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EC Number
Application
Commentary
3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase
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3-HIBADH may play a role in biosynthesis of 3-hydroxypropionate as a biological source
isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+)
more
IDPm siRNA functions as a potentially useful agent for targeting chemo- and radio-resistant hypoxic cells within solid tumors through inhibition of HIF-1alpha expression
phosphogluconate 2-dehydrogenase
more
usage of isozymes as marker for chromosome identification and evaluation of introgression of genes in apomictic mode of reproduction of Tripsacum dactyloides into Zea mays
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP+)
more
loss of cytosolic G6PDH activity affects the metabolism of developing seeds by increasing carbon substrates for synthesis of storage compounds rather than by decreasing the NADPH supply specifically for fatty acid synthesis
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP+)
more
because isoenzyme replacement of G6PDH in the cytosol of tobacco is beneficial under various kinds of cues, this strategy may be a tool to enhance stress tolerance in general
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP+)
more
evaluation and optimization of enzyme production in Candida guilliermondii, modeling, overview
carveol dehydrogenase
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supply of a mixture of (-)-trans- and (-)-cis-carveol to the organism delivers pure (-)-carvone and pure (-)-cis-carveol
S-(hydroxymethyl)mycothiol dehydrogenase
more
thiol formation and detection of MSH-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity in cell extracts are relevant to the possible modulation of nitric oxide toxicity generated by strain NRRL 5646
8-hydroxygeraniol dehydrogenase
more
plant (4aR,7S,7aS)-nepetalactone can be used for synthesis of (4aR,7S,7aS)-nepetalactol, an aphid pheromone, useful in aphid control
D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome)
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carbon paste electrode-based biosensor with immobilized D-LCR seems to be optimal for analysis, representing significant advantage due to simplification of the whole device, i.e., the sensor exerts lower limit of detection under supposed concentration of D-lactate in real samples, low material demands, simplicity of D-LCR biosensor and short total time of analysis of about 2 min, pointing at the sensor possibilities in commercial applications
glucose oxidase
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GOx bioactive paper is fabricated, which can potentially be used as food packaging paper
choline oxidase
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enzyme is of both biotechnological and medical interest, since glycine betaine can be accumulated in the cytoplasm of cells to prevent dehydration and plasmolysis in adverse hyperosmotic environments in pathogenic bacteria
alcohol dehydrogenase (quinone)
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applications of PQQ-ADH in bioelectrocatalyst for biosensors and biofuel cells, amperometric determination of ethanol is a potential application for the PQQ-ADH electrode, overview
alcohol dehydrogenase (quinone)
more
applications of PQQ-ADH in bioelectrocatalyst for biosensors and biofuel cells, amperometric determination of ethanol is a potential application for the PQQ-ADH electrode, overview; applications of PQQ-ADH in bioelectrocatalyst for biosensors and biofuel cells, amperometric determination of ethanol is a potential application for the PQQ-ADH electrode, overview. Development of a DET-based biofuel system by combination of electrodes coated with FAD-dependent fructose dehydrogenase of Gluconobacter sp. as an anode and laccase of mushroom as a cathode
aldehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]
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reduced ALDH-2 activity and expression leads to decreased nitroglycerin bioconversion. ALDH is an important physiological inhibitory factor of superoxide production
aldehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]
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ALDH2 may have antioxidant properties. Yeast ALDH significantly and dose-dependently attenuates HX/XO-generated O2S- signal
aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
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enzyme is an attractive target for development of antibacterial, fungicidal, or herbicidal compounds
malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
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iolA is indispensable for myo-inositol fermentation
succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]
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the NADP+-dependent succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity encoded by gabD appears to be important for nitrogen metabolism under N limitation conditions
aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase
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AMADH may participate in processes of adaptation to stress events caused by mechanical injury, which involve polyamine catabolism, GABA production and lignification
succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+)
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in the world population, the c.538C variant of SSADH is proceeding to replace the ancestral c.538T, shared with primates. A significant correlation between the frequencies of the derived alleles in SSADH and microcephalin, which show concerted changes worldwide and, at least in Asian populations, also on a restricted geographical scale
succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+)
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genomic copy of the SSADH gene is devoid of introns. Multiple SSADH gene copies are present in the genome
succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+)
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genomic copy of the SSADH gene contains two introns. Multiple SSADH gene copies are present in the genome
succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+)
more
yneI, responsible for NAD+/NADP+-dependent SSADH activity, plays a unique physiological role in the general nitrogen metabolism of Escherichia coli. The yneI gene has an important, but not essential, role during growth on arginine and probably has an essential function during growth on putrescine as the nitrogen source. The yneI-encoded activity functions primarily as a valve to prevent toxic accumulation of succinate semialdehyde
2,5-dioxovalerate dehydrogenase
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the ALDH branch including ycbD protein is designated the KGSADH subclass (type III)
2,5-dioxovalerate dehydrogenase
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three different types of KGSADH appear in the bacterial evolutional stage convergently; three different types of KGSADH appear in the bacterial evolutional stage convergently; three different types of KGSADH appear in the bacterial evolutional stage convergently
aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
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codG encoding 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase shows a higher degree of similarity to those genes in classical bacteria
retinal dehydrogenase
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RDH13 is significantly different from related RDH11, RDH12 and RDH14 in that it is targeted to the mitochondria, but at the same time, RDH13 is very similar to the members of the RDH11-14 cluster of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in terms of its substrate and cofactor preferences. It may function to protect mitochondria against oxidative stress associated with the highly reactive retinaldehyde produced from dietary beta-carotene
retinal dehydrogenase
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Raldh3 is a zebrafish ortholog of mammalian Raldh3. The predicted protein encoded by zebrafish raldh3 exhibits 70.0% amino acid identity with mouse Raldh3; Raldh4 is a zebrafish ortholog of mammalian Raldh4. The predicted protein encoded by zebrafish raldh4 exhibits 73.5% amino acid identity with mouse Raldh4
retinal dehydrogenase
more
similar localization of Rdh12 and RDH12 proteins in mouse and human photoreceptors, respectively, which may indicate an analogous physiological role of the enzymes in both species
N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase
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rapid, highly sensitive, and reproducible coupled enzyme assays for AGS, AGK, and GAT using recombinant Escherichia coli AGK and AGPR as coupling enzymes
glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
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the genes proH encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, proJ encoding glutamate-5-kinase, and proA encoding glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase form a transcriptional unit. This pro operon is involved in salinity-induced proline biosynthesis
cinnamoyl-CoA reductase
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CCR1 is present as a single-copy gene in the wheat genome. It groups together with other monocot CCR sequences while it diverges from CCR2. It may be involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during stem maturity and may contribute to stem strength support in wheat
cinnamoyl-CoA reductase
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the thioacidolysis monomer 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol is a general marker for incorporation of ferulic acid into the lignification process, and is an indicator that can be used judiciously for CCR downregulation in a variety of plants as long as the background levels in control materials are measured
4-hydroxymuconic-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
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HapE shows 45% sequence identity with CymC, a p-cumic aldehyde dehydrogenase, from Pseudomonas putida
salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase
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two genes code for salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase. NahF resides in the naphthalene degradation upper pathway operon as the meta-cleavage pathway gene, whereas NahV is situated outside of this operon. NahF-like genes occur in all naphthalene-degradation bacteria, whereas nahV-like genes are present in only some naphthalene-degrading bacteria; two genes code for salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase. NahF resides in the naphthalene degradation upper pathway operon as the meta-cleavage pathway gene, whereas NahV is situated outside of this operon. NahF-like genes occurr in all naphthalene-degradation bacteria, whereas nahV-like genes are present in only some naphthalene-degrading bacteria
glutamyl-tRNA reductase
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the function of GluTR is regulated by mechanisms that involve the steady-state level of the protein or the activity of the enzyme in response to the cellular heme status
glutamyl-tRNA reductase
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the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway is controlled by HEMA2 and FC1, which normally functions for heme biosynthesis in nonphotosynthetic tissues, but is induced in photosynthetic tissues under oxidative conditions to supply heme for defensive hemoproteins outside plastids
