Ligand starch

Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.

Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of starch (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C24H40O21R2
starch
Synonyms:
(1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1, (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1, (alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4))n-alpha-D-glucopyranose, linear maltodextrin, [(1,4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1, [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1, [(1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1


Show all pahtways known for Show all BRENDA pathways known for starch

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (47 results)

EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
REACTION DIAGRAM
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
show the reaction diagram
starch + AH2 + O2 = aldonic acid-terminated malto-oligosaccharides + A + H2O
-
show the reaction diagram
starch = starch containing alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages
-
show the reaction diagram
starch = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = beta-D-glucose + ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = maltotetraose + ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = maltose + D-glucose
-
show the reaction diagram
starch = ?
-

In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (17 results)

EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
REACTION DIAGRAM
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = starch + beta-D-glucose
-
-
show the reaction diagram
cyclomaltodextrin + H2O = linear maltodextrin
-

Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (185 results)

EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
REACTION DIAGRAM
REACTION
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
show the reaction diagram
UDP-glucose + starch = starch + UDP
-
show the reaction diagram
starch = glucose
-
show the reaction diagram
sucrose + starch = D-fructose + ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = maltose + ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = beta-D-glucose + ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = ?
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = maltose + D-glucose
-
show the reaction diagram
starch = ?
-

Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (30 results)

EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
REACTION DIAGRAM
REACTION
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
-
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O = starch + beta-D-glucose
-
-
show the reaction diagram
cyclomaltodextrin + H2O = linear maltodextrin
-

Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (3 results)

COMMENTARY
EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE

Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (8 results)

COMMENTARY
EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
enzyme activity decreases to half of its original activity at 10 mg/ml of starch. The thiol groups of alcohol dehydrogenase are involved in binding
-
soluble potato starch or cassava starch
-
substrate inhibition at 0.01 and 0.0055 mg starch/ml for free and immobilized enzyme
-
concentrations above 32 g/l
-
at high concentration s
-
non-competitively inhibits hydrolysis of maltose
-
0.2% soluble starch
-
inhibits hydrolysis of glucan
-

Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

kcat Value (Turnover Number) (118 results)

