Information on EC 2.7.11.31 - [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] kinase

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC2.7.11.31
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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.7.11.31
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
[hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] kinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] = ADP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
phospho group transfer
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:[hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphotransferase
The enzyme is activated by AMP. EC 1.1.1.34, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) is inactivated by the phosphorylation of the enzyme protein. Histones can also act as acceptors. The enzyme can also phosphorylate hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2) and adipose hormone-sensitive lipase (EC 3.1.1.79) [5]. Thr-172 within the catalytic subunit (alpha-subunit) is the major site phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase [7]. GTP can act instead of ATP [4]
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
172522-01-9
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cauliflower, var. botrytis
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
anoxia-tolerant goldfish
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chinese hamster, cell line CHO-G4myc
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57BL/6J mice
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6 / 129
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
obese ewes
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase
ADP + [3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase
ADP + phosphorylated 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + acetyl-CoA carboxylase
ADP + phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase
show the reaction diagram
ATP + acetyl-CoA carboxylase
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + acetyl-CoA carboxylase
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
ADP + phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
ATP + actin
ADP + [actin]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme
ADP + phosphorylated acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1
ADP + phosphorylated adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + adipose hormone-sensitive lipase
ADP + adipose hormone-sensitive lipase phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + adipose hormone-sensitive lipase
ADP + [adipose hormone-sensitive lipase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + alpha,beta-tubulin
ADP + [alpha,beta-tubulin] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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relative kinase activity high MW-kinase 15%
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?
ATP + ATF1
ADP + phospho-ATF1
show the reaction diagram
ATP + ATF2
ADP + phospho-ATF2
show the reaction diagram
ATP + ATPase
ADP + [ATPase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
ATP + band 3 anion transport protein
ADP + phosphorylated band 3 anion transport protein
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + beta actin
ADP + phosphorylated beta actin
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + beta-synuclein
ADP + [beta-synuclein]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + beta-tubulin
ADP + [beta-tubulin]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + biotin-GGHMRSAMSGLHLVKRR-NH2
ADP + phosphorylated biotin-GGHMRSAMpSGLHLVKRR-NH2
show the reaction diagram
ATP + bis(5'-nucleosyl)-tetraphosphatase
ADP + [bis(5'-nucleosyl)-tetraphosphatase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + bisphosphoglycerate mutase
ADP + phosphorylated bisphosphoglycerate mutase
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + bovine serum albumin
ADP + [bovine serum albumin] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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fraction V
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?
ATP + carbonic anhydrase 1
ADP + phosphorylated carbonic anhydrase 1
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + casein
ADP + casein phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + catalase
ADP + phosphorylated catalase
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + citrate synthase
ADP + [citrate synthase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + collapsing response mediator protein-2
ADP + [collapsing response mediator protein-2]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + CREB
ADP + phospho-CREB
show the reaction diagram
ATP + CREB1
ADP + phospho-CREB1
show the reaction diagram
ATP + CREBL2
ADP + phospho-CREBL2
show the reaction diagram
ATP + CREM
ADP + phospho-CREM
show the reaction diagram
ATP + Cy5-SAMS peptide
ADP + phosphorylated Cy5-SAMS peptide
show the reaction diagram
P54646 AND O43741 AND Q9UGI9
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?
ATP + cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase
ADP + phosphorylated cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + dihydropteridine reductase
ADP + phosphorylated dihydropteridine reductase
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + dihydropyrimidinase-like 2
ADP + [dihydropyrimidinase-like 2]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + DNA damage-binding protein 1
ADP + phosphorylated DNA damage-binding protein 1
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + dynein intermediate chain 2
ADP + [dynein intermediate chain 2]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + elongation factor Ts
ADP + [elongation factor Ts]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + elongation factor Tu
ADP + [elongation factor Tu]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + erythrocyte spectrin alpha chain
ADP + phosphorylated erythrocyte spectrin alpha chain
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + erythrocyte spectrin beta chain
ADP + phosphorylated erythrocyte spectrin beta chain
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase
ADP + phosphorylated eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase
show the reaction diagram
ATP + far upstream element binding protein 1
ADP + [far upstream element binding protein 1]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + fascin homologue 1
ADP + [fascin homologue 1]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + flavin reductase
ADP + phosphorylated flavin reductase
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + glial fibrillary acidic protein
ADP + [glial fibrillary acidic protein]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + glutamate dehydrogenase 1
ADP + [glutamate dehydrogenase 1]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + glutamine synthetase
ADP + [glutamine synthetase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + glutathione S-transferase omega-1
ADP + phosphorylated glutathione S-transferase omega-1
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + glutathione synthetase
ADP + phosphorylated glutathione synthetase
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
ADP + [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + glycerophosphate acyltransferase
ADP + [glycerophosphate acyltransferase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + glycogen synthase
ADP + [glycogen synthase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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relative kinase activity for low-MW kinase 7%, high MW-kinase 87%
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?
