Information on EC 2.8.2.11 - galactosylceramide sulfotransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.8.2.11
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
galactosylceramide sulfotransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + a galactosylceramide = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + a galactosylceramidesulfate
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
sulfate group transfer
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
gala-series glycosphingolipids biosynthesis
-
-
Ether lipid metabolism
-
-
Sphingolipid metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:galactosylceramide 3'-sulfotransferase
Also acts on lactosylceramide.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9081-06-5
-
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + a galactosylceramide
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + a galactosylceramidesulfate
show the reaction diagram
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + a glucosylceramide
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + a glucosylceramidesulfate
show the reaction diagram
glucosylceramide sulfate accumulates under hypotonic condition
-
-
?
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + cerebroside
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + cerebroside 3-sulfate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + galactoscerebroside
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + galactocerebroside 3-sulfate
show the reaction diagram
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + galactosylceramide
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + galactosylceramide 3'-sulfate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + galactosylceramide
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + galactosylceramide sulfate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + psychosine
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + psychosine 3-sulfate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
galactocerebroside + 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
galactocerebroside 3-sulfate + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
show the reaction diagram
galactocerebroside + 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
sulfogalactoglycerolipid + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
show the reaction diagram
galactoglycerolipid + 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
sulfogalactoglycerolipid + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
galactosyl 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol + 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
galactosyl 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerol sulfate + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
show the reaction diagram
galactosyl diacylglycerol + 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
galactosyl diacylglycerol sulfate + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
galactosylceramide + 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
galactosylceramide sulfate + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
show the reaction diagram
glucosylceramide + 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
glucosylceramide sulfate + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactosylceramide + 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
lactosylceramide sulfate + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + a galactosylceramide
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + a galactosylceramidesulfate
show the reaction diagram
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + galactoscerebroside
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + galactocerebroside 3-sulfate
show the reaction diagram
-
galactocerebroside and sulfatide are two major glycolipids in myelin, absence of sulfatide in CST-deficient mice causes axonal disorders
-
-
?
3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + galactosylceramide
adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + galactosylceramide 3'-sulfate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
galactocerebroside + 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
sulfogalactoglycerolipid + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
1-10 mM and 20-35 mM: enhancement
KCl
-
stimulates
NaCl
-
stimulates
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinone 2-sulfonic acid
-
-
1-Anilinonaphthalene 8-sulfonic acid
-
-
2,4,5,7-Tetraiodofluorescein
-
-
2-Deoxy-3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate
-
-
3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate
-
-
adenosine diphosphopyridoxal
-
followed by reduction with NaBH4, addition of adenosine 3’-phosphate 5’-phosphosulfate results in protection against the inactivation
brefeldin A
-
-
Cibacron blue F3GA
-
-
Congo red
guanosine 3',5'-diphosphate
-
-
Mg2+
-
1-10 mM: enhances activity, 20-35 mM: inhibition
Mn2+
-
1-10 mM: enhances activity, 20-35 mM: inhibition
NaCl
-
inhibition at concentration above 0.1 M
Orange A
-
-
Procion red
-
-
pyridoxal 5'phosphate
-
followed by reduction with NaBH4, irreversible inactivation, addition of adenosine 3’-phosphate 5’-phosphosulfate results in protection against the inactivation
additional information
-
not: 2'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate, fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NaCl
-
activation at concentration up to 0.1 M
Triton X-100
-
0.4% Triton X-100 is optimal for enzyme activity
vitamin K1
-
with phosphate, activates purified preparation
additional information
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0009 - 0.074
3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate
0.026 - 0.0603
cerebroside
0.002
galactocerebroside
-
-
0.027
galactosylceramide
-
pH 6.5, 37°C
0.103
psychosine
-
at pH 7.1 and 37°C
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.1
1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinone 2-sulfonic acid
-
pH 6.2, 37°C
0.54
1-Anilinonaphthalene 8-sulfonic acid
-
pH 6.2, 37°C
0.012
2,4,5,7-Tetraiodofluorescein
-
pH 6.2, 37°C
0.3
3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate
-
pH 6.2, 37°C
1.17
adenosine diphosphopyridoxal
-
pH 7.0, 4°C
0.021 - 0.029
Cibacron blue F3GA
0.041
Congo red
-
pH 6.2, 37°C
0.006
Green A
-
pH 6.2, 37°C
0.034
guanosine 3',5'-diphosphate
-
pH 6.2, 37°C
0.138
Orange A
-
pH 6.2, 37°C
0.0012
Procion red
-
pH 6.2, 37°C
0.287
pyridoxal 5'phosphate
-
pH 7.0, 4°C
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0381
Congo red
Homo sapiens
-
