Information on EC 1.14.17.3 - peptidylglycine monooxygenase and Organism(s) Homo sapiens and UniProt Accession P19021

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC1.14.17.3
Word Map on EC 1.14.17.3
Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Select one or more organisms in this record:
This record set is specific for:
Homo sapiens
UNIPROT: P19021


The taxonomic range for the selected organisms is: Homo sapiens

The enzyme appears in selected viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.14.17.3
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
peptidylglycine monooxygenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
peptidylglycine + ascorbate + O2 = peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
bifunctional enzyme showing peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase, EC 1.14.17.3, and peptidylamidoglycolate lyase, PAL, EC 4.3.2.5, activities, the enzyme possesses 2 catalytic domains
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hydroxylation
-
-
oxidation
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
peptidylglycine,ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-hydroxylating)
A copper protein. Peptidylglycines with a neutral amino acid residue in the penultimate position are the best substrates for the enzyme. The product is unstable and dismutates to glyoxylate and the corresponding desglycine peptide amide, a reaction catalysed by EC 4.3.2.5 peptidylamidoglycolate lyase. Involved in the final step of biosynthesis of alpha-melanotropin and related biologically active peptides.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
90597-47-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
chromogranin A + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-iodo-Tyr-Val-Gly + ascorbate + O2
D-iodo-Tyr-Val-(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
labeled substrate
the carbinol is the substrate for the peptidylamidoglycolate lyase reaction, EC 4.3.2.5, forming glyoxylate and amidated peptide
-
?
hippuric acid + ascorbate + O2
glyoxylate + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
insulin + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
insulin glargine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-dansyl-Tyr-Val-Gly + ascorbate + O2
N-dansyl-Tyr-Val-(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N-trinitrophenyl-D-Tyr-Val-Gly + ascorbate + O2
N-trinitrophenyl-D-Tyr-Val-(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
the carbinol is the substrate for the peptidylamidoglycolate lyase reaction, EC 4.3.2.5, forming glyoxylate and amidated peptide
-
?
peptidylglycine + ascorbate + O2
peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
proopiomelanocortin peptide + ascorbate + O2
proopiomelanocortin peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-L-Tyr-L-Val-Gly + ascorbate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alanyl-L-phenylalanylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alanyl-L-prolylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alanylglycyl-L-phenylalanylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alanylglycyl-L-prolylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alanylglycylvalyl-L-phenylalanylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alanylglycylvalyl-L-prolylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-N-acetyl-Tyr-Val-Gly + ascorbate + O2
alpha-N-acetyl-Tyr-Val-2-hydroxyglycine + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dansyl-L-Tyr-L-Val-Gly + ascorbate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dansyl-YVG + ascorbate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-prolylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-(4-amino-6-methyl-3-oxoheptanoyl)-L-phenylalanylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-(4-amino-6-methyl-3-oxoheptanoyl)glycylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-(phenylacetyl)glycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-L-phenylalanylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetylglycylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-decanoylglycine + ascorbate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-trinitrophenyl-D-Tyr-Val-Gly + ascorbate + O2
N-trinitrophenyl-D-Tyr-Val-(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
the carbinol is the substrate for the peptidylamidoglycolate lyase reaction, EC 4.3.2.5, forming glyoxylate and amidated peptide
-
?
N-[3-(1-leucylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-3-oxopropanoyl]-L-phenylalanylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-[3-(1-leucylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-3-oxopropanoyl]glycylglycine + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
peptidylglycine + ascorbate + O2
peptidyl alpha-hydroxyglycine + semidehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
peptidylglycine + ascorbate + O2
peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
trinitrophenyl-D-Tyr-Val-Gly + ascorbate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
activity assay
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
insulin + ascorbate + O2
? + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
peptidylglycine + ascorbate + O2
peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
proopiomelanocortin peptide + ascorbate + O2
proopiomelanocortin peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
a POMC 18-kDa fragment
-
-
?
peptidylglycine + ascorbate + O2
peptidyl alpha-hydroxyglycine + semidehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
peptidylglycine + ascorbate + O2
peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ascorbate
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
3.26 mol per mol of bifunctional enzyme
Fe2+
0.37 mol per mol of bifunctional enzyme
Mg2+
0.88 mol per mol of bifunctional enzyme
Zn2+
required for peptidylamidoglycolate lyase activity, 0.62 mol per mol of bifunctional enzyme
copper
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(E)-(4-dimethylamino)cinnamic acid
-
-
-
(E)-3,4-methylenedioxycinnamic acid
-
-
-
(E)-4-aminocinnamic acid
-
-
-
2-trifluorocinnamic acid
-
-
-
3-(3-pyridyl)acrylic acid
-
-
-
Cinnamic acid
-
extensive dialysis of bifunctional PAM incubated with cinnamate yielded inactive enzyme unable to catalyze the production of glyoxylate from hippuric acid
N-dansyl-4-aminocinnamate
-
a fluorescent molecule, an inactivator
-
perdeuterated cinnamic acid
-
-
-
phenylpropynoic acid
-
i.e. phenylpropiolic acid
-
trans-cinnamic acid
-
-
Urocanic acid
-
-
(acetyloxy)acetic acid
-
-
(decanoylsulfanyl)acetic acid
-
-
(dodecanoyloxy)acetic acid
-
-
([(2S)-2-[(2-aminopropanoyl)amino]-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy)acetic acid
-
-
([N-[3-(1-leucylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-3-oxopropanoyl]-L-phenylalanyl]oxy)acetic acid
-
-
([N-[3-(1-leucylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-3-oxopropanoyl]glycyl]oxy)acetic acid
-
-
([[(2S)-1-(2-aminopropanoyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]carbonyl]oxy)acetic acid
-
-
([[(2S)-1-[[(2-aminopropanoyl)amino]acetyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]carbonyl]oxy)acetic acid
-
-
([[(4-amino-6-methyl-3-oxoheptanoyl)amino]acetyl]oxy)acetic acid
-
-
4-Phenyl-3-butenoic acid
-
irreversible turnover-dependent inhibition of the enzyme in vitro, at 0.1 mg/ml inhibition in vivo of proliferation of lung cancer cells and Ras-transformed WB rat liver epithelial cells, inhibitor leads to increased gap junction communication in the WB-Ras cells, overview
4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid methyl ester
-
at 0.01 mg/ml inhibition in vivo of proliferation of Ras-transformed WB rat liver epithelial cells, inhibitor leads to increased gap junction communication in the WB-Ras cells, overview
4-phenylbut-3-enoic acid
-
PBA
decanoyloxyacetic acid
-
-
diethyldithiocarbamate
-
DDC
Disulfiram
-
-
S-(2-phenylthioacetyl)thioglycolic acid
-
-
[(phenylacetyl)oxy]acetic acid
-
-
[(phenylacetyl)sulfanyl]acetic acid
-
-
[[(2S)-2-(acetylamino)-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy]acetic acid
-
-
[[(2S)-2-(acetylamino)-3-phenylpropanoyl]sulfanyl]acetic acid
-
-
[[(2S)-2-([[(2-aminopropanoyl)amino]acetyl]amino)-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy]acetic acid
-
-
[[(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy]acetic acid
-
-
[[(2S)-pyrrolidin-2-ylcarbonyl]oxy]acetic acid
-
-
[[(acetylamino)acetyl]oxy]acetic acid
-
-
[[N-(4-amino-6-methyl-3-oxoheptanoyl)-L-phenylalanyl]oxy]acetic acid
-
-
additional information
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0077
N-dansyl-Tyr-Val-Gly
-
pH 6.5, 37C
0.2
alanyl-L-phenylalanylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
4
alanyl-L-prolylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.035
alanylglycyl-L-phenylalanylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
3
alanylglycyl-L-prolylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.018
alanylglycylvalyl-L-phenylalanylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.96
alanylglycylvalyl-L-prolylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0033 - 0.0194
dansyl-L-Tyr-L-Val-Gly
6.5
L-phenylalanylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.88
L-prolylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.011
N-(4-amino-6-methyl-3-oxoheptanoyl)-L-phenylalanylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.86
N-(4-amino-6-methyl-3-oxoheptanoyl)glycylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.33
N-(Phenylacetyl)glycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.015 - 0.016
N-acetyl-L-phenylalanylglycine
9.9
N-acetylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
1.2
N-acetylglycylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.2
N-decanoylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.007
N-[3-(1-leucylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-3-oxopropanoyl]-L-phenylalanylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.55
N-[3-(1-leucylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-3-oxopropanoyl]glycylglycine
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0044 - 0.0068
Trinitrophenyl-D-Tyr-Val-Gly
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.35
N-dansyl-Tyr-Val-Gly
-
pH 6.5, 37C
0.08 - 13.8
dansyl-L-Tyr-L-Val-Gly
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
46.8
N-dansyl-Tyr-Val-Gly
-
pH 6.5, 37C
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0034 - 0.0057
4-phenylbut-3-enoic acid
0.00113 - 0.00119
diethyldithiocarbamate
0.00051 - 0.00065
Disulfiram
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.1
(acetyloxy)acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.007
(decanoylsulfanyl)acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.00006
(dodecanoyloxy)acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.37
([(2S)-2-[(2-aminopropanoyl)amino]-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy)acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.038
([N-[3-(1-leucylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-3-oxopropanoyl]-L-phenylalanyl]oxy)acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.18
([N-[3-(1-leucylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-3-oxopropanoyl]glycyl]oxy)acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.29
([[(2S)-1-(2-aminopropanoyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]carbonyl]oxy)acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
1.1
([[(2S)-1-[[(2-aminopropanoyl)amino]acetyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]carbonyl]oxy)acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.2
