Ligand thioredoxin

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Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of thioredoxin (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C30H41 2N9O6RS2
thioredoxin
WKBCLXIXVMHRAZ-SVXFZJLFSA-N
Synonyms:
cytosolic thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, human thioredoxin, mitochondial thioredoxin, reduced thioredoxin, reduced thioredoxin 1, thioredoxin, reduced, thioredoxin-1, thioredoxin 1, thioredoxin from Escherichia coli, thioredoxin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thioredoxin I, TRX


Show all pahtways known for Show all BRENDA pathways known for thioredoxin

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (63 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
2 thioredoxin + ROOH = thioredoxin disulfide + H2O + ROH
show the reaction diagram
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arsenate + glutaredoxin = arsenite + glutaredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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arsenate + thioredoxin = arsenite + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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glycine + phosphate + thioredoxin = acetyl phosphate + ammonia + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
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N-methylglycine + phosphate + thioredoxin = acetyl phosphate + methylamine + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
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N,N,N-trimethylglycine + phosphate + thioredoxin = acetyl phosphate + trimethylamine + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
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thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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5'-adenylyl sulfate + thioredoxin = AMP + sulfite + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
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oxidized ferredoxin + thioredoxin + H+ = reduced ferredoxin + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
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peroxiredoxin-(S-hydroxy-S-oxocysteine) + ATP + 2 thioredoxin = peroxiredoxin-(S-hydroxycysteine) + ADP + phosphate + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
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3-mercaptopyruvate + thioredoxin = pyruvate + persulfurated thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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thioredoxin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
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In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (7 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
prostamide F2alpha + oxidized thioredoxin = prostamide H2 + reduced thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O = ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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acetyl phosphate + ammonia + thioredoxin disulfide = glycine + phosphate + thioredoxin
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thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+ = thioredoxin + NADP+
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reduced ferredoxin + thioredoxin disulfide = oxidized ferredoxin + thioredoxin + H+
show the reaction diagram
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Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (191 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
thioredoxin + 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoyl)-L-3-phosphatidylcholine = ?
show the reaction diagram
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2,3-epoxyphylloquinone + reduced thioredoxin = phylloquinone + oxidized thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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arsenate + glutaredoxin = arsenite + glutaredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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arsenate + thioredoxin = arsenite + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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glycine + phosphate + thioredoxin = acetyl phosphate + ammonia + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
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N-methylglycine + phosphate + thioredoxin = acetyl phosphate + methylamine + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
-
N,N,N-trimethylglycine + phosphate + thioredoxin = acetyl phosphate + trimethylamine + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
-
5'-adenylyl sulfate + thioredoxin = AMP + sulfite + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
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oxidized ferredoxin + thioredoxin + H+ = reduced ferredoxin + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
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insulin disulfide + reduced thioredoxin = insulin dithiol + pxodized thioredoxin
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thioredoxin-1 + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
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thioredoxin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
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thioredoxin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
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thioredoxin-1 + H2O = ?
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thioredoxin + NADP+ = ? + NADPH
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Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (20 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
prostamide F2alpha + oxidized thioredoxin = prostamide H2 + reduced thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O = ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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acetyl phosphate + ammonia + thioredoxin disulfide = glycine + phosphate + thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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dimethylsulfide + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = dimethylsulfoxide (S)-S-oxide + thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = L-methionine (R)-S-oxide + thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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sulfinic form of peroxiredoxin IIF + oxidized thioredoxin = ? + reduced thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
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Enzyme Cofactor/Cosubstrate (61 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
the enzyme contains six thioredoxin domains
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omission results in a 70% drop in activity
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stimulates thiosulfate reductase IIIa and IIIb
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Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (43 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
activation only in intact membranes
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the Desulfovibrio vulgaris thioredoxin1 system activates the enzyme
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and dithiothreitol are needed for arsenate reduction
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required, reverses enzyme inhibition by oxidized glutathione, glutathione together with glutaredoxin exhibits regulatory function in vivo
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a strong and more than 8fold activation of enzyme activity is observed for isoform CS4 with Escherichia coli thioredoxin coupled to reduction by NTR and NADPH
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required for activity, can be partially substituted by dithiothreitol
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about 3fold activation within 40 min
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starch granule-bound enzyme, isolated from dark-adapted plants exists in the inactive, oxidized form, which is capable of reactivation upon treatment with reduced thioredoxin
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stimulation up to 1.3fold
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thioredocins f1, m1, and y1, the isozyme TR-BAMY is positively thioredoxin-regulated
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upon preincubation with both dithiothreitol and thioredoxin, the initial reaction velocity increases by a factor of two
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the enzyme is activated by 0.008 mM thioredoxin
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is essential for ATPase function and catalysis either the reduction of intramolecular disulphide bonds or the deglutathionylation of the cysteine residues within the CxxC motifs to facilitate copper-binding for subsequent transport; is essential for ATPase function and catalysis either the reduction of intramolecular disulphide bonds or the deglutathionylation of the cysteine residues within the CxxC motifs to facilitate copper-binding for subsequent transport
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Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (9 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
in the presence of 0.5 mM dithiothreitol
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stimulation of chloroplastic form
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a regulatory disulfide between Cys359 and Cys358 of the C-terminal extension of GapB does form in presence of oxidized thioredoxin. This covalent modification is required for the NAD+-dependent association into higher oligomers and inhibition of the NADPH-dependent activity
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inhibits native enzyme but nut C150S mutant
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Trx-1, but not an active site mutated form, inhibits both C3 and C5 classical convertase formation, mechanism, overview. Trx-1 is capable of inhibiting all classical and alternative convertases but its effect is more pronounced in inhibition of alternative ones
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Trx-1, causes significant inhibition of alternative convertases, mechanism, overview. Trx-1 is capable of inhibiting all classical and alternative convertases but its effect is more pronounced in inhibition of alternative ones
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ATPase activity of recombinant CHLI1 is fully inactivated by oxidation and easily recovered by thioredoxin-assisted reduction
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Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

kcat Value (Turnover Number) (59 results)

EC NUMBER
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/S]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM [1/S]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.001
-
in 0.1 M KPB (pH 7.0), at 24°C
1.9
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0.0000032
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pH 8.0, 37°C

KM Value (114 results)

EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.001
-
pH 7.0, 24°C
0.023
-
25°C, pH 7.0
0.033
-
-
0.0012
-
-
0.034
-
2°C, pH 8.6
0.0044
-
pH 8

References & Links

Links to other databases for thioredoxin

ChEBI
PubChem
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PubChem