ATP + heat shock protein 8
ADP + [heat shock protein 8]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + heavy meromyosin
ADP + [heavy meromyosin] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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relative kinase activity for low-MW kinase 2%, high MW-kinase 100%
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?
ATP + heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1
ADP + [heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + HGRSAMSGLHLVKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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SAMS-containing peptide as substrate
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?
ATP + histone 2A
?
show the reaction diagram
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ATP + histone H1 (IIIS)
ADP + [histone H1 (IIIS)] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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histones are better substrates for high-MW kinase than hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, relative kinase activity for low-MW kinase 275%, high MW-kinase 103%
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?
ATP + histone H1B
ADP + phospho-histone H1B
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + histone II-S
ADP + [histone II-S] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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relative kinase activity for low-MW kinase 38%, high MW-kinase 159%
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?
ATP + histone VIIIS
ADP + [histone VIIIS] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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relative kinase activity for low-MW kinase 65%, high MW-kinase 141%
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?
ATP + HMGSAMSGLHLVKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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SAMS-containing peptide as substrate
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?
ATP + HMKSAMSGLHLVKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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synthetic SAMS-containing peptide as substrate
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?
ATP + HMRSAGSGLHLVKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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SAMS-containing peptide as substrate
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?
ATP + HMRSAMSGLHGGKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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SAMS-containing peptide as substrate
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?
ATP + HMRSAMSGLHGVKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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SAMS-containing peptide as substrate
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?
ATP + HMRSAMSGLHLGKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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SAMS-containing peptide as substrate
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?
ATP + HMRSAMSGLHLVKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
ATP + HMRSAMTGLHLVKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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SAMS-containing peptide as substrate
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?
ATP + HMRSAMYGLHLVKRR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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SAMS-containing peptide as substrate
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?
ATP + hormone-sensitive lipase
ADP + phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase
show the reaction diagram
ATP + MAP-2
ADP + MAP-2 phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
relative kinase activity for low-MW kinase 14%, high MW-kinase 566%
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?
ATP + Mig1 protein
ADP + phosphorylated Mig1 protein
show the reaction diagram
ATP + Mig2 protein
ADP + phosphorylated Mig2 protein
show the reaction diagram
ATP + myelin basic protein
ADP + [myelin basic protein] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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moderate substrate for low-MW kinase, better than hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase for high-MW kinase, relative kinase activity for low-MW kinase 36%, high MW-kinase 238%
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?
ATP + myosin mixed light chains
ADP + [myosin mixed light chains] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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relative kinase activity for low-MW kinase 4%, high MW-kinase 27%
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?
ATP + neurofilament triplet L protein
ADP + [neurofilament triplet L protein]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + Ngg1 interacting factor 3-like 1
ADP + [Ngg1 interacting factor 3-like 1]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + NmrA-like family domain containing 1
ADP + [NmrA-like family domain containing 1]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + nucleolin
ADP + [nucleolin]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + p27
ADP + phospho-p27
show the reaction diagram
ATP + p38
ADP + phospho-p38
show the reaction diagram
ATP + p53
ADP + phospho-p53
show the reaction diagram
ATP + peroxiredoxin-2
ADP + phosphorylated peroxiredoxin-2
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + peroxiredoxin-6
ADP + phosphorylated peroxiredoxin-6
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + PFK2
ADP + phospho-PFK2
show the reaction diagram
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phosphorylation at Ser466 induced by UV radiation and H2O2 treatment
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?
ATP + phosphoglycerate kinase 1
ADP + phosphorylated phosphoglycerate kinase 1
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase
ADP + phosphorylated phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + phosphorylase B
ADP + [phosphorylase B] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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relative kinase activity high MW-kinase 12%
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?
ATP + phosvitin
ADP + phosvitin phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + PKZeta
?
show the reaction diagram
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AMPK alpha phosphorylates PKZeta on residue Thr410 within the PKCzeta activation loop
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?
ATP + protamine
ADP + protamine phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + proteasome subunit alpha type-1
ADP + phosphorylated proteasome subunit alpha type-1
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + proteasome subunit alpha type-7
ADP + phosphorylated proteasome subunit alpha type-7
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + protein GFAP
ADP + [protein GFAP]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 1
ADP + [protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 1]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + protein NF-L
ADP + [protein NF-L]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + purine nucleoside phosphorylase
ADP + phosphorylated purine nucleoside phosphorylase
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + rabbit muscle glycogen synthase
ADP + [rabbit muscle glycogen synthase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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rabbit muscle glycogen synthase
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?
ATP + RNA-binding protein HUR
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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inhibits the protein by phosporylation
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?
ATP + S-formylglutathione hydrolase
ADP + phosphorylated S-formylglutathione hydrolase
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + selenium binding protein 1
ADP + phosphorylated selenium binding protein 1
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + synapsin 1
ADP + [synapsin 1] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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as good substrate as hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, relative kinase activity for low-MW kinase 151%, high MW-kinase 103%
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?
ATP + synapsin-1
ADP + [synapsin-1]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + telomerase-binding protein p23
ADP + [telomerase-binding protein p23]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + thioredoxin-like protein 1
ADP + phosphorylated thioredoxin-like protein 1
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + transaldolase
ADP + phosphorylated transaldolase
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + transferrin
ADP + phosphorylated transferrin
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + tripeptidyl-peptidase 2
ADP + [tripeptidyl-peptidase 2]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + tubulin
ADP + [tubulin]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 13
ADP + phosphorylated ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 13
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 14
ADP + phosphorylated ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 14
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 5
ADP + phosphorylated ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 5
show the reaction diagram
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?
ATP + ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2
ADP + phosphorylated ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2
show the reaction diagram
ATP + ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1
ADP + phosphorylated ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + valosin-containing protein
ADP + phosphorylated valosin-containing protein
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at Ser79
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + phospho-[acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
show the reaction diagram
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phosphorylation at Ser79
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-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [endothelial nitic oxide synthase]
ADP + [endothelial nitic oxide synthase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [endothelial nitric oxide synthase]
ADP + [endothelial nitric oxide synthase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [eukaryotic elongation factor-2]
ADP + [eukaryotic elongation factor-2] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at Ser259 and Ser498
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-
?
ATP + [glucose hexokinase regulatory protein]
ADP + [glucose hexokinase regulatory protein] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [Golgi-specific brefeldin A resistance factor 1]
ADP + [Golgi-specific brefeldin A resistance factor 1] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [histone deacetylase 5]
ADP + [histone deacetylase 5] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [HMG-CoA reductase]
ADP + [HMG-CoA reductase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)]
ADP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [malonylCoAdecarboxylase]
ADP + [malonylCoAdecarboxylase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [O-GlcNAc transferase]
ADP + [O-GlcNAc transferase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [peptide HMRSAMSGLHLVKRR]
ADP + [peptide HMRSAMSGLHLVKRR] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [peptide QKFQRELSTKWVLN]
ADP + [peptide QKFQRELSTKWVLN] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
a peptide derived from glucose hexokinase regulatory protein, residues 474-487
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-
?
ATP + [peptide SAMS]
ADP + [peptide SAMS] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + [SAMS peptide]
ADP + [SAMS peptide] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
ATP + [smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase]
ADP + [smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase]
ADP + [sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase]phosphate
show the reaction diagram
CTP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)]
CDP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dATP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)]
dADP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at about 90% the rate of ATP
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-
?
GTP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)]
GDP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ITP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)]
IDP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
UTP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)]
UDP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + acetyl-CoA carboxylase
ADP + phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase
show the reaction diagram
ATP + acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
ADP + phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + ATF1
ADP + phospho-ATF1
show the reaction diagram
-
important reaction in enhancement of transcriptional activity
-
-
?
ATP + ATF2
ADP + phospho-ATF2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + CREB
ADP + phospho-CREB
show the reaction diagram
-
important reaction in enhancement of transcriptional activity
-
-
?