L-2-aminoadipate reductase
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the sequence of the Saccharomycopsis fibuligera alpha-aminoadipate reductase gene Lys2p has the highest identity of 53% with the AAR of Candida albicans SC5314 and an identity of 51% with that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of the ORF of SfLYS2 in a lys2- strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can functionally complement the lysine mutant of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Cloning of SfLYS2 may provide a general tool in developing genetics-based studies not only with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera but also with Saccharomyces cerevisiae
aldehyde oxidase
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96% amino acid identity with those of human enzyme. Two forms of aldehyde oxidase in monkey are the expression products by a single gene due to possibly existence of two aldehyde oxidase isoforms or two active sites in a single enzyme
aldehyde oxidase
more
aldehyde oxidase is involved in the chemo-reception of pheromonal stimuli in the antennae
aldehyde oxidase
more
variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals; variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals; variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals. Gender-specific regulation of AOH1 by androgens and estrogens; variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals. Gender-specific regulation of AOX1 and AOH1 by androgens and estrogens; variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals. Gender-specific regulation of AOX1 by androgens and estrogens
aldehyde oxidase
more
variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals. Rat strains with low aldehyde oxidase activity lack the ability to produce the catalytically active dimer and express only the monomeric form of the enzyme; variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals. Rat strains with low aldehyde oxidase activity lack the ability to produce the catalytically active dimer and express only the monomeric form of the enzyme; variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals. Rat strains with low aldehyde oxidase activity lack the ability to produce the catalytically active dimer and express only the monomeric form of the enzyme; variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals. Rat strains with low aldehyde oxidase activity lack the ability to produce the catalytically active dimer and express only the monomeric form of the enzyme; variations in the levels of aldehyde oxidase activity in different strains of experimental animals. Rat strains with low aldehyde oxidase activity lack the ability to produce the catalytically active dimer and express only the monomeric form of the enzyme
aldehyde oxidase
more
rat strains with low aldehyde oxidase activity show only a monomer, whereas strains with high activity overwhelmingly exhibit a dimer. Expression levels of aldehyde oxidase homodimer are primarily responsible for rat strain differences in aldehyde oxidase activity
aldehyde oxidase
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despite divergent evolution, AOXs from the molybdo-flavoenzyme family can share a common function in insects and vertebrates, i.e. the control of the duration and/or strength of olfactory stimuli; despite divergent evolution, AOXs from the molybdo-flavoenzyme family can share a common function in insects and vertebrates, i.e. the control of the duration and/or strength of olfactory stimuli
pyruvate oxidase
more
development of a biosensor based on POX enzyme for the investigation of the effect of thiamine (vitamin B1) molecule on the activity of the enzyme
pyruvate oxidase
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pyruvate oxidase is not only a stationary-phase enzyme. Removal of the poxB gene affects the central metabolism at the enzyme level
pyruvate oxidase
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optimization of the medium for PyOD production by recombinant Escherichia coli using shake flask method
pyruvate oxidase
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aerobiosis makes the concerted action of lactate oxidase and pyruvate oxidase possible, enabling cells of Streptococcus pneumoniae to gain more ATP from glucose than under anaerobiosis
pyruvate oxidase (CoA-acetylating)
more
pneumococcal spxB gene influences competence, the mechanism remains elusive
pyruvate oxidase (CoA-acetylating)
more
spxB transcription is regulated by both cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements
oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring)
more
alpha-ketoglutarate-involving reactions belong to the backbone of high-flux reactions, which is rather conserved in evolution
oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring)
more
in post-mortem mice brain samples the activity is quickly lost, whereas the activity of another TPP-dependent enzyme, PDH, remains unalterd for at least 24 h
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl-transferring)
more
activation of the translational regulators by leucine is partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl-transferring)
more
use of a microRNA to exert control on a metabolic pathway of amino acid catabolism
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl-transferring)
more
NMR techniques to determine the structure of hbSBD and dynamics of several truncated constructs from the E2 component, including hbLBD (residues 184), hbSBD (residues 111149), and a di-domain (hbDD) (residues 1166) comprising hbLBD, hbSBD and the interdomain linker, the presence of the interdomain linker restricts the motional freedom of the hbSBD more significantly than hbLBD, the linker region likely exists as a soft rod rather than a flexible string in solution