([[(4-amino-6-methyl-3-oxoheptanoyl)amino]acetyl]oxy)acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.000096 - 0.00068
4-phenylbut-3-enoic acid
0.00005
decanoyloxyacetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.000053 - 0.00011
diethyldithiocarbamate
0.002
[(phenylacetyl)oxy]acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.045
[(phenylacetyl)sulfanyl]acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.006 - 0.011
[[(2S)-2-(acetylamino)-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy]acetic acid
0.045
[[(2S)-2-(acetylamino)-3-phenylpropanoyl]sulfanyl]acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.16
[[(2S)-2-([[(2-aminopropanoyl)amino]acetyl]amino)-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy]acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
1.6
[[(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl]oxy]acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.5
[[(2S)-pyrrolidin-2-ylcarbonyl]oxy]acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
1.8
[[(acetylamino)acetyl]oxy]acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.009
[[N-(4-amino-6-methyl-3-oxoheptanoyl)-L-phenylalanyl]oxy]acetic acid
Homo sapiens;
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.53
purified recombinant enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase activity
additional information
-
peptidylglycine alpha-amidating and alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase activities in several tumor tissue extracts, comparison with immunological analysis, overview, highest activity in medullary thyroid carcinoma
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6 - 7
assay at, dependent on the substrate used
6
-
assay at
6.5
-
assay at
7.4
-
in vivo assay at
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37
-
activity assay
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
integral membrane enzyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
quantification of PAM endocytic trafficking to the trans-Golgi network
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
chromaffin granules
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
UNIPROT
ORGANISM
-
-
-
-
-
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
91000
x * 91000, recombinant soluble enzyme, SDS-PAGE
100000
-
PAM, determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
x * 91000, recombinant soluble enzyme, SDS-PAGE
additional information
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
glycoprotein
enzyme contains 2 putative N-glycosylation sites at ASn411 and Asn762, the purified enzyme contains at least 1 sugar chain
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
oxygen sensitivity of the peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) in neuroendocrine cells
-
745332
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant PAM from CHO dhfr cells by ammonium sulfate fractionation and anion exchange chromatography
-
recombinant soluble enzyme from culture medium in a 3-step chromatographic procedure, about 40fold to near homogeneity
thioredoxin-hPHMcc-His6 fusion is purified to homogeneity
-
cell extracts are prepared
-
Poros 20 m HQ anion exchange resin column chromatography
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
gene PAM, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genotyping
-
gene PAM, stable recombinant expression of PAM in CHO dhfr cells, construction of pCG/dhfr plasmid with added PAMLID gene incorporating the altered leader sequence
-
gene PAM-1, recombinant stable expression in murine AtT-20 cells
-
production of the catalytic core of human peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (hPHMcc) in Escherichia coli possessing a N-terminal fusion to thioredoxin. Thioredoxin is fused to hPHMcc to enhance the yield of the resulting 52 kDa protein as a soluble and catalytically active enzyme
-
subcloning from human heart lambda-gt10 library in Escherichia coli, soluble recombinant enzyme through elimination of the C-terminal membrane-spanning domain, expression of a soluble form in CHO K-1 cells, excretion of the recombinant enzyme to the cell culture medium
expressed in CHO cells
-
expressed in CHO DG44 cells
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
H107A
-
low activity
H108A
-
low activity
M109I
-
low activity
M314H
-
the catalytic activity of the mutant decreases by 96% due to effects on both kcat and KM but it displayed the same activity/pH profile with a maximum around pH 6.0
additional information
-
identification of naurally occuring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including the rs13175330 polymorphism. The presence of the G allele of the gene PAM rs13175330 A>G SNP is associated with a higher risk of hypertension after adjustments for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and drinking. The rs13175330 G allele carriers in the hypertension group treated without antihypertensive therapy (HTN w/o therapy) have significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure than the AA genotype carriers, whereas the G allele carriers in the hypertension group treated with antihypertensive therapy (HTN w/ therapy) show significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. The rs13175330 G allele carriers in the HTN w/o therapy group have significantly increased levels of insulin, insulin resistance, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol levels and LDL particle sizes compared to the AA carriers
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis
-
enzyme PAM-dependent amidation has the potential to signal oxygen levels in the same range as the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) system
synthesis
-
usage of the recombinant PAM for insulin analogue amidation producing insulin glargine amide, an insulin derivative that shows a time/effect profile which is distinctly more flat and thus more advantageous than insulin glargine itself. The enzyme is used to modify glycine-extended A22(G)-B31(K)-B32(R) human insulin analogue (GKR). Hypoglycemic activity of amidated and non-amidated insulin is compared
medicine