Ligand choline

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Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of choline (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C5H14NO
choline
OEYIOHPDSNJKLS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Synonyms:
(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium, choline+, Choline analogs, Choline analogues, trimethylaminoethanol


Show all pahtways known for Show all BRENDA pathways known for choline

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (21 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
1-O-sinapoyl-beta-D-glucose + choline = D-glucose + sinapoylcholine
show the reaction diagram
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CDP-diacylglycerol + choline = CMP + phosphatidylcholine
show the reaction diagram
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3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate + choline = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + choline sulfate
show the reaction diagram
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In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (36 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
L-1-phosphatidylcholine + L-serine = L-1-phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
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lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + 2-lysophosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
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Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (47 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
choline + NAD+ = ? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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choline + L-carnitine = ?
show the reaction diagram
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CDP-diacylglycerol + choline = CMP + phosphatidylcholine
show the reaction diagram
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3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate + choline = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + choline sulfate
show the reaction diagram
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Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (199 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
L-1-phosphatidylcholine + L-serine = L-1-phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
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1-O-hexadecyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-(1-hexadecyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
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1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
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lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + 2-lysophosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
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glycerophosphocholine + H2O = choline + glycerolphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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O-(4-nitrophenylphosphoryl)choline + H2O = 4-nitrophenyl phosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
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Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (16 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
extracellular choline increases acetylcholine contents in the cell
required as phospholipid with a polar head group for maximal activity
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the activity gradually increases from 100% at 0.1 mM to around 120% at 10-20 mM
required for enzyme activity, and probably to prevent enzyme dissociation from the membranes
-
formation of the enzyme is induced by
0.1%, activates
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increases the enzyme activity
-
activates at concentration below 20 mM
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Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (56 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
competitive inhibitor of (S)-carnitine oxidation; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
-
60% inhibition at 5 mM
-
substrate inhibitor
-
competitive
competitive inhibitor
-
very poor inhibitor
-
2%, activates
-
positively linked to Na+ binding
-
at concentration above 20 mM
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slight inhibition
-
slightly inhibits betaine uptake
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3D Structure of Enzyme-Ligand-Complex (PDB) (92 results)

EC NUMBER
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE

Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

kcat Value (Turnover Number) (94 results)

EC NUMBER
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/S]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM [1/S]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE

KM Value (140 results)

EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.1
-
reduced ferredoxin provided by NADPH/ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase or reconstituted chloroplasts
143
-
mutant [Asn505]COT

Ki Value (9 results)

EC NUMBER
KI VALUE [MM]
KI VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
27
-
-
0.014
-
pH 8.5, 37°C
1.4
-
pH 7.0, 22°C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
57.8
-
pH 7.5, 25°C

IC50 Value (2 results)

EC NUMBER
IC50 VALUE
IC50 VALUE MAXIMUM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE

References & Links

Links to other databases for choline

ChEBI
PubChem
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PubChem