ATP + CREB1
ADP + phospho-CREB1
show the reaction diagram
-
AMPK competes with protein kinase A for the Ser119 phosphorylation site
-
-
?
ATP + CREBL2
ADP + phospho-CREBL2
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
ATP + CREM
ADP + phospho-CREM
show the reaction diagram
-
important reaction in enhancement of transcriptional activity
-
-
?
ATP + eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase
ADP + phosphorylated eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at Ser398, the enzyme plays a regulatory role in eEF2 kinase activity, overview
-
-
?
ATP + histone H1B
ADP + phospho-histone H1B
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + hormone-sensitive lipase
ADP + phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase
show the reaction diagram
ATP + Mig1 protein
ADP + phosphorylated Mig1 protein
show the reaction diagram
ATP + Mig2 protein
ADP + phosphorylated Mig2 protein
show the reaction diagram
ATP + p27
ADP + phospho-p27
show the reaction diagram
-
loss of tuberin is associated with increased AMPK activity and altered p27 function leading to increased Cdk2 activity and resistance of the cells against apoptosis. Mislocation of p27 occurs in tuberin-deficient cells, possessing no functional gene tsc2, and can induced directly by activating AMPK physiologically via glucose deprivation or genetically via a constitutively active AMPK, overview
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-
?
ATP + p38
ADP + phospho-p38
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at Thr180/Thr182, p38 MAPK is a downstream signal of AMPK upon various stimuli, AMPK serves as a positive regulator for p38 Ser15 phosphorylation induced by UV radiation and H2O2 treatment
-
-
?
ATP + p53
ADP + phospho-p53
show the reaction diagram
-
AMPK serves as a positive regulator for p38 Ser15 phosphorylation induced by UV radiation and H2O2 treatment
-
-
?
ATP + PFK2
ADP + phospho-PFK2
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at Ser466 induced by UV radiation and H2O2 treatment
-
-
?
ATP + ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2
ADP + phosphorylated ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2
show the reaction diagram
Q13131 AND Q9Y478 AND P54619
activation
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at Ser79
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + phospho-[acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at Ser79
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [endothelial nitic oxide synthase]
ADP + [endothelial nitic oxide synthase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
activates nitric oxide synthesis, mechanism, overview
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-
?
ATP + [endothelial nitric oxide synthase]
ADP + [endothelial nitric oxide synthase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [glucose hexokinase regulatory protein]
ADP + [glucose hexokinase regulatory protein] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + [Golgi-specific brefeldin A resistance factor 1]
ADP + [Golgi-specific brefeldin A resistance factor 1] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at Thr1337 to induce disassembly of Golgi apparatus
-
-
?
ATP + [histone deacetylase 5]
ADP + [histone deacetylase 5] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
AMP-activated protein kinase regulates GLUT4 transcription by phosphorylating histone deacetylase 5
-
-
?
ATP + [HMG-CoA reductase]
ADP + [HMG-CoA reductase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inhibition of HMG-CoA carboxylase
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ATP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)]
ADP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + [O-GlcNAc transferase]
ADP + [O-GlcNAc transferase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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AMP-activated protein kinase activates O-glucosaminyl-acylation of neuronal proteins, e.g. neurofilament H, during glucose deprivation involving activation of O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT, and induces OGT protein expression in Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells, mechanism, overview
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ATP + [smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase]
ADP + [smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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phosphorylation activates MLCK and increases its affinity for Ca2+ and calmodulin
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additional information
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2'-dAMP
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activation, can replace AMP or ADP
Calmodulin
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requirement, Ca2+/calmodulin dependent kinase, no phosphorylation of substrate observed in absence
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Mn2+
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INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2'-deoxy-ATP
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2'5'-dideoxyadenosine
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inhibits ability of interleukin-6 to activate AMPK
5'-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine
5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleoside
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i.e. AICAR
6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyrrazolo[1,5-a]-pyrimidine
8-bromo-AMP
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A-769662
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allosterically regulates AMPK activity
A134974
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at 1 nM ablates the stimulatory action of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside with no effects on osteoclast formation in the absence of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside
adenine-9-beta-D-arabinofuranoside
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adenosine
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adenosine-5'-tetraphospho-5'-adenosine
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i.e. AP4A, inhibits in the presence of AMP
ATP
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inhibits AMPK, whereby restores acid secretion
C75
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rapidly reduces the level of the phosphorylated AMPKalpha subunit in the hypothalamus. Also reduces pAMPK levels in fasted mice that have elevated hypothalamic pAMPK
compound C
Cu2+
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copper deficiency results in AMP-activated protein kinase activation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in rat cerebellum, overview
