Information on EC 6.1.1.3 - threonine-tRNA ligase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
6.1.1.3
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
threonine-tRNA ligase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + L-threonine + tRNAThr = AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNAThr
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Aminoacylation
esterification
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
tRNA charging
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threonine metabolism
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Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-threonine:tRNAThr ligase (AMP-forming)
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9023-46-5
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several strains, overview, gene thrS
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
overproducing strain
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. N22
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508 / S288c
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several creanarchaea including Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 contain two genes encoding either the catalytic or the editing domain of ThrRS
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermus thermophilus HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2-Chloroadenosine 5'-triphosphate + L-threonine + tRNAThr
?
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 3-hydroxynorvaline + tRNAThr
AMP + diphosphate + 3-hydroxynorvalyl-tRNAThr
show the reaction diagram
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the specificity constant kcat/KM for beta-hydroxynorvaline is only 20-30fold less than that of cognate threonine, amino acid activation is the potential rate-limiting step of b3-hydroxynorvaline aminoacylation
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?
ATP + hydroxynorvaline + tRNAThr
AMP + diphosphate + hydroxynorvalyl-tRNAThr
show the reaction diagram
10-70% less active than with L-threonine
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?
ATP + L-isoleucine + tRNAIle
AMP + diphosphate + L-isoleucyl-tRNAIle
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-serine + tRNASer
?
show the reaction diagram
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yeast mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase MST1 lacks an editing domain and utilizes pre-transfer editing to discriminate against serine. MST1 misactivates serine and edits seryl adenylate (Ser-AMP) in the absence of the cognate tRNA. MST1 hydrolyzes 80% of misactivated Ser-AMP at a rate 4fold higher than that for the cognate threonyl adenylate (Thr-AMP) while releasing 20% of Ser-AMP into the solution.
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?
ATP + L-serine + tRNASer
AMP + diphosphate + L-seryl-tRNASer
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-serine + tRNAThr
AMP + diphosphate + L-seryl-tRNAThr
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-threonine + tRNA1Thr
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNA1Thr
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + L-threonine + tRNA2Thr
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNA2Thr
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
?
ATP + L-threonine + tRNAThr
?
show the reaction diagram
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catalyzes the attachment of threonine onto its cognate tRNA molecule, prior to participation of the aminoacylated tRNA in the protein synthesis
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ATP + L-threonine + tRNAThr
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNAThr
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-threonine + tRNAThr1
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNAThr1
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-threonine + tRNAThr2
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNAThr2
show the reaction diagram
Formycin 5'-triphosphate + L-threonine + tRNAThr
?
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + L-isoleucine + tRNAIle
AMP + diphosphate + L-isoleucyl-tRNAIle
show the reaction diagram
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the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme plays an important role in the transport of aminoacylated tRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
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?
ATP + L-serine + tRNASer
?
show the reaction diagram
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yeast mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase MST1 lacks an editing domain and utilizes pre-transfer editing to discriminate against serine. MST1 misactivates serine and edits seryl adenylate (Ser-AMP) in the absence of the cognate tRNA. MST1 hydrolyzes 80% of misactivated Ser-AMP at a rate 4fold higher than that for the cognate threonyl adenylate (Thr-AMP) while releasing 20% of Ser-AMP into the solution.
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-
?
ATP + L-serine + tRNAThr
AMP + diphosphate + L-seryl-tRNAThr
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-threonine + tRNA1Thr
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNA1Thr
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
ATP + L-threonine + tRNA2Thr
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNA2Thr
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
?
ATP + L-threonine + tRNAThr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes the attachment of threonine onto its cognate tRNA molecule, prior to participation of the aminoacylated tRNA in the protein synthesis
-
-
-
ATP + L-threonine + tRNAThr
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNAThr
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-threonine + tRNAThr1
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNAThr1
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-threonine + tRNAThr2
AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNAThr2
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
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cofactor binding structure, modeling
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
NH4+
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partial activation
Ni2+
the enzyme can bind one Ni2+ per subunit, binding of nickel inhibits the oxidation of enzyme residue Cys182 by H2O2 or air
Phosphorus
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phosphoprotein containing phosphoserine, activity can be modulated by reversible phosphorylation
Rb+
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partial activation
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2S,3R)-2,3-diamino-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)-styryl)sulfonyl)butanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-((3-(1-oxoisoindolin-5-yl)-phenyl)sulfonyl)butanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-((3-(3-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)butanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-((4-phenoxyphenyl)sulfonyl)-butanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-((3-(1-oxoisoindolin-5-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)butanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N'-(3-(4-amino-2-chloroquinazolin-7-yl)-phenyl)-3-hydroxybutanehydrazide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)styryl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)styryl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)styryl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxypentanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(1-amino-3-chloroisoquinolin-6-yl)-phenyl)sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(1-aminoisoquinolin-6-yl)phenyl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(2,4-diaminoquinazolin-7-yl)phenyl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(3-chloro-1H-indazol-5-yl)phenyl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(4-amino-2-chloroquinazolin-7-yl)-phenyl)sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(4-amino-2-methylquinazolin-7-yl)-phenyl)sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(4-aminoquinazolin-7-yl)phenyl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((7-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)naphthalen-2-yl)sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-(3-(4-amino-2-chloroquinazolin-7-yl)-benzyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)styryl)sulfonyl)-2,3-dihydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-N-((7-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)sulfonyl)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanamide
(2S,3R)-N-((7-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)naphthalen-2-yl)sulfonyl)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanamide
2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate
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2'-O-Methyladenosine 5'-triphosphate
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3'-Deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate
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3'-O-Methyladenosine 5'-triphosphate
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5'-O-[N-(threonyl)-sulfamoyl] adenosine
borrelidin
H2O2
oxidation of ThrRS by H2O2 causes editing defects and Ser misincorporation at Thr codons due to oxidation of Cys182, zinc or nickel ions inhibit C182 oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. Reducing the oxidized ThrRS with DTT or sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) recovers the editing activity, cysteine residue C182 is reversibly oxidized
hydrogen peroxide
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oxidizes cysteine182 residue critical for editing, which leads to Ser-tRNAThr formation and protein mistranslation that impaired growth of Escherichia coli. Presence of major heat shock proteases is required to allow cell growth in medium containing serine and hydrogen peroxide, which suggests that the mistranslated proteins are misfolded
operator mRNA domain 2
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Purineriboside 5'-triphosphate
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tert-butyl((2S,3R)-1-(3-(1H-indazol-5-yl)-benzenesulfonamido)-3-(tert-butoxy)-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-carbamate
threonyl-AMP
tubercidin 5'-triphosphate
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ZINC27215482
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docking analysis, overview. The best inhibitor, which can be used to develop novel drugs against bovine brucellosis
ZINC35270978
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ZINC35458951
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ZINC67910544
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ZINC72320615
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ZINC72320626
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Zn2+
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inhibits the editing reaction
additional information
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
spermine
additional information
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3-hydroxynorvaline enhances the ATPase function of the synthetic site, at a rate not increased by nonaminoacylatable tRNA
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.4
2-Chloroadenosine 5'-triphosphate
0.267 - 0.387
ATP
0.5
Formycin 5'-triphosphate
1.95 - 7
hydroxynorvaline
25 - 939.72
L-serine
0.00003 - 4.4
L-threonine
0.00189
threonine
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0.00013 - 0.00095
tRNA1Thr
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0.00027 - 0.0014
tRNA2Thr
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0.00003 - 0.179
tRNAThr
0.00045
tRNAThr1
pH 8.5, 30C, recombinant enzyme
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additional information
additional information
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TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
42 - 90
ATP
21 - 22
hydroxynorvaline
0.55 - 30
L-serine
0.64 - 90
L-threonine
0.53
RNAThr
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tRNAThr of E. coli
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1.73
threonyl-tRNA
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0.033 - 0.118
tRNA1Thr
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0.01 - 0.103
tRNA2Thr
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0.00157 - 0.7
tRNAThr
0.037 - 0.23
tRNAThr of Thermus thermophilus
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0.0338
tRNAThr1
pH 8.5, 30C, recombinant enzyme
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additional information
additional information
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kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00059 - 0.016
L-serine
0.49 - 11.18
L-threonine
1.093 - 171.7
tRNAThr
75.19
tRNAThr1
pH 8.5, 30C, recombinant enzyme
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Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.002262 - 0.05
(2S,3R)-2,3-diamino-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)-styryl)sulfonyl)butanamide
0.0000039 - 0.000091
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-((3-(1-oxoisoindolin-5-yl)-phenyl)sulfonyl)butanamide
0.000083 - 0.00582
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-((3-(3-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)butanamide
0.0331 - 0.193
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-((4-phenoxyphenyl)sulfonyl)-butanamide
0.05
(2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-((3-(1-oxoisoindolin-5-yl)phenyl)sulfonyl)butanamide
0.000034 - 0.000399
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N'-(3-(4-amino-2-chloroquinazolin-7-yl)-phenyl)-3-hydroxybutanehydrazide
0.0000225 - 0.000588
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)styryl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanamide
0.0000011 - 0.0000041
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)styryl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.0000027 - 0.000032
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)styryl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxypentanamide
0.00002 - 0.000463
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(1-amino-3-chloroisoquinolin-6-yl)-phenyl)sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.000089 - 0.002242
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(1-aminoisoquinolin-6-yl)phenyl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.0000029 - 0.0000107
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(2,4-diaminoquinazolin-7-yl)phenyl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.000039 - 0.001518
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(3-chloro-1H-indazol-5-yl)phenyl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.0000003 - 0.05
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(4-amino-2-chloroquinazolin-7-yl)-phenyl)sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.0000093 - 0.000072
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(4-amino-2-methylquinazolin-7-yl)-phenyl)sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.0000009 - 0.0000033
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((3-(4-aminoquinazolin-7-yl)phenyl)-sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.0000007 - 0.000003
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-((7-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)naphthalen-2-yl)sulfonyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.00014 - 0.000935
(2S,3R)-2-amino-N-(3-(4-amino-2-chloroquinazolin-7-yl)-benzyl)-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.05
(2S,3R)-N-(((E)-3-(6-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)styryl)sulfonyl)-2,3-dihydroxybutanamide
0.000004 - 0.0000095
(2S,3R)-N-((7-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)sulfonyl)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.0000006 - 0.0000024
(2S,3R)-N-((7-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)naphthalen-2-yl)sulfonyl)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanamide
0.0000028 - 0.0000134
5'-O-[N-(threonyl)-sulfamoyl] adenosine
0.0000034 - 0.006
borrelidin
0.000132 - 0.05
tert-butyl((2S,3R)-1-(3-(1H-indazol-5-yl)-benzenesulfonamido)-3-(tert-butoxy)-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-carbamate
additional information
additional information
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE