Ligand palmitate

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Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of palmitate (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C16H32O2
palmitate
IPCSVZSSVZVIGE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Synonyms:
a long-chain-fatty-acid anion, a long-chain-fatty acid, a long-chain acid anion, a long-chain carboxylate, a long-chain carboxylic acid, a long-chain fatty acid, hexadecanoate, hexadecanoic acid, long-chain acid anion, long-chain carboxylate, long-chain carboxylic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoate


Show all pahtways known for Show all BRENDA pathways known for palmitate

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (21 results)

EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
REACTION DIAGRAM
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
show the reaction diagram
palmitate + H2O2 = pentadecanal + CO2 + H2O
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show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + [reduced NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 16-hydroxypalmitic acid + [oxidized NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
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show the reaction diagram
hexadecanoate + acceptor + O2 + H+ = (11E)-hexadecenoate + ?
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show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + reduced acceptor + O2 = hexadec-11-enoic acid + acceptor + 2 H2O
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show the reaction diagram
a long-chain fatty acid + hv = a long-chain alkane + CO2
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show the reaction diagram
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + holo-[mycocerosate synthase] = AMP + diphosphate + a long-chain acyl-[mycocerosate synthase]
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In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (38 results)

EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
REACTION DIAGRAM
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
-
show the reaction diagram
long-chain alcohol + NAD+ + H2O = long-chain carboxylate + NADH
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-
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + 7 malonyl-CoA + 14 NADPH + 14 H+ = palmitate + 8 CoA + 7 CO2 + 14 NADP+ + 6 H2O
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show the reaction diagram
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + H2O = 2-oleoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine + palmitic acid
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-
show the reaction diagram
1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-palmitoylglycerophosphocholine + palmitic acid
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show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-[protein] + H2O = palmitate + protein

Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (84 results)

EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
REACTION DIAGRAM
REACTION
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
show the reaction diagram
palmitate + H2O2 = pentadecanal + CO2 + H2O
-
show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + H2O2 = 15-hydroxypalmitic acid + 14-hydroxypalmitic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + ATP + CoA = palmitoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
-
show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + [reduced NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 16-hydroxypalmitic acid + [oxidized NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
-
show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + [reduced NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 16-hydroxypalmitic acid + [oxidized NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
-
show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + O2 + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ = ?
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show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid + NAD(P)+ + H2O
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show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = (R)-2-hydroxypalmitic acid + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + H2O
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show the reaction diagram
hexadecanoate + acceptor + O2 + H+ = (11E)-hexadecenoate + ?
-
show the reaction diagram
beta-D-glucosyl 4,4'-diaponeurosporenoate + palmitate = [(6-O-palmitoyl)-beta-D-glucosyl] 4,4'-diaponeurosporenoate + H2O
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show the reaction diagram
glycerol + palmitic acid = monopalmitin + H2O
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show the reaction diagram
palmitate + ethanol = ethyl palmitate + H2O
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show the reaction diagram
D-erythro-sphingosine + palmitic acid = N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
palmitic acid + lyso-GM1a = ? + H2O
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show the reaction diagram
a long-chain fatty acid + hv = a long-chain alkane + CO2
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show the reaction diagram
GTP + palmitate + CoA = GDP + phosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
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show the reaction diagram
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
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show the reaction diagram
ATP + palmitate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + palmityl-CoA
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show the reaction diagram
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + holo-[mycocerosate synthase] = AMP + diphosphate + a long-chain acyl-[mycocerosate synthase]
-
show the reaction diagram
hexadecanoic acid + CoA + ATP = hexadecanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
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Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (328 results)

EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
REACTION DIAGRAM
REACTION
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
-
show the reaction diagram
hexadecanal + NAD+ + H2O = hexadecanoate + NADH + H+
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show the reaction diagram
hexadecanal + NAD+ = hexadecanoate + NADH
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-
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + H2O = palmitate + CoA
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-
show the reaction diagram
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatic acid + H2O = 2-oleyl-1-lysophosphatidic acid + palmitate
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-
show the reaction diagram
p-nitrophenyl palmitate + H2O = p-nitrophenol + palmitate
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-
show the reaction diagram
4-nitrophenyl palmitate + H2O = 4-nitrophenol + palmitate
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show the reaction diagram
1-acyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoinositol + H2O = 1-acylglycerophosphoinositol + palmitic acid
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show the reaction diagram
11-cis-retinyl palmitate + H2O = 11-cis-retinol + palmitate
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-
show the reaction diagram
p-nitrophenyl palmitate + H2O = p-nitrophenol + palmitate
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show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA = palmitate + CoA
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-
show the reaction diagram
hexadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O = [acyl-carrier protein] + hexadecanoate
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-
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + H2O = palmitate + CoA
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show the reaction diagram
N-palmitoyl-L-glutamate + H2O = palmitate + L-glutamate
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show the reaction diagram
aculeacin A + H2O = cyclo-hexapeptide + palmitic acid
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Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (19 results)

COMMENTARY
EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE

Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (47 results)

COMMENTARY
EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
0.01 mM
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inhibits enzyme in dose-dependent manner
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0.003 mM, 40% inhibition of chloroplastic form and 43% inhibition of cytosolic form
competitive inhibition
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the incubation of Jurkat cells with 0.2 mM palmitic acid causes a significant decrease of catalase activity but not of protein or mRNA content
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IC50: 0.00067 mM
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enzyme expression is reduced in 3T3-L1 cells differentiated in presence of 400 microM palmitic acid
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isoform 1, 50% inhibition above 0.1 mM, isoform 2, 50% inhibition above 0.1 mM
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50% inhibition at 1.35 mM
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0.15 mM, 50% inhibition
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IC50 in the range 1-100 mM
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0.1 mM
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IC50: 0.0624 mM, TbHK1
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2 mM, 76% inhibition
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1 mM inhibits by 30%
40 microM, about 80% inhibition
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1 mM, 30% inhibition
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a non-substrate lipid belonging to the phospholipase A2 pathway
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supresses cleavage by dS1P
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IC50: 0.035 mM
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weak inhibition
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weak inhibition
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linolenic acid activation
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concempetitive, potent
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IC50: 0.009 mM, at 25°C and pH 8.0
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3D Structure of Enzyme-Ligand-Complex (PDB) (1544 results)

EC NUMBER
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE