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Search term: agriculture

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EC Number
Application
Commentary
alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+)
agriculture
detoxification of eutypine toxin from Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback in the grapevine Vitis vinifera
mannitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase
agriculture
Petunia hybrida (Hook) Vilm. cv. Mitchell is transformed with an Escherichia coli gene encoding mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase. The high-mannitol containing lines are more tolerant of chilling stress than the low mannitol containing transgenic lines and wild-type. In the higher mannitol lines only 0.04% to 0.06% of the total osmotic potential generated from all solutes can be attributed to mannitol, thus its action is more like that of an osmoprotectant rather than an osmoregulator. Metabolic engineering of osmoprotectant synthesis pathways can be used to improve stress tolerance in horticultural crops
UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase
agriculture
changes in the mRNA level during peach fruit development correspond to changes in the amount of cell wall material and the cell wall uronic acid content. These are greater in the fruits of the commercial cultivars compared with the Japanese native peach cultivars, and the expression of enzyme is higher in the fruits of the commercial cultivars
shikimate dehydrogenase
agriculture
the enzyme is a target for the development of herbicides and antimicrobial agents
malate dehydrogenase
agriculture
swine respiratory pathogen is the etiological agent of Glaesser's disease, swine industry economic losses worldwide
malate dehydrogenase (NADP+)
agriculture
changes in malate concentration and activity of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase are the effect of Botrytis cinerea infection of C3 or CAM-performing Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants. Biotic stress applied on C3 plants leads to increase in malate concentration during the night and in consequence lead to increase in malate day/night fluctuations in infected leaves on the 2nd day post infection. It corresponds with induction of an additional isoform of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase, NADP-ME3. On the contrary, CAM-performing plants exhibit a decrease in malate concentration and a decay in its diurnal fluctuations as a reaction to Botrytis cinerea infection. This correlates with significant decrease in activities of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase isoforms
glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]
agriculture
in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines with a feedback-resistant glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Escherichia coli, feedback-resistant glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is detected in the cytosol, but augmented glycerol-3-phosphate levels are observed in the cytosol as well as in chloroplasts. Glycerolipid composition and fatty acid positional distribution analyses reveal an altered fatty acid flux that affects not only the molar ratios of glycerolipid species but also their fatty acid composition. Changes in glycerol-3-phosphate metabolism cause altered expression of a broad array of genes. Transcript levels of the enzymes involved in the prokaryotic pathway are mostly induced, whereas genes of the eukaryotic pathway enzymes are largely suppressed
cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase
agriculture
gene GH2 can be useful in engineering of rice, to optimize the important crop plant
cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase
agriculture
treament of leaves with cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor [[(2-hydroxyphenyl) amino]sulphinyl] acetic acid, 1.1 dimethyl ester results in reduced penetration resistance against Puccinia hordei infection
cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase
agriculture
treament of leaves with cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor [[(2-hydroxyphenyl) amino]sulphinyl] acetic acid, 1.1 dimethyl ester has no effect on resistance against Puccinia hordei infection
cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase
agriculture
putative single nucleotide polymorphisms can be developed as single nucleotide polymorphisms markers for quantitative trait loci detection in Acacia hybrid mapping populations after validation using segregation analysis. Selecting favourable alleles from progenies which produce desirable lignin profiles will be advantageous in tree breeding programmes for plantation establishment
cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase
agriculture
maize brown midrib mutant plants, bm1, have reduced lignin content and offer significant advantages when used in silage and biofuel applications. Allele bm1-das1 contains an insertion, which results in a truncated protein of 48amino acids. The levels of cad2 mRNA in the midribs of bm1-das1 are reduced by 91%, leading to reductions in total lignin contents by 24%; maize brown midrib mutant plants, bm1, have reduced lignin content and offer significant advantages when used in silage and biofuel applications. Allele bm1-ref contains a two-nucleotide insertion in the 3rd exon, which results in a truncated protein of 147 amino acids. The levels of cad2 mRNA in the midribs of bm1-ref are reduced by 86%, leading to reductions in total lignin contents by 30%
cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase
agriculture
cultivar My5514 is resistant to Sporisorium scitamineum, whereas B42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation; cultivar My5514 is resistant to Sporisorium scitamineum, whereas B42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation. The resistance of My5514 to Sporisorium scitamineum is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase
(-)-menthol dehydrogenase
agriculture
transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase is highly upregulated in plants treated with calliterpenone, leading to increased content of menthone and menthol in oil
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
agriculture
