Ligand Calmodulin

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Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of Calmodulin (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C46H76N12O19R2
Calmodulin
Synonyms:
calmodulin L-lysine, calmodulin L-lysine-115

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (2 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + calmodulin L-lysine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + calmodulin N6-methyl-L-lysine
show the reaction diagram
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n ATP + calmodulin + n ubiquitin = ?
show the reaction diagram
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Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (8 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
calmodulin + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
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S-adenosyl-L-methionine + calmodulin = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + ?
show the reaction diagram
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n ATP + calmodulin + n ubiquitin = ?
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + calmodulin = ADP + phosphorylated calmodulin
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + calmodulin = ADP + phosphorylated calmodulin
show the reaction diagram
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calmodulin + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
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Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (1 result)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
methylated calmodulin + H2O = calmodulin + methanol
show the reaction diagram
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Enzyme Cofactor/Cosubstrate (103 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
requirement, Ca2+/calmodulin dependent kinase, no phosphorylation of substrate observed in absence
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activation
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activation in presence of Ca2+
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Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (161 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
in the presence of above 0.1 mM Ca2+
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enhances ELP activity
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calcium-dependent binding to enzyme, 3fold increase in catalytic activity
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activates
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stimulates
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binding site is located at residues 422-435, which form a amphipathic helical wheel, motif 1-8-14, calmodulin is involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of ceramide kinase as a calcium-sensor
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stimulates the enzyme by 13.8%, might modify the activity, enzyme contains a calmodulin binding domain, Ca2+ is required for binding, compounds W7 and W13 prevent stimulation, overview
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Ca2+-dependent binding of recombinant wild-type and mutant enzymes
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ligand-binding induced dimerization enables transautophosphorylation of ErbB1 which results in enhanced intracellular Ca2+ concentration activating calmodulin which reverses autoinhibition by net charge changes in the juxtamembranes
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Ca2+/calmodulin induce the phosphorylation of p35 by Cdk5 after stimulation of the Ca2+-permeable cation channels NMDA receptor and kainate receptor, leading to cleavage of p35 to p25
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0.0025 to 0.005 mM, significant enhancement of activity
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stimulates activity towards 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides and 3',5'-cyclic nucleotides
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activation, source: bovine
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required, Km value 0.000057 mM
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calmodulin binds the calpain 3 non-catalytic domain C2L and promotes enzyme activation
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interaction with calmodulin is important for the secretion of thimet oligopeptidase following stimulation. Overexpression of calmodulin in HEK293 cells is sufficient to greatly increase the A23187-stimulated secretion of EP24.15, which can be inhibited by the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium
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Ca2+-calmodulin activates erythrocyte AMPD in conditions of disturbed calcium homeostasis during sickle cell disease
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5fold increase of activity at 0.001 mM
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115% activity at 5 mM Ca2+ plus 0.01 mM calmodulin
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7.9fold increase of activity in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+
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Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (15 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
UBE3B interacts with calmodulin via its N-terminal isoleucine-glutamine motif. Deletion of the motif (amino acids 29-58) results in loss of calmodulin binding and a significant increase in the in vitro ubiquitylation activity of UBE3B. Changes in calcium levels in vitro disrupt the calmodulin-UBE3B interaction
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UBE3B interacts with calmodulin via its N-terminal isoleucine-glutamine motif. Deletion of the motif (amino acids 29-58) results in loss of calmodulin binding and a significant increase in the in vitro ubiquitylation activity of UBE3B. Changes in calcium levels in vitro disrupt the calmodulin-UBE3B interaction
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inhibits cAMP-dependent protein kinase mediated activation of phosphorylase kinase, kinetics
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GVIA PLA2 is regulated by calmodulin which negatively regulates GVIA PLA2 through direct binding on the residues 694-705 of GVIA-1 PLA2
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binding of calmodulin to GST-immobilized Kir/Gem peptide inhibits GTP binding
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activated calmodulin inhibits KCBP interaction with microtubules thereby abolishing its motor- and microtubules-dependent ATPase activity
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Metals and Ions (2 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
activates the enzyme with substratees phospho-L-serine and phospho-L-threonine, but not with phospho-L-tyrosine
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PMCA is dependent on Ca2+-calmodulin
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Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

KM Value (9 results)

EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.000004
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0.197
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myristoylated enzyme, in 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 1 mM CaCl2, at 37°C
0.00001
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IC50 Value (1 result)

EC NUMBER
IC50 VALUE
IC50 VALUE MAXIMUM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.00008
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reaction of isoenzyme GRK4alpha with rhodopsin, IC50: 80 nM

References & Links

Links to other databases for Calmodulin

ChEBI
PubChem
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