Information on EC 1.2.1.36 - retinal dehydrogenase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.2.1.36
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
retinal dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
retinal + NAD+ + H2O = retinoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
dehydrogenation
-
;
oxidation
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
retinoate biosynthesis I
-
-
Retinol metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
retinal:NAD+ oxidoreductase
A metalloflavoprotein (FAD). Acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of retinal.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37250-99-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
elephant shrew, Macroscelidea, protein of eye lens eta-crystallin is identified with retinal dehydrogenase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ovis aries aries
sheep
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
deermouse
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sprague-Dawley, BR strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
zebra finch
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
-
the enzyme is a member of the ALDH1 protein family
malfunction
-
acute inflammation rapidly downregulates ALDH1A1 expression in whole liver while increasing its expression in periportal macrophages
metabolism
-
both isoforms Raldh1 and -2 contribute to atRA biosynthesis in hippocampus astrocytes
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
13-cis-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
13-cis-retinoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
13-cis-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
13-cis-retinoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
2,4-decadienal + NAD+ + H2O
2,4-decadienoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,4-decadienal + NAD+ + H2O
2,4-decadienoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
3-deoxyglucosone + NAD+ + H2O
2-keto-3-deoxygluconate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
9-cis-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
9-cis-retinoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
9-cis-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
9-cis-retinoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
acetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
aldophosphoamide + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
all-trans retinal + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans-retinoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
RALDH3 oxidizes all-trans retinal with high catalytic efficiency
-
-
?
all-trans retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
all-trans retinaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans retinoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
all-trans-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans-retinoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans-retinoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans-retinoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-retinaldehyde + NAD(P)H
NAD(P)+ + H2O + all-trans-retinoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
all-trans-retinol + NAD(P)H
NAD(P)+ + H2O + all-trans-retinaldehyde
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
benzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
citral + NAD+ + H2O
(2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
citral + NAD+ + H2O
7-dimethyl-2,6-dienoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
decanal + NAD+ + H2O
decanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
decanal + NAD+ + H2O
decanoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
decanal + NAD+ + H2O
decanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
decanal + NAD+ + H2O
decanoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
hexanal + NAD+ + H2O
hexanoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
hexanal + NAD+ + H2O
hexanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
octanal + NAD+ + H2O
octanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
octanal + NAD+ + H2O
octanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
propanal + NAD+ + H2O
propanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
propanal + NAD+ + H2O
propionate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
retinol + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
retinol + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans-retinoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
13-cis-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
13-cis-retinoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
type-2 isozyme
-
-
?
9-cis-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
9-cis-retinoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans-retinoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans-retinoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans-retinoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme in retinoic acid biosynthesis, essential in developing diaphragm, enzyme inhibition or disfunction causes the serious developmental anomaly congenital diaphragmatic hernia, i.e. CDH
-
-
?
retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
FAD
-
metalloflavoprotein, reaction rate is maximal with FAD
NADPH
-
prefers NADPH to NADH as a cofactor
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Fe2+
-
reaction rate is maximal with Fe2+
Iron
-
metalloprotein, approximately 2 mol of iron per mol of enzyme
MgCl2
-
40% stimulation of enzyme activity with 2 mM MgCl2
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-Iodoacetamide
-
slight
3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine
-
-
3,3',5-Triiodothyroacetic acid
-
0.001 mM, 60% inhibition
4-biphenyl carboxylic acid
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90% inhibition at 0.1 mM in cell culture in vivo, leads to posterolateral defects in the diaphragm in vivo
4-diethylaminobenzaldehyde
-
partial inhibition
acetaldehyde
all-trans-retinal
-
9-cis-retinoic acid synthesis from 0.002 mM 9-cis-retinal is inhibited 50% by 0.005 mM all-trans-retinal
all-trans-retinol
-
competitive
alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl
-
slight
apo-CRBP
-
IC50 0.0014 mM
-
Atabrine
-
slight, FAD reverses inhibition
beta-ionone
-
; potent inhibitor of isoform RALDH4 activity, at 0.002 mM concentration 9-cis and 13-cis retinal oxidation is reduced by 53% and 63%, respectively
Ca2+
-
50% inhibition at 0.22 mM
Chloral hydrate
citral
D-3,3',5-triiodothyronine
-
0.001 mM, 65% inhibition
Disulfiram
estrogen
-
downregulates Raldh1 expression in the uterine glandular epithelium
ethanol
-
competitive inhibition
L-thyroxine
-
0.001 mM, 64% inhibition
Mn2+
-
50% inhibition at 0.024 mM
N,N'-octamethylenebis (dichloroacetamide)
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complete inhibition at very low concentration below 1 pM in cell culture in vivo, leads to posterolateral defects in the diaphragm in vivo
NADPH
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0.2 mM, 79% inhibition
nitrofen
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90% inhibition at 0.1 mM in cell culture in vivo, leads to posterolateral defects in the diaphragm in vivo
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
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complete inhibition at 1 mM in absence of DTT, 2 mM DTT protect nearly completely; strongly suppress enzyme reaction, reversed by addition of DTT
pravastatin sodium
-
cholesterol-lowering agent downregulates the expression of RALDH1,2 genes
retinal
retinol
-
40% uncompetitive inhibition of all-trans-retinal oxidation at 0.012 mM
SB-210661
-
80% inhibition at 1 mM in cell culture in vivo, leads to posterolateral defects in the diaphragm in vivo
Zn2+
-
50% inhibition at 0.01 mM
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
apoCRABP
-
stimulates retinoic acid synthesis by about 30-50%
-
cholecalciferol
-
0.2 mM, activation to 136% of the control
cholesterol
-
-
CRBP
-
dithiothreitol
-
-
estrogen
-
expression of Raldh2 is rapidly induced by stromal cells
glutathione
additional information
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0034
13-cis retinal
-
; isoform RALDH4, in 100 mM HEPES buffer, pH 8.5, at 37C
0.0006 - 0.00062
13-cis-retinal
0.0063
2,4-decadienal
0.095
3-deoxyglucosone
-
partially purified recombinant ALDH1A1 at pH 7.1 and in the presence of 1 mM NAD
0.003
9-cis retinal
-
; isoform RALDH4, in 100 mM HEPES buffer, pH 8.5, at 37C
0.00225 - 0.0087
9-cis-retinal
0.014 - 3.4
acetaldehyde
0.0039
all-trans retinal
-
; isoform RALDH3, in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.5, at 37C
0.0002 - 0.015
all-trans-retinal
0.0032
all-trans-retinaldehyde
-
-
0.003
all-trans-retinol
-
-
0.0003 - 0.103
benzaldehyde
0.0029
citral
0.0003 - 0.01
decanal
0.0003 - 0.023
Hexanal
0.022 - 0.39
NAD+
6
NADH
-
-
0.0015
NADPH
-
-
0.0003 - 0.01
octanal
0.0066
propanal
-
-
0.0007 - 0.76
retinal
additional information
additional information
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.15
2,4-decadienal
0.008 - 0.1
all-trans-retinal
0.2
benzaldehyde
-
wild-type
0.1
citral
0.4 - 2.2
decanal
0.3 - 2
Hexanal
3.1 - 3.3
NAD+
4.8 - 5.4
octanal
0.008 - 13
retinal
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0377
3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine
-
-
0.049 - 0.53
acetaldehyde
0.00032 - 0.00061
beta-ionone
0.27 - 0.479
Ca2+
0.005 - 0.0126
Chloral hydrate
0.11 - 0.349
Mg2+
0.015 - 0.052
Mn2+
0.005 - 0.036
Zn2+
additional information
additional information
-
kinetics, recombinant isozyme type-1
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0014
apo-CRBP
Rattus norvegicus
-
IC50 0.0014 mM
-
0.001
citral
Rattus norvegicus
-
IC50 about 0.001 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.047
-
-
0.13
-
-
additional information
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.2
-
about, assay at
7.7
-
in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, rather broad pH curve with pH-otimum at approximately pH 7.7
7.8
-
recombinant isozyme type-1 exhibits 2 pH-optima at pH 7.8 and pH 9.4 with substrates all-trans-retinal and 9-cis-retinal, respectively
9
-
all-trans-retinal oxidation; recombinant isozyme type-2
9.4
-
recombinant isozyme type-1 exhibits 2 pH-optima at pH 7.8 and pH 9.4 with substrates all-trans-retinal and 9-cis-retinal, respectively
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.1 - 9
-
-
7.5 - 9
-
exhibits a broad pH optimum
8.4 - 8.6
-
on chromatofocusing column, major activity peak is eluted at pH range 8.4-8.6
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
25 - 37
-
lower activity at 37C is also due to instability of the substrates
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4.9
-
about
5.8 - 7.2
-
Coomassie brilliant blue staining
additional information
-
-
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
lung cancer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
taenial amygdala
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
developing pituitary gland; developing pituitary gland; developing pituitary gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
robust nucleus of the arcopallium, RA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
at embryonic day 12.5, RALDH1 mRNA is present in the posterior region of oral ectoderm; at embryonic day 12.5, RALDH2 mRNA is present in part of the anterior oral ectoderm
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
endocrine islets of Langerhans
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
epididymis capa, epididymis cauda
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pancreas exocrine acini
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
raldh4 mRNA is present in developing intestine regions at 2 dpf embryos. Its expression level becomes very high in embryos from 3 dpf to 5 dpf. In 5 dpf embryos raldh4 is expressed in the epithelium of intestine. At 7 dpf, raldh4 mRNA is only weakly expressed in the epithelium of intestinal bulb
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expresses endogenous RDH13 at high levels
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cell culture
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
submaxillary gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
uterine glandular epithelium; uterine glandular epithelium
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
isoform Raldh1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isoform Raldh2
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
36000
-
immunoblotting
53000
-
3 * 53000, SDS-PAGE
54407
x * 54407, calculation from nucleotide sequence
54600
-
4 * 54600
54700
-
4 * 54700, calculation from nucleotide sequence
58000
-
SDS-PAGE, recombinant protein
80000
-
thin layer chromatography, gel filtration
140000
-
standard deviation 3500, gel filtration
214000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
homotetramer
-
4 * 55000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
4 * 54600; 4 * 54700, calculation from nucleotide sequence
trimer
-
3 * 53000, SDS-PAGE
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
no glycoprotein
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
hanging drop vapor diffusion
recombinant isozyme type-2 mutant L459F/N460G in complex with NAD+ and in absence of substrate, hanging drop vapour diffusion method, 7.6 mg/ml enzyme with 2 mM NAD+ and about 14 mg/ml retinol, 0.002 ml protein solution plus equal volume of well solution containing 7% PEG 6000, 2% 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, and 0.1 M Tris, pH 7.5, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 3.3 A resolution
-
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
dialysis against distilled water, several hours, about 29% loss of activity
-
DTT stabilizes isozyme type-2
-
quite unstable during extensive freezing and thawing
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-70C, 20 mM Hepes, 2 mM DTT, 150 mM KCl, 15% glycerol, pH 8
-
-70C, at concentration of 0.078 mg/ml, 15% glycerol, stable for three months
-
dilution (1:5) with 100 mM phosphate buffer often results in loss of 80-90% of specific activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
after recombinant production in Escherichia coli BL-21DE3
-
after recombinant production in Escherichia coli BL-21DE3; recombinant isozyme type-2 as fusion protein from Escherichia coli by GST-affinity chromatography, cleavage by thrombin to eliminate the fusion tag
-
by gel filtration, more than 400fold with a yield of about 1%, to near homogeneity
-
Ni-affinity chromatography
-
Ni-NTA column chromatography; on a Ni-NTA column; on a Ni-NTA column
-
nickel-Sepharose column chromatography and Q-Sepharose column chromatography
partially by isoelectric focusing
-
RDH13-His6 purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, to homogeneity
-
recombinant isozyme type-1 as fusion protein from Escherichia coli by GST-affinity chromatography, cleavage by thrombin to eliminate the fusion tag
-
recombinant N-terminally His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain C41(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography
-
recombinant N-terminally His-tagged wild-type and mutant enzymes from Escherichia coli strain C41(DE3) by nickel affinityy chromatography
recombinant wild-type and mutant isozyme type-2 from Escherichia coli strain Bl21(DE3), no usage of His-tag since it may influence the enzyme activity
-
using a nickel-chelating Sepharose and a S300 HR gel-filtration column
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
cloned into the pET28a vector. Expressed in Sf9 cells as a fusion with the C-terminal His6 tag
-
expressed in COS-1 cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells as His-tagged enzyme; into the vector pET28a for expression in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 cells; into the vector pET28a for expression in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli C41(DE3) cells
expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as His-tag fusion protein
-
expression in Escherichia coli; functional expression of wild-type and chimeric mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
expression of isozyme type-1 in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) as N-terminally fusion protein to glutathione-S-transferase
-
expression of isozyme type-2 in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) as N-terminally fusion protein to glutathione-S-transferase; recombinant in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
-
expression of xCTBP/xALDH1 in Escherichia coli
-
gene Aldh1a1, quantitative reverse transcription PCR enzyme expression analysis
-
gene ALDH1A1, recombinant expression of N-terminally His-tagged wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strain C41(DE3)
gene Aldh1a2, comprises 14 exons that are divided by 13 introns spanning more than 50 kb of genomic DNA, and it is localized on chromosome 9. CpG methylation in the Aldh1a2 promoter region inhibits Sp1-dependent Aldh1a2 promoter activation
-
gene ALDH1A2, recombinant expression of N-terminally His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain C41(DE3)
-
into the cloning vector pGEM-T Easy and subcloned into the expression vector pET14b
-
into the pGEM-T easy vector, 396-1002; into the pGEM-T easy vector, bp 1488-2079; into the pGEM-T easy vector, bp 935-1485
into the pKO-V901 plasmid
-
ligated into a pCMV5 expression vector and overexpressed in HEK-293 cells
-
overexpression of wild-type and mutant isozyme type-2 in Escherichia coli strain Bl21(DE3)
-
recombinant in Escherichia coli (pLysS cells)
-
recombinant in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
acute inflammation rapidly increases the enzyme expression in periportal macrophages
-
enhanced activity and expression of RALDHs in liver of high-fat diet rats. High-fat diet feeding significantly up-regulates cytosolic RALDHs activity, 1.7fold and 2fold in the presence of NAD+ and NADP+, respectively
ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors PD98059 and SB203580 suppress GM-CSF-induced nuclear translocation of Sp1 and Aldh1a2 expression. CpG methylation in the Aldh1a2 promoter region inhibits Sp1-dependent Aldh1a2 promoter activation. Aldh1a2 transcription silencing by CpG methylation of the promoter region is not due to direct interference with Sp1 binding to the promoter region
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) potently induces RALDH2 expression in dendritic cells in an retinoic acid-dependent manner, and retinoic acid alone weakly induces the expression. Retinoic acid and GM-CSF coordinately induce retinal dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) expression through cooperation between the RAR/RXR complex and Sp1 in dendritic cells
high retinoic acid levels inhibit Raldh1 gene expression by sequestering CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta through its interaction to GADD153. A decrease in Raldh1 mRNA levels in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-null liver relative to wild type mouse liver is observed
-
inflammation reduces ALDH1A1 mRNA in whole liver regardless of the level of vitamin A in the diet, while treatment with retinal reduces ALDH1A1 expression only in chow-fed rats. Acute inflammation rapidly downregulates ALDH1A1 expression in whole liver
-
levels of RALDH1 gene expression and protein production markedly decrease after 1-week treatment with 17beta-estradiol in male rats. Treatment of isolated anterior pituitary cells with 17beta-estradiol (0.00001-10 nM) decreases expression of RALDH1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner (about 55% RALDH1 mRNA level remaining 6 h after treatment with 10 nM 17beta-estradiol). 17beta-Estradiol-induced suppression of RALDH1 expression is completely blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182, 780. The ERalpha-selective agonist propylpyrazole triol (10 nM) mimicks the effect of 17beta-estradiol on RALDH1 expression, but the ERbeta-selective agonist diarylpropionitrile (10 nM) does not
-
mRNA expression is upregulated by p53 (44.3fold) and p63gamma (16.3fold) by binding to the retSDR1 promoter in vivo
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C301A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, catalytic residue mutation, reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
F471L
-
mutant
L459F/N460G
-
site-directed mutagenesis, inactive mutant, still able to bind the cofactor NAD+
T1411C
-
mutant
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
degradation
diagnostics
-
ALDH1A1 is rapidly gaining importance as a stem cell marker
medicine
molecular biology
-
ALDH1A1 is rapidly gaining importance as a stem cell marker
additional information