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Information on EC 2.7.12.2 - mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and Organism(s) Arabidopsis thaliana and UniProt Accession Q94A06

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC2.7.12.2
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IUBMB Comments
This enzyme is a dual-specific protein kinase and requires mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) for activation. It is required for activation of EC 2.7.11.24, mitogen-activated protein kinase. Phosphorylation of MEK1 by Raf involves phosphorylation of two serine residues . Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways are among the most widespread mechanisms of cellular regulation. Mammalian MAPK pathways can be recruited by a wide variety of stimuli including hormones (e.g. insulin and growth hormone), mitogens (e.g. epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor), vasoactive peptides (e.g. angiotensin-II and endothelin), inflammatory cytokines of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family and environmental stresses such as osmotic shock, ionizing radiation and ischaemic injury.
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This record set is specific for:
Arabidopsis thaliana
UNIPROT: Q94A06
Word Map
The taxonomic range for the selected organisms is: Arabidopsis thaliana
The enzyme appears in selected viruses and cellular organisms
Reaction Schemes
Synonyms
mek/erk, map kinase kinase, mapkk, mek-1, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, mapk/erk kinase, erk 1, map2k4, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1, erk 2, more
SYNONYM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
At3g21220
307536
gene name
MAPK kinase
302
-
MAPKK3
307539
-
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3
307539
-
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5
307536
-
additional information
302
MKK3 is a group B MAPK kinase
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:protein phosphotransferase (MAPKKK-activated)
This enzyme is a dual-specific protein kinase and requires mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) for activation. It is required for activation of EC 2.7.11.24, mitogen-activated protein kinase. Phosphorylation of MEK1 by Raf involves phosphorylation of two serine residues [5]. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways are among the most widespread mechanisms of cellular regulation. Mammalian MAPK pathways can be recruited by a wide variety of stimuli including hormones (e.g. insulin and growth hormone), mitogens (e.g. epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor), vasoactive peptides (e.g. angiotensin-II and endothelin), inflammatory cytokines of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family and environmental stresses such as osmotic shock, ionizing radiation and ischaemic injury.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
142805-58-1
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + a protein
ADP + a phosphoprotein
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + KIMPK3
ADP + phosphorylated KIMPK3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + KIMPK6
ADP + phosphorylated KIMPK6
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + MAP kinase
ADP + phosphorylated MAP kinase
show the reaction diagram
activation of MAP kinase
-
-
?
ATP + MPK-7
ADP + phospho-MPK-7
show the reaction diagram
ATP + myelin basic protein
ADP + phoshorylated myelin basic protein
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATE
NATURAL PRODUCT
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + a protein
ADP + a phosphoprotein
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + MAP kinase
ADP + phosphorylated MAP kinase
show the reaction diagram
O80396
activation of MAP kinase
-
-
?
ATP + MPK-7
ADP + phospho-MPK-7
show the reaction diagram
-
MKK3 interacts with MPK7 in planta
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
NaCl
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5, MKK5, is activated in response to salt stress
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
22
assay at room temperature
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
MKK1; gene mkk1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
stomata
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
transgenic ProMKK3:GUS lines show basal expression that is strongly induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 infection but not by abiotic stresses
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
-
installation of a cell type-specific expression system, unique in that it allows activation of MKK signaling in cells exhibiting important generalizable behaviors (e.g., cell division and fate acquisition) without the induction of cell death or additional deleterious phenotypes commonly associated with broad activation of MKKs. Determination of influence of functional docking domains of MKKs on MAPK signal output, overview; installation of a cell type-specific expression system, unique in that it allows activation of MKK signaling in cells exhibiting important generalizable behaviors (e.g., cell division and fate acquisition) without the induction of cell death or additional deleterious phenotypes commonly associated with broad activation of MKKs. Determination of influence of functional docking domains of MKKs on MAPK signal output, overview. The D-domains of MKK7 regulate the subcellular localization of the kinase, overview; installation of a cell type-specific expression system, unique in that it allows activation of MKK signaling in cells exhibiting important generalizable behaviors (e.g., cell division and fate acquisition) without the induction of cell death or additional deleterious phenotypes commonly associated with broad activation of MKKs. Determination of influence of functional docking domains of MKKs on MAPK signal output, overview. The D-domains of MKK9 regulate the subcellular localization of the kinase, overview
