Ligand L-leucine

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Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of L-leucine (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C6H13NO2
L-leucine
ROHFNLRQFUQHCH-YFKPBYRVSA-N
Synonyms:
(2S)-2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid, (2S)-alpha-leucine, alpha-Leu, L-4-methyl-norvaline, L-Leu, Leu, leucine


Show all pahtways known for Show all BRENDA pathways known for L-leucine

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (21 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
L-leucine + O2 = ? + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
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acetyl-CoA + L-leucine = CoA + N-acetyl-L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
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alpha-Leu = ?
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + L-leucine + an L-amino acid = ADP + phosphate + L-leucyl-L-amino acid
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + (2E)-4-[[(2S)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]amino]-4-oxobut-2-enoate + L-leucine = ADP + phosphate + N-[(2S)-3-[[(2E)-4-amino-4-oxobut-2-enoyl]amino]-2-methylpropanoyl]-L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (35 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
Leu-enkephalin + H2O = Leu + enkephalin
show the reaction diagram
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-
angiotensin I + H2O = angiotensin-(1-9) + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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Z-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro + H2O = Z-Gly-Pro + L-Leu + Gly + L-Pro
show the reaction diagram
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-
D-Leu = L-Leu
show the reaction diagram
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Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (175 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
L-leucine + H2O + NAD+ = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + H2O + NAD+ = 2-oxo-iso-valerate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + H2O + NAD+ = ? + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + H2O + NAD+ = 2-oxoisocaproate + NADH + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + O2 + H2O = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + NH3 + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + H2O + 2 cytochrome b = 2-oxo-4-methylpentanoate + NH3 + 2 reduced cytochrome b
show the reaction diagram
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L-Leu + pyruvate + NADH = N-[1-(R)-(Carboxy)ethyl]-(S)-Leu + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol + H2O = ? + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
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pyruvate + L-leucine = alanine + 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate
show the reaction diagram
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2-oxosuccinamic acid + L-leucine = L-asparagine + 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-oxo-4-methylpentanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + glyoxylate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + glycine
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + glyoxylate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + glycine
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + pyruvate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + indole-3-pyruvic acid = 2-oxo-4-methylpentanoate + L-tryptophan
show the reaction diagram
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benzyloxycarbonyl-Glu-methyl ester + leucine = benzyloxycarbonyl-Glu-Leu + methanol
show the reaction diagram
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L-Leu = 3-Methylbutylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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L-Leu = 3-Methylbutylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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2-Oxobutanoate + L-Leu = ?
show the reaction diagram
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L-Leu = 3-Hydroxy-2-oxopropionate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine + alpha-ketoglutarate = ?
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine = D-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine = D-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + L-leucine + tRNAPhe = AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNAPhe
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + L-leucine + tRNALys = AMP + L-leucyl-tRNALys + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + L-leucine + [CmaA-protein-T-domain]-4'-phosphopantetheine = AMP + diphosphate + S-L-leucyl-[CmaA-protein-T-domain]-4'-phosphopantetheine
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + L-Glu + L-leucine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + 3-[[(2E)-4-amino-4-oxobut-2-enoyl]amino]-L-alanine + L-leucine = ADP + phosphate + 3-(((2E)-4-amino-4-oxobut-2-enoyl)amino)-L-alanyl-L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + (-)-jasmonate + L-Leu = AMP + diphosphate + jasmonoyl-L-Leu
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + (2E)-4-[[(2S)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]amino]-4-oxobut-2-enoate + L-leucine = ADP + phosphate + N-[(2S)-3-[[(2E)-4-amino-4-oxobut-2-enoyl]amino]-2-methylpropanoyl]-L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (526 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
2-oxo-iso-valerate + NADPH + NH3 = L-leucine + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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2-oxoisohexanoate + NH3 + NADH = L-Leu + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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-
2-oxoisohexanoate + NH3 + NADH + H+ = L-leucine + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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-
5'-phospho-pyridoxyl-L-leucine + H2O + O2 = pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + L-leucine + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
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N-methyl-L-leucine + O2 + H2O = formaldehyde + L-leucine + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
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-
N-methyl-L-leucine + acceptor + H2O = L-leucine + formaldehyde + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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5-L-glutamyl-L-leucine + glycylglycine = L-Leu + 5-L-glutamyl-glycylglycine
show the reaction diagram
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L-aspartate + 2-oxoisocaproate = oxaloacetate + L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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-
L-alanine + 2-oxoisohexanoate = pyruvate + L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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2-oxoisocaproate + L-glutamate = L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate
show the reaction diagram
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-
L-leucine + 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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-
L-kynurenine + 2-oxoisocaproate = 4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate + L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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L-methionine + 2-oxo-isocaproate = 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate + L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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-
Leu-tRNA + H2O = Leu + tRNA
show the reaction diagram
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-
[leu5] enkephalin + H2O = Tyr + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucyl 4-nitroanilide + H2O = L-leucine + 4-nitroaniline
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucyl 4-nitroanilide + H2O = L-leucine + 4-nitroaniline
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucyl 4-nitroanilide + H2O = L-leucine + 4-nitroaniline
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucyl 4-nitroanilide + H2O = L-leucine + 4-nitroaniline
show the reaction diagram
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L-Asp-L-Leu + H2O = L-Asp + L-Leu
show the reaction diagram
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N-hippuryl-His-Leu + H2O = hippuric acid + His + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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Carbobenzoxy-Gly-Leu + H2O = Carbobenzoxy-Gly + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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-