dexamethasone
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decreases in AMPK activity in treated adipocytes. The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on AMPK activity is antagonized by co-administration of metformin at 0.01 mM, which increases AMPK activity to 224% compared with dexamethasone treatment alone
glucocorticoid
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glucose
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AMPK activity is inhibited by high glucose
glycerol
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25% v/v, reversible inhibition
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA
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only with hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase as substrate
Inhibitor W-7
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specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor
iodotubercidin
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leptin
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has a tissue-specific effect on AMPK, in the hypothalamus, it decreases hypothalamic AMPK activity
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mammalian protein phosphatase 2C
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metformin
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can inhibit the stimulatory effect of dexamethasone in primary hypothalamic culture, blocks the AMPK phosphorylation induced by low glucose in primary cultures of hypothalamic neurones
naringin
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inhibits enzyme phosphorylation
nicotinamide
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SIRT1 inhibitor, potentiates Tat-mediated reduction in AMPK activation and downstream acetyl-CoA carboxylase activation. Potentiates Tat-induced HIV-1 transactivation
propranolol
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effects of interleukin-6 on both AMPK activity and energy state are inhibited by coincubation with propranolol, suggesting involvement of beta-adrenergic signaling
propylthiouracil
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inhibits stimulation by thyroid hormones
Protein phosphatase
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protein phosphatase C
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STO 609
molecular docking study, STO 609 docks in the compound-C binding pocket of AMPK
Sucrose
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sucrose-drinking animals have lower hypothalamic AMPK activity compared to saline-drinking control rats
Trifluperazine
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specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor
additional information
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+)-simvastatin
(23E)-cucurbita-5,23,25-triene-3beta,7beta-diol
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CH10, triterpene from the stem of bitter melon Momordica charantia, leads to the activation of AMPK in cells, overcomes insulin resistance
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
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activates AMPK, phosphorylation of AMPK-Thr172 is increased 2.8fold in the degenerated midbrain by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-intoxication. AMPK activation is stimulated in the substantia nigra of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-intoxicated mice
1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium
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activates AMPK in SH-SY5Y cells. Increases phosphorylation level at Thr172 in the active site of AMPKalpha. AMPK is activated during the progression of cell death mediated by 1-methyl-4-pyridinium
2-deoxyglucose
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blocks glucose utilization and increases the intracellular AMP concentration, activation is suppressed by compound C
24-hydroxyursolic acid
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from the leaves of Diospyros kaki, strongly activates AMPK, inhibits cell proliferation
3beta,25-dihydroxy-7beta-methoxycucurbita-5,23(E)-diene
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CH63, triterpene from the stem of bitter melon Momordica charantia, leads to the activation of AMPK in cells, overcomes insulin resistance
3beta,7beta,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al
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CH93, triterpene from the stem of bitter melon Momordica charantia, leads to the activation of AMPK in cells, overcomes insulin resistance
5'-AMP
5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleoside
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5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside
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5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribotide
5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside
5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside
5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide
Q13131 AND Q9Y478 AND P54619
i.e. AICAR, activation of AMPK in isolated perfused proximal renal tubules by AICAR
5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside
5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside
5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleoside
5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-riboside
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AICAR, activates AMPK, whereby significantly reduces secretagogue-induced acid secretion
8-chloro-cAMP
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induces AMPK phosphorylation
A-769662
A23187
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0.01 mM significantly enhances the phosphorylation of AMPK-Thr172 in BAEC. Either STO-609 (0.001 mM) or BAPTA-AM (0.02 mM), significantly suppresses calcium inophore A23187-enhanced phosphorylation in BAEC
A769662
Q13131 AND P54646
A769662 selectively activates beta1-containing AMPK isoforms
adenosine
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adiponectin
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alpha,beta-methylene-ADP
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allosteric activator, can replace ADP, with 66% efficiency with bovine serum albumin as substrate
BLX-1002
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has no affinity to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), stimulation of beta-cells with BLX-1002 induces activation of AMPK at high glucose. BLX-1002 selectively potentiates insulin secretion induced by high glucose in normal and diabetic islets in a PI3K-dependent manner. This effect is associated with an increased cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration mediated through Ca2+ mobilization, and an enhanced activation of AMPK