genetic transformation of Melastoma malabathricum and Tibouchina semidecandra, with sense and antisense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase genes using the Agrobacterium-mediated method. Approximately 4.0% of shoots and 6.7% of nodes for Melastoma malabathricum regenerate after transforming with sense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase gene, whereas only 3.7% of shoots and 5.3% of nodes regenerate with antisense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase gene transformation. For the selection of Tibouchina semidecandra, 5.3% of shoots and 9.3% of nodes regenerate with sense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase gene transformation, while only 4.7% of shoots and 8.3% of nodes regenerate after being transformed with antisense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase gene. The colour changes caused by transformation are observed at the budding stage of putative Tibouchina semidecandra transformants The production of four-petal flowers also indicates another morphological difference of putative Tibouchina semidecandra transformants from the wild type plants which produce five-petal flowers
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
agriculture
flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase are expressed in progeny with colored tuber skin, while dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3,5-hydroxylase are not expressed, and flavanone 3-hydroxylase is only weakly expressed, in progeny with white tuber skin. Expression is regulated by transcription factor Stan2
mannose-6-phosphate 6-reductase
agriculture
enzyme is a target for herbizide treatment
mannose-6-phosphate 6-reductase
agriculture
transformation of mannose-6-phosphate reductase gene into Arabidopsis and tobacco using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Mannose-6-phosphate reductase can act as a selectable marker gene in either a positive or a negative selection mode depending on the plant species. On medium containing 2 g/l mannose, transgenic seeds germinate, whereas wild type seeds did not. Mannose at 30 g/l blanches leaf explants from all 29 transgenic tobacco events with mannose-6-phosphate reductase. In contrast, 30 g/l mannose does not inhibit shoot regeneration from leaf explants of wild-type or transgenic plants with either an antisense mannose-6-phosphate reductase or a plasmid control. Mannose at 30 g/l inhibits seed germination of transgenic tobacco seeds with mannose-6-phosphate reductase but not that of wild-type or transgenic tobacco with either the antisense mannose-6-phosphate reductase or the plasmid control
tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase
agriculture
loss of efficacy of tricyclazole for the control of rice blast disease in the field is not due to resistance to tricyclazole
tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase
agriculture
the effect of melanin inhibitors on the enzyme activity can be used to predict their effect in preventing rice blast disease
quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase
agriculture
development of novel herbicides
cholesterol oxidase
agriculture
strain A19249, enzyme exhibits a potent insecticidal activity
cholesterol oxidase
agriculture
recombinant expression in plants gives insect resistance
choline oxidase
agriculture
introducing of the codA gene into a cereal crop allows the biosynthesis of glycinebetaine by transgenic plants without any need for an exogenous supply of choline or glycinebetaine aldehyde
choline oxidase
agriculture
transformation enables the plants to accumulate glycinebetaine in chloroplasts and significantly enhances the freezing tolerance of plants
betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase
agriculture
potential: the BADH gene can be cloned from Leymus chinensis under stress treatment, which indicates that its expression and regulation may play an important role in stress tolerance. Therefore, it can be transformed into other plants to obtain transgenic species with a high saline-alkali tolerance by biotechnology; as a result, it can speed up the recovering and rebuilding of saline-alkaline grassland
betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase
agriculture
gene expression under the control of inducible promoters is preferred in any strategy to produce transgenic plants with transgene-mediated improvements in resistance to salt.
betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase
agriculture
potential application, genetic engineering results in enhanced tolerance of growth of young seedlings to salt stress. Results of investigation shows that transformation with the BADH gene may benefit efforts to improve crop yields in saline, arid and semi-arid regions where plants suffer salt stress
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (phosphorylating)
agriculture
cadmium-induced stress in seedlings roots induces nitric oxide accumulation, cytosolic oxidation, activation of the GAPC1 promoter, GAPC1 protein accumulation in enzymatically inactive form, and strong relocalization of GAPC1 to the nucleus. All the effects are detected in the same zone of the root tip. In vitro, GAPC1 is inactivated by either nitric oxide donors or hydrogen peroxide, but no inhibition is directly provided by cadmium
L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
agriculture
possible target for upleveled nitrogen usage in commercial mushroom breeding
oxalate oxidase
agriculture
overexpression of oxalate oxidase provides a new strategy for induction of antioxidative defense system against cellular ROS accumulation and for protection of crops from stress injury
DELTA14-sterol reductase
agriculture
target for important antifungal agents for use in the control of plant diseases
DELTA24-sterol reductase
agriculture
inhibition of phytosterol metabolism to cholesterol by interfering with DELTA24-sterol reductase activity presents a unique target site that might be exploited further as a selective, biorational insect-control technology
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
agriculture
enzyme is a target for light-dependent peroxidizing herbicides
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
agriculture
Protox is one of the most important action targets of herbicides
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
agriculture
protoporphyrinogen oxidase is the action target for several structurally diverse herbicides
protoporphyrinogen oxidase
agriculture
the enzyme is a herbicidal target
15-cis-phytoene desaturase
agriculture
