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Information on EC 2.5.1.32 - 15-cis-phytoene synthase and Organism(s) Solanum lycopersicum and UniProt Accession P08196

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IUBMB Comments
Requires Mn2+ for activity. The enzyme condenses two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate, followed by rearrangement of the cyclopropylcarbinyl intermediate to 15-cis-phytoene.
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This record set is specific for:
Solanum lycopersicum
UNIPROT: P08196
Word Map
The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria
The taxonomic range for the selected organisms is: Solanum lycopersicum
Reaction Schemes
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Synonyms
AtPSY, CitPsy, CrtB, crtYB, EgcrtB, fruit-specific phytoene synthase, geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase, phytoene synthase, phytoene synthase 1, phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase, more
SYNONYM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
fruit-specific phytoene synthase
1092
-
geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
-
-
-
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phytoene synthase
phytoene synthase 1
1092
-
phytoene synthetase
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-
-
-
phytoene-synthetase
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-
-
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prephytoene-diphosphate synthase
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-
-
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Psase
-
-
-
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PSY2
290661
expresses two different class I PSY
synthetase, phytoene
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-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
alkenyl group tranfer
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-
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
geranylgeranyl-diphosphate:geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase (15-cis-phytoene forming)
Requires Mn2+ for activity. The enzyme condenses two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate, followed by rearrangement of the cyclopropylcarbinyl intermediate to 15-cis-phytoene.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
50936-61-3
-
57219-66-6
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SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
NATURAL SUBSTRATE
NATURAL PRODUCT
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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phytoene synthase-2 enzyme activity in tomato does not contribute to carotenoid synthesis in ripening fruit
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
Mn2+ does not have any stimulatory effect
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
20 mM, inhibitory effect
beta-carotene
-
-
Chlorophyll
-
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iodoacetamide
-
-
Mg2+
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50 mM, inhibitory effect
Mn2+
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above 2 mM
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
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squalestatin
-
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Triton X-100
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0.2%, total inhibition
Tween 20
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0.2%, total inhibition
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
CTP
-
0.67 mM, 2.5fold stimulation
dithiothreitol
-
activates
GTP
-
0.67 mM, 2.5fold stimulation
NADP+
-
weak stimulation
Triton X-100
-
0.1 w/v, 5fold stimulation
Tween 60
-
0.1 w/v, 5fold stimulation
UTP
-
0.67 mM, 2.5fold stimulation
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.005 - 0.0374
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3 - 4.3
ADP
1
AMP
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme
4.3
GTP
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme
0.0002
NADP+
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme and chromoplast enzyme
0.1 - 0.4
NADPH
0.2 - 0.5
phosphate
0.000007 - 0.000009
squalestatin
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5
-
enzyme from chloroplast
7.5
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enzyme from chromoplast
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.4 - 7.3
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pH 6.4: about 45% of maximal activity, pH 7.3: about 70% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
12 - 37
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12C: about 60% of maximal activity, 37C: about 20% of maximal activity
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
low activity in young leaf
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
peripheral plastid membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
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the recessive mutation yellow-flesh (locus r) in tomato eliminates fruit carotenoids by disrupting the activity of the fruit-specific phytoene synthase, PSY1, allele r2997 of yellow-flesh eliminates transcription of PSY1 in fruits. Fruits of the recessive mutation tangerine (t) appear orange due to accumulation of 7,9,7',9'-tetra-cis-lycopene (prolycopene) as a result of a mutation in the carotenoid cis-trans isomerase, tangerine is epistatic to yellow-flesh, interaction between tangerine and yellow-flesh at the molecular level, overview
metabolism
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PSY1 catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, the formation of phytoene from two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate
physiological function
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molecular mechanism underlying the epistasis of mutations tangerine over yellow-flesh and suggest the involvement of cis-carotenoid metabolites in a feedback regulation of PSY1 gene expression
UNIPROT
ENTRY NAME
ORGANISM
NO. OF AA
NO. OF TRANSM. HELICES
MOLECULAR WEIGHT[Da]
SOURCE
Sequence
PSY1_SOLLC
412
0
46615
Swiss-Prot
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
43000
-
native PAGE
200000
SUBUNIT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
the enzyme is functional in a monomeric state, under optimal native conditions it is associated with a large protein complex, at least 200000 Da, which contains other terpenoid enzymes
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
proteolytic modification
PROTEIN VARIANTS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
G520R
-
naturally occuring mutation in allele t3406
G546E
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naturally occuring mutation in allele t9776
L241K
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naturally occuring mutation in allele t4838
additional information
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4
-
10 h, stable
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-70C, 50 mM Tris, pH 7.5, 10% v/v glycerol, 80% of the activity retained
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activity can be maintained if 30% glycerol and 10 mM dithiothreitol are present during storage of the enzyme system
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PURIFICATION/commentary
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ammonium sulfate fractionation
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CLONED/commentary
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
cloning and genetic analysis of fruit-specific phytoene synthase, PSY1, and mutant lines tangerine and yellow-flesh with mutant alleles t3183 and r2997, respectively
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full length and truncated cDNA expression constructs of the phytoene synthase gene from tomato ligated into a pUC8 cloning vector, expression in Escherichia coli carrying Erwinia uredovora geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene
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REF.