UNIPROT
ENTRY NAME
ORGANISM
NO. OF AA
NO. OF TRANSM. HELICES
MOLECULAR WEIGHT[Da]
SOURCE
Sequence
M2K1_ARATH
354
0
39210
Swiss-Prot
SUBUNIT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
the D-domain of MKK4 is preceded by a conserved 14-amino acid extension and followed by a 10-amino acid insertion before the about 30-amino acid stretch; the D-domain of MKK5 is preceded by a conserved 14-amino acid extension and followed by a 10-amino acid insertion before the about 30-amino acid stretch; the D-domain of MKK7 is located near the N terminus of the protein and is separated from the canonical kinase domain by about 30 amino acids; the D-domain of MKK9 is located near the N terminus of the protein and is separated from the canonical kinase domain by about 30 amino acids
PROTEIN VARIANTS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
S235E/T241E
-
constitutively active kinase, MKK3-overexpressing plants, show significantly less Pseudomonas syringae growth compared with wild-type plants at 48 and 72 h after inoculation
additional information
CLONED/commentary
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
construction of a 35S:MKK3-WT:myc expression cassette, either myc epitope-tagged wild-type MKK3 or constitutively active MKK3 are transiently expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts, co-overexpression of MKK3 with MKK7 in ProPR1:GUS transgenic cell line, interaction analysis of MKK3 with group C MAPK kinases by yeast two-hybrid system, MKK3 and MPK7 induce the PR1 promoter, overview; open reading frames of MKK3 cloned into the plant expression vector pRT100 and fused at their C-terminal end to a c-myc epitope. Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression
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gene At3g21220, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR expression analysis, cloning and expression of the GST-fusion enzyme MKK5 in Escherichia coli strain BL21 codon plus. Recombinant overexpression of DHA-tagged MKK5 under control of the CaMV 35S promoter in either Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 wild-type plants or mkk5 plants
gene MKK4, recombinant expression using a cell type-specific expression system is unique in that it allows activation of MKK signaling in cells exhibiting important generalizable behaviors (e.g., cell division and fate acquisition) without the induction of cell death or additional deleterious phenotypes commonly associated with broad activation of MKKs; gene MKK5, recombinant expression using a cell type-specific expression system is unique in that it allows activation of MKK signaling in cells exhibiting important generalizable behaviors (e.g., cell division and fate acquisition) without the induction of cell death or additional deleterious phenotypes commonly associated with broad activation of MKKs; gene MKK7, recombinant expression using a cell type-specific expression system is unique in that it allows activation of MKK signaling in cells exhibiting important generalizable behaviors (e.g., cell division and fate acquisition) without the induction of cell death or additional deleterious phenotypes commonly associated with broad activation of MKKs; gene MKK9, recombinant expression using a cell type-specific expression system is unique in that it allows activation of MKK signaling in cells exhibiting important generalizable behaviors (e.g., cell division and fate acquisition) without the induction of cell death or additional deleterious phenotypes commonly associated with broad activation of MKKs
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
construction of a kinase-dead enzyme mutant
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
MKK3 pathway plays a role in pathogen defense, MKK3 is an upstream activator of the group C MAPKs MPK1, MPK2, MPK7, and MPK14. MKK3 shows the strongest interaction with MPK7, it phosphorylates MPK7. H2O2, but not flg22, activates MPK7 in an MKK3-mediated manner, MKK3 and MPK7 are part of a signaling pathway that regulates PR1 expression
REF.
AUTHORS
TITLE
JOURNAL
VOL.
PAGES
YEAR
ORGANISM (UNIPROT)
PUBMED ID
SOURCE
Doczi, R.; Brader, G.; Pettko-Szandtner, A.; Rajh, I.; Djamei, A.; Pitzschke, A.; Teige, M.; Hirt, H.
The Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MKK3 is upstream of group C mitogen-activated protein kinases and participates in pathogen signaling
Plant Cell
19
3266-3279
2007
Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Qiu, J.L.; Zhou, L.; Yun, B.W.; Nielsen, H.B.; Fiil, B.K.; Petersen, K.; Mackinlay, J.; Loake, G.J.; Mundy, J.; Morris, P.C.
Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases MKK1 and MKK2 have overlapping functions in defense signaling mediated by MEKK1, MPK4, and MKS1
Plant Physiol.
148
212-222
2008
Arabidopsis thaliana (Q94A06), Arabidopsis thaliana (Q9S7U9)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Xing, Y.; Chen, W.H.; Jia, W.; Zhang, J.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5)-mediated signalling cascade regulates expression of iron superoxide dismutase gene in Arabidopsis under salinity stress
J. Exp. Bot.
66
5971-5981
2015
Arabidopsis thaliana (Q8RXG3)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lee, H.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 is required for regulation during dark-light transition
Mol. Cells
38
651-656
2015
Arabidopsis thaliana (O80396)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lampard, G.R.; Wengier, D.L.; Bergmann, D.C.
Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling in the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage reveals motifs that contribute to protein localization and signaling specificity
Plant Cell
26
3358-3371
2014
Arabidopsis thaliana
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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