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Isolated from Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Cinnamomum tenuipile (camphor tree). Requires Mg2+ or Mn2+. Geraniol is labelled when formed in the presence of [18O]H2O. Thus mechanism involves a geranyl cation . Neryl diphosphate is hydrolysed more slowly. May be the same as EC 220.127.116.11 monoterpenyl-diphosphatase.
expression of Ocimum basilicum geranyl diposphate synthase in Vitis vinifera, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Nicotiana benthamiana leads to synthesis of geraniol as the main product detected in the leaves, with different minor products citronellol and nerol in Vitis vinifera, linalool and nerol in Nicotiana benthamiana. Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain A9D expressing Ocimum basilicum geranyl diposphate produces significant quantities of monoterpenes, including 90% geraniol, 5% linalool, 5% citronellol and traces of nerol
both transient and stable overexpression of geranyl(geranyl) diphosphate synthase G(G)PPS and coexpression of G(G)PPS plus geraniol synthase GES significantly enhances the accumulation of secologanin, which in turn elevates the levels of monomeric monoterpene indole alkaloids. Transgenic plants exhibit increased levels of root alkaloid ajmalicine. The dimeric alkaloid vinblastine is enhanced only in G(G)PPS but not in G(G)PPS plus GES transgenic lines
feeding of leaves with geraniol, but not tryptophan (precursor fortryptamine), increases the accumulation of the monoterpene indole alkaloids catharanthine and vindoline. Gene silencing significantly reduces the monoterpene indole alkaloid content. Overexpression of GES in leaves increased monoterpene indole alkaloids content. GES exhibits correlation with monoterpene indole alkaloids levels in leaves of different Cataranthus roseus cultivars and has significantly lower expression relative to other pathway genes
overexpression of GES in Nicotiana tabacum. Growth, morphology and photosynthetic efficiency of GES plants are not significantly different from those of control plants. GES plants' direct defenses against herbivores or pathogens are similar to those of control plants, their indirect defense (i.e. attracting herbivore enemy Nesidiocoris tenuis) is stronger compared to that of control plants. GES transgenic plants are susceptible to cold stress and even more susceptible to extreme heat stress (50°C). GES plants show decreased transcription levels of the WRKY33 transcription factor gene and aquaporin gene PIP2
construction of domain swapping mutants between geraniol synthase from Perilla citriodora and linalool synthase from Perilla hirtella. Domains IV-1 and -4 are important for geraniol synthesis, and domains III-b, III-d, and IV-4 for linalool synthesis. The conformation of carbocation intermediates and their electron localization seem different between geraniol and linalool synthases. Five amino acids in domain IV-4 are indispensable for the formation of geraniol and linalool. These residues seem to be responsible for the different spatial arrangement of the amino acid at H524 in the case of geraniol synthase, while N526 is the corresponding residue in linalool synthase
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis using a GES cDNA, isolated based on analysis of a glandular trichome expressed sequence tag database, sequence comparison, phylogenetic tree, functional expression in Escherichia coli
coexpression of geranyl diphosphate synthase and geraniol synthase in Escherichia coli. Gene copy number optimization leads to a 1.6fold increase of geraniol production when four copies of geranyl diphosphate synthase and one copy of geraniol synthase are used. The additional fermentation conditions optimization, including removal of organic layers and addition of n-decane, leads to a geraniol production of 74.6 mg/l
overexpression of a mutant GES with a 5'-untranslated sequence designed for high translational efficiency, along with the additional expression of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, and geranyl diphosphate synthase, yields 300 mg/l/12 h geraniol and its derivatives in a shaking flask
significant increase in geraniol synthesis is achieved by coexpression of geraniol synthase, mutant S80F of farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and the encoding genes involved in the whole mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli. The additional optimization of medium composition, fermentation time, and addition of metal ions leads to the geraniol production of 48.5 mg/l
synthesis of geraniol by expression of GES truncated at residue S43 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Coexpression of the reverse fusion of farnesyl diphosphate synthase Erg20 mutant F96W-N127W and truncated GES and another copy of farnesyl diphosphate synthase Erg20 mutant F96W-N127W promotes the geraniol titer to 523.96 mg/l at shakes flask level. A highest reported titer of 1.68 g/l geraniol in eukaryote cells is achieved in 2.0 l fed-batch fermentation under carbon restriction strategy
Terpene moiety enhancement by overexpression of geranyl(geranyl) diphosphate synthase and geraniol synthase elevates monomeric and dimeric monoterpene indole alkaloids in transgenic Catharanthus roseus