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Information on EC - violaxanthin de-epoxidase

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC1.23.5.1
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IUBMB Comments
Along with EC, zeaxanthin epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle for controlling the concentration of zeaxanthin in chloroplasts. It is activated by a low pH of the thylakoid lumen (produced by high light intensity). Zeaxanthin induces the dissipation of excitation energy in the chlorophyll of the light-harvesting protein complex of photosystem II. In higher plants the enzyme reacts with all-trans-diepoxides, such as violaxanthin, and all-trans-monoepoxides, but in the alga Mantoniella squamata, only the diepoxides are good substrates.
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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms
AhVDE, CsVDE, lipocalin-like protein, NPQ1, VDE, Vio de-epoxidase, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, Vx de-epoxidase, ZmVDE1, more
antheraxanthin + L-ascorbate = zeaxanthin + L-dehydroascorbate + H2O
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violaxanthin + 2 L-ascorbate = zeaxanthin + 2 L-dehydroascorbate + 2 H2O
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overall reaction
violaxanthin + L-ascorbate = antheraxanthin + L-dehydroascorbate + H2O
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