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BLX-1015
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0.01 mM significantly enhances AMPK phosphorylation, to an extent similar to that of BLX-1002. Potentiates pioglitazone-, but not fenofibrate-induced insulin secretion
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Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase
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Calmodulin
calyculin A
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stimulation of activating AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172, independent of narigin
CaMKKbeta
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cantharidin
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stimulation of activating AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172, independent of narigin
CDP
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allosteric activator
Colchicine
at low concentration (10 nM) promotes phosphorylation of AMPKalpha and macrophage M2 polarisation and reduces activation of caspase-1 and release of IL-1beta and CXCL1 by monosodium urate crystals in BMDMs in vitro. Activation of AMPK is induced by certain drugs already in the clinic for arthritis and other diseases (e.g. methotrexate, high-dose aspirin, metformin) and by other agents, including the selective and direct activator A-769661
compound C
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inhibits AMPK and phase II, but not phase I, of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction
corticosterone
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counteracts inhibiting effect of sucrose and increases hypothalamic AMPK activity to levels comparable with saline-drinking animals
D-glucose
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D-ribose 5-phosphate
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dexamethason
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dexamethasone
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induces increase in AMPK in primary rat hypothalamic cell cultures, suggesting a direct effect of glucocorticoids on AMPK activity
Diethylamine NONOate
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nitric oxide donor, stimulates rapid and transient AMPK phosphorylation in INS832/13 cells and islets
dinitrophenol
glucocorticoid
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hydrogen peroxide
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sublethal oxidative stress inhibits retinal pigment epithelium cell phagocytosis and activates AMPK. 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide dramatically activates AMPKalpha, reaches the peak within 15 min, and declines 1 h later. Thr172 phosphorylation of catalytic subunit AMPKalpha is required for AMPKalpha activation
IFNgamma
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activates AMPK by phosphorylation of Thr172, independent of intracellular energy (ATP) levels. Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase inhibition by LY294002 partially prevents IFNgamma-induced activation of AMPK
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Insulin
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insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in rats increases AMPK phosphorylation and alpha2AMPK activity in the arcuate nucleus/dorso-mediobasal hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus
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interleukin-1
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induces nitric oxide-dependent activation of AMPK
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interleukin-6
isoproterenol
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leptin
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lovastatin
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increases AMPK phosphorylation /activation
metformin
microcystin-LR
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stimulation of activating AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172
Mito-TEMPOL
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mitochondria-targeting superoxide dismutase mimetic, 0.01 mM markedly attenuates statin-enhanced phosphorylation of both AMPK-Thr172 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-Ser79
MT-II
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melanocortin 4 receptor agonist, significantly augments AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation, MT-II is a potent AMPK activator in muscle, even in mice on a high fat diet
nitric oxide
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AMPK is transiently activated by nitric oxide in insulinoma cells and rat islets following interleukin-1 treatment or by the exogenous addition of nitric oxide
NO
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contributes to activation of AMPK in stroke
O2
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hypoxia leads to time-dependent AMPK activation in ATII cells. Maximal activation of AMPK after 10 min of 1.5% O2 exposure, whereas 3% O2 activates AMPK in a similar but slower manner. AMPK levels return to the baseline after 30 min of hypoxia exposure. Hypoxia-generated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species leads to the activation of the AMPK alpha1 isoform at Thr172. Hypoxia fails to activate AMPK in mitochondrion-deficient rho0-A549 cells
okadaic acid
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stimulation of activating AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172, activation is antagonized by naringin
pioglitazone
PKC-zeta
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is required for statin-induced LKB1 nucleus export and AMPK activation in HUVEC cells
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puerarin
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stimulates AMPK, puerarin down-regulated MDR1 expression via nuclear factor kappa-B and cAMP-responsive element transcriptional activity-dependent up-regulation of AMPK in MCF-7/adr cells
Reductase kinase kinase
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resveratrol
rosiglitazone
rotenone
tautomycin
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stimulation of activating AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172, independent of narigin
thiazolidinediones
UDP
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allosteric activator
vascular endothelial growth factor
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activates AMPK in endothelial progenitor cells by phosphorylation at Ser172
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additional information
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