angiotensin I + H2O = angiotensin-(1-9) + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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-
Leu-Ala + H2O = Leu + Ala
show the reaction diagram
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2-aminobenzoyl-Phe-Arg-Leu + H2O = 2-aminobenzoyl-Phe-Arg + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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-
gamma-glutamyl L-leucine + H2O = L-leucine + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
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pyroglutamyl-Leu + H2O = pyroglutamate + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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N-Formyl-Met-Leu + H2O = N-Formyl-Met + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucyl-4-nitroanilide + H2O = L-leucine + 4-nitroaniline
show the reaction diagram
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benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Pro-Leu + H2O = benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Pro + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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Succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr 4-methylcoumarin 7-amide + H2O = Succinyl-Leu + Leu + Val-Tyr 4-methylcoumarin 7-amide
show the reaction diagram
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N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Pro-Leu + H2O = N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Pro + L-Leu
show the reaction diagram
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Z-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro + H2O = Z-Gly-Pro + L-Leu + Gly + L-Pro
show the reaction diagram
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Z-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro + H2O = Z-Gly-Pro + L-Leu + Gly + L-Pro
show the reaction diagram
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FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKA + H2O = FVNQHLCGSH + LVEA + Leu + Tyr + LVCGERGF + FYTPKA
show the reaction diagram
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FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKA + H2O = FVNQHLCGSHL + VEA + Leu + Tyr + LVCGERGF + Phe + YTPKA
show the reaction diagram
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FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKA + H2O = L-Phe + VNQH + LCGSH + L-Leu + L-Val + L-Glu + L-Ala + L-Leu + L-Tyr + LVCG + ERG + L-Phe + L-Phe + YTPKA
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine-4-nitroanilide + H2O = L-leucine + 4-nitroaniline
show the reaction diagram
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Gly-Phe-Leu + H2O = Phe-Leu + Gly-Phe + Gly + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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GWTLNSAGYLLGPHAIDNHRSFHDKYGLA-NH2 + H2O = Gly-Trp-Thr + Leu-Asn-Ser + Ala-Gly + Tyr + Leu + LGPHAIDNHRS + FHDKYG + Leu-Ala-NH2
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine amide + H2O = L-leucine + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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N-phenylacetyl-Leu + H2O = phenylacetic acid + Leu
show the reaction diagram
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jasmonoyl-L-leucine + H2O = jasmonic acid + L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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Nalpha-acetyl-L-leucine + H2O = L-leucine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucine amide + H2O = L-Leu + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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N-formyl-leucine + H2O = formate + leucine
show the reaction diagram
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glycyl-L-leucine + H2O = glycine + L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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L-leucinamide + H2O = L-leucine + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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DL-alpha-aminoisocapronitrile + H2O = L-leucine + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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5-L-glutamyl-L-leucine = 5-oxoproline + L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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D-leucine = L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
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AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-Pyrococcus horikoshii tRNALeu(GAG) = ATP + L-leucine + Pyrococcus horikoshii tRNALeu(GAG)
show the reaction diagram
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Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (26 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
2.2fold activation at 50 mM
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1% L-leucine stimulates activity
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5 mM, 1.69fold activation
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4fold activation at 2.5 mM
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5 mM, activation of alkaline phosphatase grown in high phosphate medium to 155% of the control value
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inhibitory to enzyme isoform prolidase I, activating isoform prolidase II
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activates enzyme from mesenteric lymph nodes, 50% activation at 0.6 mM
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1 mM, relative activity 120%
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activation
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excess leucine intake strongly induces SDH activity in the liver but not in the kidney
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Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (130 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
29% inhibition at 1 mM
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54% inhibition at 5 mM leucine in the growth medium
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inhibits, when added to a final concentration of 10 mM in the assay system produces a decrease of 0.004 units in specific activity
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10 mM, 52% inhibition
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inhibition 50% by 10 mM L-leucine
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competitive inhibition of the reductive amination of 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate
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6% inhibition at 6.67 mM
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; pH 7.6, 30C
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D-alanine oxidation
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; inhibits only the mutants Y454A and V468A
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50% inhibition
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2 mM, 20% inhibition
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with 1 mM tyrosine as the substrate, 10 mM leucine inhibits activity by 93%
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in presence of L-norleucine: ping-pong bi-bi inhibition with alternative substrates
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10 mM, 20% inhibition
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allosteric effector
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branched chain alpha-amino acids bind at the active site, competitive inhibition mechanism against substrates phosphocreatine and ADP, inhibition kinetics
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competitive inhibition
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inhibitory to enzyme isoform prolidase I, activating isoform prolidase II
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partial inhibition, 8 mM: 89% of activity compared to H2O
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weak
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84% residual activity at 5 mM with L-methionine as substrate, 94% residual activity at 50 mM with D-methionine as substrate
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Metals and Ions (1 result)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
about 550% activity at 1 mM
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Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

kcat Value (Turnover Number) (155 results)

EC NUMBER
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/S]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM [1/S]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.014
-
isozymes beta1 and beta2
7.5
-
at pH 7.0 and 34C
11.9
-
pH 10.0, 21C
11.9
-
-
1.5
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.03
-
pH 7.5, 25C, the assay measures the release of diphosphate by means of a coupled enzyme system in which diphosphate drives the reduction of NAD+ to NADH
0.19
-
pH 8.0, 22C

KM Value (248 results)

EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
2.3
-
at pH 7.0 and 34C
0.06
-
-
28.7
-
cosubstrate 2-oxosuccinamate
0.4
-
with phenylpyruvate, pH 8.0, 30C
180
-
pH 8.0, 25C
6.6
-
in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate
2.5
-
apparent Km value, at pH 7.4, 37C
124
-
-
1.5
-
pH 7.5, 25C, the assay measures the release of diphosphate by means of a coupled enzyme system in which diphosphate drives the reduction of NAD+ to NADH
7.82
-
pH 8.0, 22C
1.93
-
at pH 8.6 and 25C
7.82
-
pH 8.0, 22C
0.000515
-
-

Ki Value (54 results)

EC NUMBER
KI VALUE [MM]
KI VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
23
-
-
1
-
competitive inhibition of the reductive amination of 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate