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Information on EC 2.3.1.26 - sterol O-acyltransferase and Organism(s) Homo sapiens and UniProt Accession P35610

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC2.3.1.26

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IUBMB Comments

The enzyme catalyses the formation of sterol esters from a sterol and long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A. The enzyme from yeast, but not from mammals, prefers monounsaturated acyl-CoA. In mammals the enzyme acts mainly on cholesterol and forms cholesterol esters that are stored in cytosolic droplets, which may serve to protect cells from the toxicity of free cholesterol. In macrophages, the accumulation of cytosolic droplets of cholesterol esters results in the formation of `foam cells’, a hallmark of early atherosclerotic lesions. In hepatocytes and enterocytes, cholesterol esters can be incorporated into apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins for secretion from the cell.

The taxonomic range for the selected organisms is: Homo sapiens
The enzyme appears in selected viruses and cellular organisms

Synonyms
hacat, acat1, acat2, acyl-coa:cholesterol acyltransferase, acat-1, acyl-coa cholesterol acyltransferase, soat1, cholesterol acyltransferase, acyl-coenzyme a:cholesterol acyltransferase, acat-2, more

SYNONYM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase
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acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1
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acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1
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acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1
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ACAT-2
ACAT2
acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol-O-acyltransferase
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acyl coenzyme A: cholesteryl acyltransferase
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acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase
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acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase
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acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase
acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2
acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase
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acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase
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acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2
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acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase
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acyl-coenzymeA cholesterol acyltransferase
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acyl-coenzymeA:cholesterol acyl-transferase
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acylcoenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase
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acyltransferase, cholesterol
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cholesterol acyltransferase
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cholesterol acyltransferase 2
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cholesterol ester synthase
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cholesterol ester synthetase
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cholesteryl ester synthetase
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hACAT
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hACAT-1
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hACAT-2
Soat1
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Soat2
sterol-ester synthase
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sterol-ester synthetase
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steroyl O-acyltransferase 1
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steroyl O-acyltransferase 2
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Acyl group transfer
PATHWAY SOURCE
PATHWAYS
MetaCyc
sterol:steryl ester interconversion (yeast)
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
long-chain acyl-CoA:sterol O-acyltransferase
The enzyme catalyses the formation of sterol esters from a sterol and long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A. The enzyme from yeast, but not from mammals, prefers monounsaturated acyl-CoA. In mammals the enzyme acts mainly on cholesterol and forms cholesterol esters that are stored in cytosolic droplets, which may serve to protect cells from the toxicity of free cholesterol. In macrophages, the accumulation of cytosolic droplets of cholesterol esters results in the formation of `foam cells', a hallmark of early atherosclerotic lesions. In hepatocytes and enterocytes, cholesterol esters can be incorporated into apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins for secretion from the cell.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9027-63-8
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SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
COMMENTARY hide
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acyl-CoA + 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol
CoA + acyl (24S)-24-hydroxycholesterol
show the reaction diagram
Substrates: -
Products: -
?
acyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesterol ester
show the reaction diagram
acyl-CoA + pregnenolone
CoA + pregnenolyl 3-O-acyl ester
show the reaction diagram
Substrates: -
Products: -
?
oleoyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesterol oleate
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesteryl oleate
show the reaction diagram
pregnenolone + oleoyl-CoA
20-oxopregn-5-en-3beta-yl (9Z)-octadec-9-enoate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
Substrates: without cholesterol, pregnenolone is a poor ACAT substrate, with cholesterol, the Vmax for PREG esterification increases by 100fold
Products: -
?
acyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesterol ester
show the reaction diagram
docosahexaenoyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesteryl docosahexaenoate
show the reaction diagram
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Substrates: rate of cholesteryl ester formation is faster and more cholesteryl ester is formed with oleic acid compared to docosahexanoic acid. Docosahexanoic acid substantially reduces cholesteryl ester formation when given in combination with oleic acid
Products: -
?
long-chain fatty acyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesteryl long-chain fatty acyl ester
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + 5alpha,6alpha-epoxycholesterol
CoA + 5alpha,6alpha-epoxycholesteryl oleate
show the reaction diagram
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Substrates: activity comparable to cholesterol
Products: -
?
oleoyl-CoA + 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol
CoA + 7alpha-hydroxycholesteryl oleate
show the reaction diagram
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Substrates: activity comparable to cholesterol
Products: -
?
oleoyl-CoA + cholesterol
?
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesterol oleate
show the reaction diagram
Substrates: -
Products: -
?
oleoyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesteryl oleate
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + ergosterol
CoA + ergosteryl oleate
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + sitosterol
CoA + sitosteryl oleate
show the reaction diagram
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Substrates: -
Products: -
?
pregnenolone + oleoyl-CoA
20-oxopregn-5-en-3beta-yl (9Z)-octadec-9-enoate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
Substrates: without cholesterol, pregnenolone is a poor ACAT substrate, with cholesterol, the Vmax for pregnenolone esterification increases by 100fold
Products: -
?
stearoyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesteryl stearate
show the reaction diagram
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Substrates: -
Products: -
?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATE
NATURAL PRODUCT
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
COMMENTARY hide
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesterol ester
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesterol oleate
show the reaction diagram
Substrates: -
Products: -
?
acyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesterol ester
show the reaction diagram
long-chain fatty acyl-CoA + cholesterol
CoA + cholesteryl long-chain fatty acyl ester
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 2-chlorobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 2-cyanobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 2-fluorobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 2-methoxybenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 3-bromobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 3-chlorobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 3-cyanobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 3-fluorobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 3-methoxybenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-bromobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-chlorobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-fluorobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-formylbenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-methoxybenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-2-phenyl-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-nitrobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-2-(2-methylphenyl)-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
-
(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-2-(2-methylphenyl)-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-fluorobenzoate
-
(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-2-(3-methylphenyl)-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
-
(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-2-(3-methylphenyl)-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-fluorobenzoate
-
(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
-
(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-fluorobenzoate
-
(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-2-(naphthalen-2-yl)-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
-
(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-2-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
-
(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-2-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
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(2R,4bR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS,14aS)-2-(2-fluorophenyl)-12-hydroxy-4a,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,4a,4b,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b,13,14,14a-dodecahydro-2H,11H-pyrano[3'',4'':5',6']pyrano[3',2':5,6]naphtho[2,1-d][1,3]dioxin-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
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(3S,4aR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS)-12-hydroxy-4,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-3-(propanoyloxy)-4-[(propanoyloxy)methyl]-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b-decahydro-2H,11H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyrano[3,4-e]pyran-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
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(3S,4aR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS)-12-hydroxy-4,6a,12b-trimethyl-3-[(2-methylpropanoyl)oxy]-4-[[(2-methylpropanoyl)oxy]methyl]-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b-decahydro-2H,11H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyrano[3,4-e]pyran-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
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(3S,4aR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS)-3-(acetyloxy)-12-hydroxy-4,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-4-(propylcarbamoyl)-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b-decahydro-2H,11H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyrano[3,4-e]pyran-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
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(3S,4aR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS)-3-(acetyloxy)-12-hydroxy-4,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-4-[(propanoyloxy)methyl]-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b-decahydro-2H,11H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyrano[3,4-e]pyran-6-yl 4-cyanobenzoate
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(3S,4aR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS)-3-(acetyloxy)-12-hydroxy-4,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-4-[[(3-phenylpropanoyl)oxy]methyl]-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4,4a,5