at pH 7.1 and 37°C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.000000011
-
crude CST preparation, 44°C, 10 min + 32°C, 60 min
0.000000016
-
seminiferous tubule, 44°C, 10 min + 32°C, 60 min
0.000000022
-
crude CST preparation, 37°C, 70 min
0.000000063
-
crude CST prepared from mouse kidney homogenates, 37°C, 70 min
0.000000093
-
seminiferous tubule, 37°C, 70 min
0.000000125
-
crude CST preparation, 32°C, 70 min
0.000000232
-
crude CST prepared from mouse kidney homogenates, 32°C, 70 min
0.000000238
-
crude CST prepared from mouse kidney homogenates, untreated
0.00000025
-
seminiferous tubule, 32°C, 70 min
0.000000343
-
crude CST preparation, untreated
0.000000365
-
seminiferous tubule, untreated
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5 - 7
-
-
6.8
-
activity assay
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30
-
an optimized assay
32
-
activity assay
37
-
sulfoglycolipid synthesis is optimal at 37°C
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.1
-
isoelectric foccusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
renal cell carcinoma cell line, SMKT-R3 cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
reduced expression of the enzyme in the gastric mucosa of chronic gastritis according to the severety of gastric inflammation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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the glycosphingolipid beta-galactosylceramide-3-O-sulfate is present in the secretory granules of the insulin producing beta-cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
S16 immortalized Schwann cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
from patients with chronic gastritis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
minor part of recombinantly expressed enzyme; only a minor fraction of the enzyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
but no appearance in the trans-Golgi network; major part of the enzyme, not to the trans-Golgi network
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
major part of the enzyme, the enzyme contains a transmembrane domain
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
minor part of recombinantly expressed enzyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
determination of subcellular localization, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
28000
-
gel filtration
31000
-
1 * 31000 SDS-PAGE
47000
-
determined by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis
64000
-
nondenaturing PAGE
110000
-
recombinant HA-tagged enzyme, analytical ultracentrifugation
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
dimer
-
2 * 54000, recombinant HA-tagged enzyme, SDS-PAGE, CST forms homodimers, and dimerization is mediated by the lumenal domain of the enzyme, overview
homodimer
-
calculated, glycerol gradient centrifugation in vitro and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in vivo
monomer
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
glycoprotein
-
two N-glycosylation sites at N66 and N312 are present and used
additional information
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
45
-
10 min, complete loss of activity
60
-
10 min, complete loss of activity
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP and Triton X-100 stabilize in vitro
-
ethylene glycol, 2-mercaptoethanol, 10 mM ATP and a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine ratio 1:1 does not improve stability at -80°C
-
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Triton X-100
-
0.4% Triton X-100 is optimal for enzyme activity
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20°C, 50% glycerol, 0.1% Triton X-100, pH 7.0-7.5, stable for more than 4 weeks
-
-80°C, 20% glycerol, stable for 3 months
-
-80°C, 35% loss of activity after 7 days
-
-80°C, addition of vitamin K + phosphate, stable for 14 days
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant enzyme
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in CHO cells
-
expression in CHO-GalT cells or COS cells, enzyme can be expressed in a soluble form, that is active both in vitro and in vivo
-
gene Rv1373 is cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant histidine-fusion protein
-
transcripts of the enzyme gene are detected in kidney, brain, testis, small intestine, stomach, liver, and lung, but the enzyme activity does not correlate with the amount of enzyme mRNA
-
transient or stable expression as GFP-tagged enzyme in CHO-K1 cells, expression of CST fused to a HA-tag or EGFP in BHK cells; transient or stable expression of pEGFP-CST in CHO-K1 cell
-
when the cDNA is introduced into a eukaryotic expression vector and transfected into COS-1 cells, the enzyme activity expressed exceeds that in controls by 8-16fold
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
after 17 h under a 42°C heat stress, GST mRNA increased to 148%
-
after 24 h under a 42°C heat stress, GST mRNA increased to 174%; cell culture under 42°C heat stress for 24 h, increase of gene expression to 174%
-
altered expression via protein-overload treatment, protein and gene expression of CST is significantly decreased in the liver in a time-dependent manner
-
altered expression via protein-overload treatment, renal expression of CST is markedly increased
-
cell culture under 42°C heat stress for 17 h, increase of gene expression to 148%
-
chronic ethanol consumption decreases the expression of the enzyme in the liver
-
fenofibrate treatment increases cerebroside sulfotransferase mRNA level in the kidney, heart, liver, and small intestine, but not in brain and colon. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation induces cerebroside sulfotransferase gene expression
-
the activity of galactocerebroside sulfotransferase decreases in a temperature-dependent manner
-
transcript levels are dramatically reduced in BORIS (brother of the regulator of imprinted sites) knockout testes
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
rs2267161
-
single nucleotide polymorphism located in an exon in the gene encoding CST, heterozygosity confers increased risk of type 2 diabetes
rs42929
-
single nucleotide polymorphism located in an intron in the gene encoding CST
N312Q
-
no activity in comparison to the wild type enzyme in vitro
N66Q
-
50% loss of activity in comparison to the wild type enzyme in vitro
N66Q/N312Q
-
no activity in comparison to the wild type enzyme in vitro
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
diagnostics
-
the newly developed system could provide useful basic data for the further analysis of seminolipid metabolism
medicine