AUTHORS
TITLE
JOURNAL
VOL.
PAGES
YEAR
ORGANISM (UNIPROT)
PUBMED ID
SOURCE
Jones, B.L.; Porter, J.W.
Enzymatic synthesis of phytoene
Methods Enzymol.
110
209-220
1985
Solanum lycopersicum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Maudinas, B.; Bucholtz, M.L.; Papastephanou, C.; Katiyar, S.S.; Briedis, A.V.; Porter, J.W.
Adenosine 5-triphosphate stimulation of the activity of a partially purified phytoene synthetase complex
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
66
430-436
1975
Solanum lycopersicum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Maudinas, B.; Bucholtz, M.L.; Papastephanou, C.; Katiyar, S.S.; Briedis, A.V.; Porter, J.W.
The partial purification and properties of a phytoene synthesizing enzyme system
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
180
354-362
1977
Solanum lycopersicum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bartley, G.E.; Viitanen, P.V.; Bacot, K.O.; Scolnik, P.A.
A tomato gene expressed during fruit ripening encodes an enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway
J. Biol. Chem.
267
5036-5039
1992
Solanum lycopersicum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Misawa, N.; Truesdale, M.R.; Sandmann, G.; Fraser, P.D.; Bird, C.; Schuch, W.; Bramley, P.M.
Expression of a tomato cDNA coding for phytoene synthase in Escherichia coli, phytoene formation in vivo and in vitro, and functional analysis of the various truncated gene products
J. Biochem.
116
980-985
1994
Solanum lycopersicum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fraser, P.D.; Schuch, W.; Bramley, P.M.
Phytoene synthase from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) chloroplasts - partial purification and biochemical properties
Planta
211
361-369
2000
Solanum lycopersicum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fraser, P.D.; Kiano, J.W.; Truesdale, M.R.; Schuch, W.; Bramley, P.M.
Phytoene synthase-2 enzyme activity in tomato does not contribute to carotenoid synthesis in ripening fruit
Plant Mol. Biol.
40
687-698
1999
Haematococcus lacustris (Q9AU04), Solanum lycopersicum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Schofield, A.; Paliyath, G.
Modulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit ripening through phytochrome regulation of phytoene synthase activity
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
43
1052-1060
2005
Solanum lycopersicum (P08196), Solanum lycopersicum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Borthakur, D.; Lu, J.; Chen, H.; Lin, C.; Du, Y.; Liang, Y.
Expression of phytoene synthase (psy) gene and its relation with accumulation of carotenoids in tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze]
Afr. J. Biotechnol.
7
434-438
2008
Camellia sinensis, Daucus carota (Q2VEY0), Prunus mume (A4F1Y6), Solanum lycopersicum (P08196)
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Tran, D.; Haven, J.; Qiu, W.G.; Polle, J.E.
An update on carotenoid biosynthesis in algae: phylogenetic evidence for the existence of two classes of phytoene synthase
Planta
229
723-729
2009
Aureococcus anophagefferens, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella variabilis, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Dunaliella salina (C1J5N0), Dunaliella salina (C1J5N1), Dunaliella salina (O04007), Dunaliella salina (Q66UF6), Dunaliella sp. 336 (Q1KPR4), Emiliania huxleyi, Haematococcus lacustris (Q4TUC6), Micromonas commoda, Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545, Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, Ostreococcus sp. 'lucimarinus', Ostreococcus sp. RCC809, Ostreococcus tauri, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Solanum lycopersicum (A9Q2P8), Solanum lycopersicum (P08196), Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Volvox carteri, Zea mays (B0KYU8), Zea mays (Q6EI12), Zea mays (Q6EIC3)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kachanovsky, D.E.; Filler, S.; Isaacson, T.; Hirschberg, J.
Epistasis in tomato color mutations involves regulation of phytoene synthase 1 expression by cis-carotenoids
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
109
19021-19026
2012
Solanum lycopersicum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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