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl-transferring)
more
regulation of BCKD kinase expression by nutritional, hormonal, and pathological factors
DELTA4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase
more
inspection of the MAD-phased electron-density map shows that 5beta-POR is a Rossmann-type reductase and the quality of the map is such that it is anticipated that a complete atomic model of 5beta-POR may readily be built
DELTA4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase
more
P5betaR belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, bearing no structural homology to its mammalian counterpart, which is a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily
DELTA4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase
more
5beta-POR is highly conserved within the genus Digitalis and the respective genes and proteins share considerable homology to putative progesterone reductases from other plant species
DELTA4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase
more
significant homology to the putative progesterone 5beta-reductases isolated from other plant species, such as Digitalis lanata (ca. 98% identical) and Arabidopsis thaliana (ca. 69% identical)
prephenate dehydrogenase
more
Mycobacterium tuberculosis PDH is a monofunctional protein, does not possess any chorismate mutase activity unlike many other enteric bacteria
3-oxo-5alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase (NADP+)
more
two isoenzymes of 5alphaR is probably characteristic of the whole plant kingdom
biliverdin reductase
more
potential role in the insulin signaling pathway, BVR is both a substrate for insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity and a kinase for serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1
biliverdin reductase
more
potential function in propagation of signals relayed through protein kinase C, binds to protein kinase C betaII, increases its phosphorylation, and is a substrate for the kinase, increases PMA-dependent c-fos activation and protein kinase C translocation to the membrane
biliverdin reductase
more
interacts with the insulin receptor kinase domain, key factor in the MAPK pathway and the PI3K pathway as well as regulating PKC isoforms that link the two pathways, plays a role in the mechanism of insulin resistance
biliverdin reductase
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regulates oxidative response and HO-1 expression
biliverdin reductase
more
BVR regualtes cellular levels of biliverdin, a potent gene regulator and determinant factor for dorsal axis development in Xenopus larva
maleylacetate reductase
more
graDAFCBE genes are responsible as an operon for the growth of Rhizobium sp. strain MTP-10005 on gamma-resorcylate and are probably regulated by GraR at the transcriptional level, first report of the gamma-resorcylate catabolic pathway in an aerobic bacterium
L-galactonolactone dehydrogenase
more
despite limitations on L-GalL synthesis by regulation of early steps in the ascorbic acid synthesis pathway, the regulation of L-GalLDH activity via the interaction of light and respiratory controls is a crucial determinant of the overall ability of leaves to produce and accumulate ascorbic acid
L-galactonolactone dehydrogenase
more
GalLDH protein and activity cannot be used as an indicator for changes in the capacity for ascorbate biosynthesis, thus ascorbic acid biosynthesis is constrained by other factors under stress
L-galactonolactone dehydrogenase
more
ascorbate, which fulfils well recognized, signalling functions in plants, decliney in a regulated manner during nodule development, indicates a development-related shift in redox-linked metabolite cross-talk that underpins the development and aging processes
L-galactonolactone dehydrogenase
more
possibility of the generation of plants that have resistance to environmental stresses by increasing their L-ascorbic acid content
coproporphyrinogen oxidase
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functions as a homodimer in solution
coproporphyrinogen oxidase
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cloned KlHEM13 is functional and able to replace its homologous gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
coproporphyrinogen oxidase
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cpx1 and cpx2 genes encode almost identical, catalytically active enzymes with distinctive N-terminal peptide sequences, cpx1 encodes a plastid transit peptide, whereas this region is deleted from the cpx2 gene, the 5' regions of both messenger RNAs are highly similar, but the cpx2 gene has an open-reading frame that can encode a new targeting signal
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
more
PPO and FeC are each encoded by a single gene in the green alga, multiplicity of genes for PPO and FeC in higher plants could be related to differential expression in differently developing tissues rather than to targeting of different gene products to different organelles
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
more
metabolic homeostasis by antifouling herbicide Irgarol 1051, which includes cnidarian PPO, decreases in ferrochelatase and increases in PPO and heme oxygenase suggest adverse impacts on porphyrin synthesis, damage to porphyrins, and increased porphyrin degradation
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
more
transgenic rice lines are resistant to the herbicides carfentrazone-ethyl and oxyfluorfen
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
more
