Information on EC 1.8.1.4 - dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.8.1.4
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
protein N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD+ = protein N6-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
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reduction
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
2-oxoglutarate decarboxylation to succinyl-CoA
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2-oxoisovalerate decarboxylation to isobutanoyl-CoA
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glycine cleavage
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pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoA
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acetyl CoA biosynthesis
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citric acid cycle
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glycine metabolism
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oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate
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Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
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Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
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Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
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Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
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Pyruvate metabolism
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Propanoate metabolism
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Metabolic pathways
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
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Biosynthesis of antibiotics
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
protein-N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
A flavoprotein (FAD). A component of the multienzyme 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes. In the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, it binds to the core of EC 2.3.1.12, dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase, and catalyses oxidation of its dihydrolipoyl groups. It plays a similar role in the oxoglutarate and 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase complexes. Another substrate is the dihydrolipoyl group in the H-protein of the glycine-cleavage system ({AminoAcid/GlyCleave} for diagram), in which it acts, together with EC 1.4.4.2, glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), and EC 2.1.2.10, aminomethyltransferase, to break down glycine. It can also use free dihydrolipoate, dihydrolipoamide or dihydrolipoyllysine as substrate. This enzyme was first shown to catalyse the oxidation of NADH by methylene blue; this activity was called diaphorase. The glycine cleavage system is composed of four components that only loosely associate: the P protein (EC 1.4.4.2), the T protein (EC 2.1.2.10), the L protein (EC 1.8.1.4) and the lipoyl-bearing H protein [6].
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9001-18-7
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Azotobacter agilis
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli B / ATCC 11303
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains AH242 SE2378 and SE2382
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57/Bl-6 mice
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Escherichia coli
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 27405T
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Starkeyomyces koorchalomoides
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Starkeyomyces koorchalomoides FDUS 0337
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PCC6803
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,4-benzoquinone + NADH
1,4-benzoquinol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
1-methoxyphenazinium methosulfate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2 ferricyanide + NADH
2 ferrocyanide + NAD+ + H+
show the reaction diagram
2 ferricytochrome c + NADH
2 ferrocytochrome c + NAD+ + H+
show the reaction diagram
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cytochrome c is a poor electron acceptor, only in presence of methylene blue the enzyme shows some activity
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?
2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
8.0% activity compared to lipoamide
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?
2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone + NADH
2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone + NADH
2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone + NADH
2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
3-nitrotyrosine + dihydrolipoic acid
3-aminotyrosine + lipoic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
3-nitrotyrosine + NAD(P)H
3-aminotyrosine + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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?
3-nitrotyrosine + NADPH
3-aminotyrosine + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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?
3-nitrotyrosine + ubiquinol
3-aminotyrosine + ubiquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADH + H+
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone + NADH
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
5-nitroblue tetrazolium chloride + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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5.1% of the activity with lipoamide
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?
8-nitroguanine + dihydrolipoic acid
8-aminoguanine + lipoic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
8-nitroguanine + NAD(P)H
8-aminoguanine + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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?
8-nitroguanine + NADPH
8-aminoguanine + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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?
8-nitroguanine + ubiquinol
8-aminoguanine + ubiquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
8-nitroxanthine + dihydrolipoic acid
8-aminoxanthine + lipoic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
8-nitroxanthine + NAD(P)H
8-aminoxanthine + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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?
8-nitroxanthine + NADPH
8-aminoxanthine + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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?
8-nitroxanthine + ubiquinol
8-aminoxanthine + ubiquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
acetaldoxime + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
alpha-lipoamide + NADH
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
alpha-lipoamide + NADH + H+
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
alpha-lipoic acid + NADH + H+
dihydrolipoic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
benzyl viologen + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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2.9% of the activity with lipoamide
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?
coenzyme Q-10 + NADPH
ubiquinol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
dihydrolipoamide + NAD
lipoamide + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
lipoamide + NADH
show the reaction diagram
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
lipoamide + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
dihydrolipoamide + NADP+
lipoamide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
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r
DL-6,8-thiooctic acid amide + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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r
DL-alpha-lipoamide + NADH
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
DL-lipoamide + NADH
DL-dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
DL-lipoate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
DL-lipoylbutanoate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
DL-lipoylpentanoate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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100fold reaction by the enzyme in two-electron-reduced state compared to the enzyme in four-electron-reduced state
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?
ferrocene + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
3.6% activity compared to lipoamide
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?
ferrocenecarboxylic acid + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
4.1% activity compared to lipoamide
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?
formaldoxime + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
glycerol trinitrate + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
hexacyanoferrate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
hydroxylamine hydrochloride + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
iodonitrotetrazolium + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
iodonitrotetrazolium chloride + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
19.3% activity compared to lipoamide
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?
lipoamide + 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
dihydrolipoamide + ?
show the reaction diagram
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?
lipoamide + NADH
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
lipoamide + NADH + H+
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
lipoamide + nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide
dihydrolipoamide + ?
show the reaction diagram
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?
lipoamide + thio-NADH
dihydrolipoamide + thio-NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
lipoic acid + NADH
dihydrolipoic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
mature frataxin + NADH
denoted frataxin + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
menadione + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
methylene blue + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
methylene blue + NADH + H
reduced methylene blue + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
metmyoglobin + NADH
reduced myoglobin + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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myoglobin is a poor electron acceptor, only in presence of methylene blue the enzyme shows some activity
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?
NADH + H+ + oxidized 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
NAD+ + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
NADPH + H+ + oxidized 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
NADP+ + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
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?
naphthoquinone + NADH
1,4-naphthoquinol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
nitrated DNA + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
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enzyme reduces DNA nitro adducts including 8-nitroguanine, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 8-nitroxanthine, which formed in presence of peroxynitrite and nitryl chloride present in inflamed tissues, the nitrated DNA adducts are unstable and undergo spontaneous depurination which can cause cancer, enzyme might be resonsible for reversing biological nitration processes
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?
nitrated DNA + NADPH
DNA + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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enzyme reduces DNA nitro adducts including 8-nitroguanine, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 8-nitroxanthine, which formed in presence of peroxynitrite and nitryl chloride present in inflamed tissues, the nitrated DNA adducts are unstable and undergo spontaneous depurination
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?
nitric oxide + NADH
nitrate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
nitro blue tetrazolium + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
nitrotetrazolium blue + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2.9% activity compared to lipoamide
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?
O2 + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
O2 + NADH
H2O2 + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O2 + NADH + H+
H2O2 + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
oxidized 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
oxidized lipoamide + NADH
reduced lipoamide + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
oxidized lipoic acid + NADH
reduced lipoic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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?
phenazine-1-carboxylic acid + NADH + H
reduced phenazine-1-carboxylic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
protein N6-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH + H+
protein N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
pyocyanin + NADH + H
reduced pyocyanin + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
pyocyanin is reported to stimulate respiration
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?
pyruvate + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
reduced DL-lipoamide + NAD+
oxidized DL-lipoamide + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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r
reduced lipoamide + NAD+
oxidized lipoamide + NADH
show the reaction diagram
resazurin + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
155.8% activity compared to lipoamide
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?
resorufin + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
19.1% activity compared to lipoamide
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?
S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
S-nitrosoglutathione + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
sodium nitroprusside + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
sulfonated tetrazolium + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
39.2% activity compared to lipoamide
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?
tellurite + NADH
NAD+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
thio-NAD+ + NADH
thio-NADH + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
ubiquinone + NAD(P)H
ubiquinol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
ubiquinone-10 + NAD(P)H
ubiquinol-10 + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
vitamin K5 + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
alpha-lipoamide + NADH + H+
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
dihydrolipoamide + NAD
lipoamide + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
lipoamide + NADH
show the reaction diagram
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
lipoamide + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
lipoamide + NADH + H+
dihydrolipoamide + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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r
nitrated DNA + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme reduces DNA nitro adducts including 8-nitroguanine, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 8-nitroxanthine, which formed in presence of peroxynitrite and nitryl chloride present in inflamed tissues, the nitrated DNA adducts are unstable and undergo spontaneous depurination which can cause cancer, enzyme might be resonsible for reversing biological nitration processes
-
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?
nitrated DNA + NADPH
DNA + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme reduces DNA nitro adducts including 8-nitroguanine, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 8-nitroxanthine, which formed in presence of peroxynitrite and nitryl chloride present in inflamed tissues, the nitrated DNA adducts are unstable and undergo spontaneous depurination
-
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?
phenazine-1-carboxylic acid + NADH + H
reduced phenazine-1-carboxylic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
protein N6-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH + H+
protein N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
reduced lipoamide + NAD+
oxidized lipoamide + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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enzyme catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of dihydrolipoyl cofactors being covalently attached to the acyltransferase components of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and glycine reductase multienzyme complexes
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r
ubiquinone + NAD(P)H
ubiquinol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
ubiquinone-10 + NAD(P)H
ubiquinol-10 + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction is important to protect the cell e.g. from oxidative stress
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?
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
dihydrolipoic acid
flavin
NAD(P)H
NADP+
NADPH
ubiquinol
additional information
-