COMMENTARY
EC NUMBER
LITERATURE
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/S]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM [1/S]
pH 6.2, 37°C, phosphorolytic direction, wild-type enzyme
0.2
-
pH 6.2, 37°C, synthetic direction, wild-type enzyme
19.4
-
pH 6.8, 50°C, synthesis reaction
2.1
-
pH 7.0, 30°C, recombinant mutant H334A, phosphorolysis
80
-
pH 7.0, 30°C, recombinant mutant H334N, phosphorolysis
1.5
-
pH 7.0, 30°C, recombinant mutant H334Q, phosphorolysis
0.52
-
pH 7.0, 30°C, recombinant wild-type enzyme, phosphorolysis
74
-
pH 7.2, 50°C, degradation reaction
6.3
-
phosphorolysis
69.9
-
-
2.42
-
authentic CGTase
1.66
-
coupling activity, mutant F183L
0.818
-
coupling activity, mutant F259L
0.178
-
coupling activity, mutant F283L
0.035
-
coupling activity, mutant Y195F
0.487
-
coupling activity, mutant Y195L
0.315
-
coupling activity, wild-type
1.13
-
heated CGTase
1.33
-
mutant E344D
1.51
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant A230V
9
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant A230V/H140Q
48
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant F283L
35
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant H140Q
79
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant K232E
26
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, beta-cyclization activity, wild-type enzyme
329
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F183L
0.122
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F183L/F259L
0.00267
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F259L
0.148
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F283L
0.2
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant Y195F
0.482
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant Y195L
0.137
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, wild-type
0.508
-
unheated CGTase
1
-
wild-type
0.442
-
-
168.5
-
15°C, pH 8.3
0.156
-
25°C, pH 9.0
35°C, pH 9.0
45°C, pH 5.0
1055
-
5°C, pH 8.3
0.03
-
5°C, pH 9.0
calculated as low molecular weight products
3000
-
double mutant, L134R/S320A, kcat/Km: 1560 ml/mg/s, L134R/S320A, 25°C, pH 6.0
-999
-
isozyme HaAmy1, pH 7.0, 37°C
0.67
-
isozyme HaAmy2, pH 7.0, 37°C
0.19
-
mutant enzyme A53S, in the absence of Ca2+, in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), at 30°C
22.4
-
mutant enzyme A53S, in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+, in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), at 30°C
9.8
-
mutant enzyme H58I, in the absence of Ca2+, in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), at 30°C
27.4
-
mutant enzyme H58I, in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+, in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), at 30°C
20.7
-
mutant L134R, kcat/Km: 1670 ml/mg/s, 25°C, pH 6.0
-999
-
mutant S329A, kcat/Km: 1870 ml/mg/s, 25°C, pH 6.0
-999
-
mutant Y374A
9.4
-
pH 4.5, 90°C, recombinant enzyme
67
-
pH 5.0, 37°C, recombinant enzyme
pH 5.6, 40°C
91.4
-
pH 6.5, 90°C
4680
-
pH 7.0, 50°C
3021.2
-
pH 7.2, 42°C
0.017
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
1449.43
-
pH not specified in the publication, 20°C
280
-
pH not specified in the publication, 37°C
518
-
pH not specified in the publication, 55°C
1457
-
pH not specified in the publication, 5°C
179
-
presence of 0.4 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, pH 7.2, 42°C
0.022
-
presence of 2.4 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, pH 7.2, 42°C
0.035
-
presence of 4.8 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, pH 7.2, 42°C
0.04
-
soluble starch from Merck, calculated as low molecular weight products
237
-
soluble starch of Zulkowsky type, calculated as low molecular weight products
206
-
wild type enzyme, in the absence of Ca2+, in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), at 30°C
25.7
-
wild type enzyme, in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+, in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2), at 30°C
19.9
-
wild-type enzyme
120
-
wild-type, kcat/Km: 1920 ml/mg/s, 25°C, pH 6.0
-999
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, hydrolysis, truncated mutant ThMA- DELTA124
0.000245
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, hydrolysis, truncated mutant ThMA- DELTA124, 1 M KCl
0.000332
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, hydrolysis, wild-type
301
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, hydrolysis, wild-type, 1 M KCl
457
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, mutant W47A
335
-
pH 6.0, 60°C, wild-type
249
-
TetApuM955
298.3
-
TetApuR855
313.3
-
from potato
5460
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, D165E and V430A mutants of Sd2L
319
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, L347S and R115C mutants of Sd2L
309
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, V233A mutant of Sd1
314
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, V233A mutant of Sd2L
315
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, wild-type Sd1
305
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, wild-type Sd2H and V233A/L347S double mutant of Sd2L
308
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, wild-type Sd2L
299
-
pH 5.4-6.0, major isozyme
1260
1280
soluble starch
6540
-
-
24.62
-
soluble
163
-
-
14.2
-
free enzyme, pH 5.5, 50°C
4.12
-
immobilized enzyme, pH 5.5, 50°C
3.5
-
mutant enzyme, pH 5.0, 40°C
727
-
pH 3.5-5.5, 50°C
8.3
-
pH 4.5, 40°C, ACG-1
487
-
pH 4.5, 40°C, ACG-13
354
-
pH 4.5, 40°C, ACG-7
367
-
pH 4.5, 40°C, native enzyme
217
-
pH 5.0, 40°C
158.3
-
pH 5.0, 45°C
67.15
-
pH 5.0, 55°C
pH 5.5, 40°C, EDTA-coupled enzyme
485
518
pH 5.5, 40°C, native enzyme
217
-
soluble
428
-
soluble starch, pH 6.0, 30°C
0.75
-
wild-type enzyme, pH 5.0, 40°C
343
-
pH 3.5, 95°C
1.67
-
mutant Y374A
9.4
-
pH 4.5, 90°C, recombinant enzyme
67
-
wild-type enzyme
120
-

KM Value (145 results)