in rice plants, outstanding resistance to Protox-inhibiting herbicides can be achieved by expression of Myxococcus xanthus Protox
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
more
presence of the plastidal transit sequence neither excludes the intrinsic ability of subcellular translocation of Protox nor changes herbicide resistance in TTS lines
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
more
no consistent effects from herbicide treatments on disease parameters
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
more
no consistent beneficial effects on sugarcane from applications of different PPOase inhibitor herbicides, herbicide treatments result in plant injury
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
more
light intensity-dependent degradation of reduced and oxidized porphyrins prevents severe photodynamic leaf damage, moreover, under high-light conditions, elevated contents of reduced and total low-molecular-weight antioxidants, which contribute to the protection against photosensitizing porphyrins
bilirubin oxidase
more
redox potential of the T1 site of BOD is > 650 mV vs. NHE, redox potential of the T2 site is near 390 mV vs. NHE
bilirubin oxidase
more
redox potential of the T1 site of BOD is close to 670 mV vs. NHE, redox potential of the T2 site is near 390 mV vs. NHE
bilirubin oxidase
more
BODs have a high efficiency of decolorizing compounds such as Trypan blue and Remazol brilliant blue R under mild pH conditions
bilirubin oxidase
more
the purified bilirubin oxidase in Myrothecium verrucaria strain has potential application in dye effluent decolorization. Extracellular bilirubin oxidase decolorizes indigo carmine, biosorption and biodegradation of the dye is achieved with more than 98% decolorization efficiency after 7 days at 26C. Additionally, the crude bilirubin oxidase can efficiently decolorize indigo carmine at 30C to 50C and pH 5.5-9.5 with dye concentrations of 50-200 mg/ml
acyl-CoA oxidase
more
isomerase activity of rat peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase I, is probably due to a spontaneous process driven by thermodynamic equilibrium with formation of a conjugated structure after deprotonation of substrate alpha-proton
acyl-CoA oxidase
more
nervonic acid is discharged from the spore into the external medium during firing along with the catalase and ACOX enzymes
acyl-CoA oxidase
more
novel Pex5pM is functional and a seven amino acids-insertion, which is present in the L isoform but absent in the M isoform, plays some role in the process of maturation of Aox
acyl-CoA oxidase
more
solvent-accessible acyl binding pocket is not required for oxygen reactivity, the oligomeric state plays a role in substrate pocket architecture but is not linked to oxygen reactivity
acyl-CoA oxidase
more
three distinct ACX genes, ACX1 is upregulated by wounding, both locally and systemically, ACX1 may play a role in the synthesis of jasmonic acid in response to wounding; three distinct ACX genes, expression of ACX2 remains unchanged by wounding, ACX2 may be involved in providing germinating seeds with sugar and energy; three distinct ACX genes, expression of ACX3 remains unchanged by wounding
acyl-CoA oxidase
more
ACOX1 alternative splicing isoforms play a key conserved role in the vertebrate fatty acid metabolism, tissue-specific modulation of ACOX1 activity by exchanging exon 3 duplicated isoforms containing amino acid sequences that are potentially implicated in fatty acyl chain specificity; ACOX1 alternative splicing isoforms play a key conserved role in the vertebrate fatty acid metabolism, tissue-specific modulation of ACOX1 activity by exchanging exon 3 duplicated isoforms containing amino acid sequences that are potentially implicated in fatty acyl chain specificity
acyl-CoA oxidase
more
inability of ACX1, ACX3, and ACX4 to fully compensate for one another in indole-3-butyric acid-mediated root elongation inhibition and ability of ACX2 and ACX5 to contribute to indole-3-butyric acid response suggests that indole-3-butyric acid-response defects in acx mutants may reflect indirect blocks in peroxisomal metabolism and indole-3-butyric acid beta-oxidation, rather than direct enzymatic activity of ACX isozymes on indole-3-butyric acid-CoA
secologanin synthase
more
involved in vindoline biosynthesis
dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (quinone)
more
kinetic isotope effects on flavin reduction in anaerobic stopped-flow experiments, are about 3fold for DHO labeled at the 5-position, about 4fold for DHO labeled at the 6-position, and about 6-7fold for DHO labeled at both the 5- and 6-positions, at a pH value above the pKa controlling reduction, no isotope effect was observed for DHO deuterated at the 5-position, which is consistent with a stepwise reaction, above the kinetic pKa, the deprotonation of C5 is fast enough that it does not contribute to the observed rate constant and, therefore, is not isotopically sensitive
dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (quinone)
more
kinetic isotope effects on flavin reduction in anaerobic stopped-flow experiments, pKa near 9.4 controlling reduction, similar to that previously reported for the Escherichia coli enzyme
dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (quinone)
more
three types of hydrogen bonding pathways, hydrogen bonding of the active base serine to a water molecule, which is hydrogen bonded to the substrate carboxylate group or a threonine residue, the threonine residue is positioned to enable proton transfer to another water molecule leading to the bulk solvent
phycoerythrobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
more
metabolic engineering of bacteria for the production of various bilins for assembly into phytochromes will facilitate the molecular analysis of photoreceptors
Results 1 - 100 of 844 > >>