7A
-

Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (19 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
acute and selective
-
inhibits enzyme expression in glial cell culture
-
inhibition of the enzyme in plasma membrane
-
pre-treatment of cells inhibits, 0.001 mM isoproterenol reverses inhibition
-
decreases glucokinase activity at 5.5 mM glucose and at 10 mM glucose. No effect at 2.8 mM glucose or at 20 mM glucose
-
insulin induces phosphorylation of the Ser9 residue, thereby inactivating GSK-3beta
-
significantly reduces endothelial lipase mRNA and protein expression in a dose dependent manner
-
insulin reduces NRE mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
-
AChE activity in detergent soluble fraction of scopolamine amnesic mice is inhibited by donepezil, insulin and melatonin with varying extent in different brain regions, whereas AChE activity in salt soluble fraction is not much affected, overview
-
opposes action of glucagon or epinephrine
-
insulin causes a decrease in the activity of enzyme in the liver in vivo
-
reduces arginase activity
-

Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

kcat Value (Turnover Number) (5 results)

EC NUMBER
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/S]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM [1/S]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.14
-
pH 8.0, 37°C

KM Value (26 results)

EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.12
-
pH 8.0, 37°C
0.000105
-
-
2.026
-
pH 7.0, temperature not specified in the publication

References & Links

Links to other databases for Insulin