COMMENTARY
EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
LITERATURE
at 0.5 mM glucose 1-phosphate
4.4
-
at 1.0 mM glucose 1-phosphate
5.6
-
at 5 mM glucose 1-phosphate
15.5
-
fast isoenzyme, starch phosphorolysis
0.5
-
fast isoenzyme, starch synthesis
8
-
pH 6.2, 37°C, phosphorolytic direction, wild-type enzyme
0.013
-
pH 6.2, 37°C, synthetic direction, wild-type enzyme
0.045
-
pH 6.8, 50°C, synthesis reaction
1.5
-
pH 7.0, 30°C, recombinant mutant H334A, phosphorolysis
0.25
-
pH 7.0, 30°C, recombinant mutant H334N, phosphorolysis
1
-
pH 7.0, 30°C, recombinant mutant H334Q, phosphorolysis
0.32
-
pH 7.0, 30°C, recombinant wild-type enzyme, phosphorolysis
0.23
-
pH 7.2, 50°C, degradation reaction
0.3
-
phosphorolysis
0.04
-
slow isoenzyme, starch phosphorolysis
0.8
-
slow isoenzyme, starch synthesis
6.7
-
authentic CGTase
2.1
-
mutant E344D
1.05
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F183L
0.0815
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F183L/F259L
0.263
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F259L
0.0618
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F283L
0.0724
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant Y195F
0.0556
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant Y195L
0.0635
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, wild-type
0.0574
-
wild-type
0.58
-
0.0005 mg/ml, intestine alpha-amylase
-999
-
0.003 mg/ml, muscle alpha-amylase
-999
-
0.056 mg/ml, 50°C, pH 5.5
-999
-
0.5 mg/ml, 50°C, pH 5.0
-999
-
0.53%, ragi starch, 45°C, pH 5.0
-999
-
0.59%, ragi starch, 45°C, pH 5.0
-999
-
0.60 mg/ml, double mutant, kcat/Km: 1560 ml/mg/s, L134R/S320A, 25°C, pH 6.0
-999
-
0.61 mg/ml, mutant S329A, kcat/Km: 1870 ml/mg/s, 25°C, pH 6.0
-999
-
0.64 mg/ml, mutant L134R, kcat/Km: 1670 ml/mg/s, 25°C, pH 6.0
-999
-
0.86 mg/ml, wild-type, kcat/Km: 1920 ml/mg/s, 25°C, pH 6.0
-999
-
1.1%, ragi starch, 45°C, pH 5.0
-999
-
1.28 mg/ml, 30°C, pH 6.0
-999
-
2.9 mg/ml
-999
-
3.44 mg/ml, 55°C
-999
-
KM value is 1.31 g/l at 5°C, 1.36 g/l at 25°C, and 1.42 g/l at 35°C respectively, and pH 9.0
-999
-
Km value is 1.79 ml/ml at 5°C, pH 8.3 and ,328 mg/ml at 15°C, pH 8.3
-999
-
KM value is 3 g/l at 5°C, 3.3g/l at 25°C, and 4.4 g/l at 35°C respectively, and pH 9.0
-999
-
Km-value: 16.0 mg/ml, 45°C, pH 5.0
-999
-
Km-value: 2.9 mg/ml, pH 7.0, 50°C
-999
-
micromol of D-glucosidic bond per L
18.7
-
mutant enzyme D231N
157
-
mutant enzyme D233N
25.1
-
mutant enzyme D438G
161.7
-
mutant Y374A
0.19
-
pH 4.5, 90°C, recombinant enzyme
0.52
-
pH 5.6, 40°C
0.16
-
pH 6.8, 37°C
2
-
pH 7.0, 40°C, alpha-amylase I
6.5
-
pH 7.0, 55°C
0.005
-
soluble starch, Merck, calculated as low molecular weight products
3.3
-
soluble starch, Zulkowsky type starch, calculated as low molecular weight products
4.3
-
soluble starch: Km 4.57 mg/ml
-999
-
the KM-value for soluble starch (pH 8.5, 70°C) is 3.8 mg/ml
-999
-
wild type enzyme
167.6
-
wild-type enzyme
0.23
-
pH 9, 50°C, soluble, Km-value shown as glucose equivalents
25
-
5.2 mg/ml, TetApuM955
-999
-
6.0 mg/ml, TetApuR855
-999
-
KM value 0.065 mg/ml, pH 7.0, 25°C
-999
-
free enzyme, pH 7.0, 40°C
7.49
-
immobilized enzyme, pH 7.0, 40°C
5.64
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, D165E mutant of Sd2L
0.00856
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, L347S mutant of Sd2L
0.00834
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, R115C mutant of Sd2L
0.0036
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, V233A mutant of Sd1
0.00317
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, V233A mutant of Sd2L
0.00825
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, V430A mutant of Sd2L
0.00838
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, wild-type Sd1
0.0033
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, wild-type Sd2H and V233A/L347S double mutant of Sd2L
0.0083
-
pH 5, 40°C, soluble starch, wild-type Sd2L
0.00831
-
soluble
0.77
-
0.07 mg/ml
-999
-
soluble substrate, pH 5.0, 50°C
2.8
-
soluble, alpha-glucosidase I
0.93
-
0.21 mg/ml
-999
-
0.32 mg/ml
-999
-
1 mg/ml, 50°C, pH 4.0
-999
-
10 mg/ml, 55°C, pH 5.0
-999
-
2.4 mg/ml, 60°C
-999
-
3.8-4.1 mg/ml
-999
-
30°C, pH 4.2, glucoamylase immobilized on macroporous silica
0.017
-
5.1 mg/ml, 60°C, pH4.5
-999
-
free enzyme, pH 5.5, 50°C
0.333
-
free enzyme, pH 5.5, 70°C
0.18
-
free enzyme, pH 5.5, 90°C
0.1
-
immobilized enzyme, pH 5.5, 50°C
0.238
-
immobilized enzyme, pH 5.5, 70°C
0.12
-
immobilized enzyme, pH 5.5, 90°C
0.031
-
Km value 0.094 mg/ml, pH 5.5, temperature not specified in the publication
-999
-
Km value 0.2 mg/ml, pH 5.5, 60°C
-999
-
Km value 0.21 mg/ml, pH 5.5, 65°C
-999
-
Km value is 0.33 mg/ml, pH 5.0, 40°C
-999
-
Km value of wild-type is 34.5 mg/ml, pH 4.6, 70°C, of mutant T47A 61.1 mg/ml, mutant W48A 52.9 mg/ml
-999
-
mutant enzyme, pH 5.0, 40°C
0.16
-
pH 3.5-5.5, 50°C
0.05
-
pH 4.0, 60°C, isozyme GA-I
3.57
-
pH 4.0, 65°C, isozyme GA-II
6.25
-
pH 4.2, 60°C, free enzyme
4.76
-
pH 4.2, 60°C, immobilized enzyme
0.43
-
pH 4.5, 40°C, ACG-1
2
-
pH 4.5, 40°C, ACG-13
1.7
-
pH 4.5, 40°C, ACG-7
1.4
-
pH 4.5, 40°C, native enzyme
1.6
-
pH 4.5, 55°C, free soluble enzyme
1.55
-
pH 4.5, 55°C, large unilamellar liposome-entrapped enzyme
1.64
-
pH 4.5, 55°C, multilamellar liposome-entrapped enzyme
1.15
-
pH 4.8, 37°C, deglycosylated enzyme
1.1
-
pH 4.8, 37°C, native enzyme
1.2
-
pH 5.0, 55°C
3.8
4.1
pH 5.5, 37°C
10
-
pH 5.5, 40°C, EDTA-coupled enzyme
2.3
2.9
pH 5.5, 40°C, native enzyme
1.6
-
soluble
1.7
-
soluble, glucoamylase G1 or G3
0.0002
-
soluble, glucoamylase G2
0.0003
-
soluble, glucoamylase G4
0.045
-
soluble, glucoamylase G5
0.048
-
value between 0.14 and 0.26 mg/ml
-999
-
value is 0.1 mg/ml
-999
-
value is 0.11 mg/ml
-999
-
value is 0.4 mg/ml
-999
-
value is 0.44 g/l
-999
-
value is 1.06 mg/ml
-999
-
value is 1.9 mg/ml
-999
-
value is 20 mg/ml
-999
-
value is 5.75 mg/ml
-999
-
value is about 18 mg/ml
-999
-
value is between 0.21 and 0.28 mg/ml
-999
-
value is between 2.5 and 4.35 mg/ml
-999
-
wild-type enzyme, pH 5.0, 40°C
0.25
-
Km-value: 7.29 mg/ml, pH 3.5, 95°C
-999
-
mutant Y374A
0.19
-
pH 4.5, 90°C, recombinant enzyme
0.52
-
wild-type enzyme
0.23
-
F1 form
5.9
-
F2 form
5.7
-
shellfish glycogen, F1 and F2 form
5.9
-

References & Links

Links to other databases for starch

ChEBI
PubChem
-
-