Information on EC 6.2.1.3 - long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase and Organism(s) Homo sapiens and UniProt Accession P33121

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Homo sapiens
UNIPROT: P33121
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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria


The taxonomic range for the selected organisms is: Homo sapiens

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
6.2.1.3
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Acid-thiol ligation
-
-
-
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Phosphorylation
-
-
-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
6-gingerol analog biosynthesis (engineered)
-
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alkane biosynthesis II
-
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cutin biosynthesis
-
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fatty acid alpha-oxidation II
-
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fatty acid alpha-oxidation III
-
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fatty acid beta-oxidation (peroxisome, yeast)
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fatty acid beta-oxidation I
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fatty acid beta-oxidation II (peroxisome)
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fatty acid beta-oxidation VI (peroxisome)
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fatty acid salvage
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gamma-linolenate biosynthesis II (animals)
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icosapentaenoate biosynthesis II (6-desaturase, mammals)
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icosapentaenoate biosynthesis III (8-desaturase, mammals)
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linoleate biosynthesis II (animals)
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long chain fatty acid ester synthesis (engineered)
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long-chain fatty acid activation
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octane oxidation
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oleate biosynthesis I (plants)
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palmitate biosynthesis II (bacteria and plants)
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phosphatidylcholine acyl editing
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phytol degradation
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sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate metabolism
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sporopollenin precursors biosynthesis
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stearate biosynthesis I (animals and fungi)
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stearate biosynthesis II (bacteria and plants)
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suberin monomers biosynthesis
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wax esters biosynthesis II
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arachidonate biosynthesis
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ceramide biosynthesis
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lipid metabolism
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octane oxidation
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Fatty acid biosynthesis
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Fatty acid degradation
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Metabolic pathways
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
long-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
Acts on a wide range of long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, but the enzymes from different tissues show some variation in specificity. The liver enzyme acts on acids from C6 to C20; that from brain shows high activity up to C24.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9013-18-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + fatty acid + dephospho-CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-dephospho-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + a long-chain carboxylate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + acylate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
ATP + Bodipy 500/510 C4-C9 + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + laurate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lauroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + lignocerate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lignoceroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lineoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
essential role in animal cell proliferation
-
-
-
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
ATP + stearate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + stearoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + a long-chain carboxylate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + acylate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
essential role in animal cell proliferation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the regulation of the FACL3/ACS3 expression by vitamin D3 is mediated by both androgen and androgen receptor, and suggests that increased FACL3/ACS3 expression by vitamin D3 is one of the components associated with antiproliferative effect of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer LNCaP cells
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Triacsin C
Triacsins
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hierarchy of inhibitory potency in decreasing order: triacsin C, triacsin A, triacsin D/ triacsin B
Triton X-100
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Inhibition of acyl-CoA formation, inhibits ACSL6 isoform 2 (F-Gate) and its N-terminus truncated version, DELTAN-(F-Gate)
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
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specific Gate-domain residues are essential for activity, detailed overview
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Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
additional information
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biphasic Dixon plot with the inhibitor triacsin C. A high-affinity site with a Ki of 0.0001 mM accounts for a maximum of 70% of the inhibition. A low affinity site with a Ki of 0.006 mM accounts for a maximum of 30% inhibition
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pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.5
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assay at
8
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assay at
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30
-
assay at
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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low FACT3 expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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highest expression level in enterocytes at the villus tip
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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high expression level of ACSL4
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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low FACT3 expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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aortic, levels of isozymes ACSL1, ACSL3, and ACSL5, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
exclusively found in testis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
isozyme ACSL6
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
not found at the plasma membrane
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
UNIPROT
ORGANISM
-
-
-
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MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
72000
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predicted molecular mass
75000
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SDS-PAGE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
dimer
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SDS-PAGE
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
heat inactivation does not distinguish between arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, EC 6.2.1.15, and palmitoyl-CoA synthetase
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
partial
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ACSL6 isoforms and truncated constructs, splicing variants, sequence organization, overview, expression of His-tagged full-length ACSL6 isoform 2 (F-Gate) and DELTAN-truncated version of isoform 1 (DELTAN-(Y-Gate)) in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) membranes
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expressed in COS-7 cells
expressed in Escherichia coli
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expressed in Pt-K2 cells
FACL3, quantitative real-time quantitative PCR expression analysis
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gene acs-3, quantitative reverse transcription PCR expression analysis
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gene ACSL4, recombinant expression in Drosophila melanogaster dAcsl mutant and complementation of reversed distribution of Rab11
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
acute lipid ingestion increases the expression of isoform ACSL6
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adenocarcinomas with an invasive phenotype and enhanced proliferation show decreased levels of isoform ACSL5
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exercise and fasting decrease isoform ACSL6 mRNA
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expression of ACSL3 is induced by ER stress in HuH-7 cells. shRNA that target GSK-3beta also inhibits the upregulation of ACSL3 and lipid accumulation in HuH-7 and HepG2 cells
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FACL3 is upregulated by 1alpha, 25(OH)2D3 at an mRNA and enzyme activity levels in prostate cancer cells, overview
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GSK-3beta inhibitors attenuate ACSL3 expression and the lipid accumulation induced by ER stress in HuH-7 cells. shRNA that target GSK-3beta also inhibits the upregulation of ACSL3 and lipid accumulation in HuH-7 and HepG2 cells
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lipid-induced up-regulation of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 promotes hepatocellular apoptosis. ACSL5 expression is enhanced in steatotic liver
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long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity is upregulated in poliovirus-infected cells
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
F319A
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site-directed mutagenesis
F319W
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site-directed mutagenesis
F319Y
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site-directed mutagenesis
H316L
-
site-directed mutagenesis
L316H
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site-directed mutagenesis
Y319A
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site-directed mutagenesis
Y319F
-
site-directed mutagenesis
additional information