the Thr304 Hydrilla pds mutant is an excellent marker for the selection of transgenic plants. Seedlings harbouring Thr304 pds have a maximum resistance to sensitivity (R/S) ratio of 57 and 14 times higher than that of the wild-type for treatments with norflurazon and fluridone, respectively. These plants exhibit normal growth and development, even after long-term exposure to herbicide. As Thr304 pds is of plant origin, it could become more acceptable than other selectable markers for use in genetically modified food
red chlorophyll catabolite reductase
agriculture
economically important plants overexpressing ACD2 might also show increased tolerance to pathogens and might be useful for increasing crop yields
glutamate dehydrogenase
agriculture
plays some role in triticale plant’s defence against effects of different types of environmental stresses
glutamate dehydrogenase
agriculture
GDH genes involved in leaf senescence are also a component of the plant defence response during plant–pathogen interaction, GDH behaves like a non-specific stress-related gene
cytokinin dehydrogenase
agriculture
reduced expression of OsCKX2 causes cytokinin accumulation in inflorescence meristems and increases the number of reproductive organs, resulting in enhanced grain yield. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding to combine loci for grain number and plant heigh in the same genetic background generates lines exhibiting both beneficial traits. The results provide a strategy for tailormade crop improvement
NAD(P)H oxidase (H2O2-forming)
agriculture
infection by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans results in a radical burst mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades MEK2-SIPK/NTF4 and MEK1-NTF6. Silencing of the NAD(P)H oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog B, RBOHB eliminates generation of reactive oxygen speicies. INF1 elicitin, produced by the pathogen, regulates reactive oxygen species generation through mitogen-activiated protein kinase cascades
NAD(P)H oxidase (H2O2-forming)
agriculture
both genes coding for NAD(P)H oxidases, Nox1 and Nox2, are independently required for pathogenicity of Magnaporthe grisea. Mutants lacking either nox1 or nox2 are incapable of causing plant disease because of unability to bring about appresorium-mediated cuticle penetration
nitrous-oxide reductase
agriculture
expression of both the senzyme-coding gene nosZ and the mega-cassette of five coding sequences nosFLZDY in Nicotiana tabacum leads to active recombinant N2OR. Extracts from both types of transgenic plants exhibit N2O-reducing activity. The single-gene strategy produces higher reductase capability than the whole-operon approach. Bacterial nitrous oxide reductase expressed in plants could convert N2O into inert N2 without involvement of other Nos proteins
nitrate reductase
agriculture
inoculated of root nodules of Glycine max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In the presence of nitrate, all of the nitrosylleg-hemoglobin within normoxic nodules arises from nitrate reduction by the bacterial enzyme, whereas the enzyme is only responsible for half of the nitrosylleg-hemoglobin within hypoxic nodules
sulfite oxidase
agriculture
over-expression in tobacco plants enhances their tolerance to sulfite stress. The plants show much less damage, less sulfite accumulation, but greater amounts of sulfate. H2O2 accumulation levels by histochemical detection and quantitative determination in the overexpressing plants are much less than those in the wild-type upon sulfite stress. Reductions of catalase levels detected in the overexpressing lines are considerably less than in the wild-type plants
glutathione dehydrogenase (ascorbate)
agriculture
study on single chromosome substitution lines of cv. Chinese Spring carrying separate chromosomes from the donor Synthetic 6x, an artificial hexaploid combining the genomes of the two wild species, Triticum dicoccoides, AABB, and Aegilops tauschii, DD. The lines carrying a synthetic hexaploid homologous pair of chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2D, 3D or 4D all express a low constitutive level of dehydroascorbate reductase and the lines carrying chromosomes 3B, 1D, 2D and 3D a low constitutive level of catalyse. All are able to increase this level by fourfold for dehydroascorbate reductase and by 1.5-fold for catalyase in response to stress caused by water deficit. When challenged by drought stress, these lines tend to be the most effective in retaining the water status of the leaves and preventing the grain yield components from being compromised
glutathione dehydrogenase (ascorbate)
agriculture
development of overexpressing rice plants under the regulation of a maize ubiquitin promoter. Enzyme overexpression in seven independent homologous transgenic plants, as compared to wild-type plants, increases photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities under paddy field conditions, which leads to an improved ascorbate pool and redox homeostasis. Overexpression significantly improves grain yield and biomass due to the increase of culm and root weights and enhance panicles and spikelet numbers
catechol oxidase
agriculture
quality loss of fruits, the major enzyme responsible for the browning reaction is polyphenol oxidase
catechol oxidase
agriculture
could help pawpaw growers and food processors to develop proper storage and processing methods to avoid the undesirable color changes
L-ascorbate oxidase
agriculture
expression of enzyme gene in sense and antisense orientation, no significant differences in phenotype except for a delay in flowering time in antisense palnts. At high salinity, increase in percentage of germination, photosynthetic activity and seed yield in antisense plants. Sense plants show a very low redox state of apoplastic ascorbate and increased hydrogen peroxide contents in symplastic and apoplastic spaces
L-ascorbate oxidase
agriculture
expression of enzyme in sense- and antisense-orientations, enhanced enzyme activity oxidizes the apoplastic ascorbate pool, decreased enzyme activity increases the amount of ascorbate compared with dehydroascorbate. In sense and antisense plants, enzyme transcript levels are no longer subject to light/dark regulation. Relationship between enzyme activity and plant height and biomass
L-ascorbate oxidase
agriculture
up to 380fold increase in enzyme activity of leaf of transgenic plants, no change in total ascorbate content of apoplast, but redox state of ascorbate is reduced to below the threshold while that of glutathione is increased. Overexpressing plants show substantial increase in foliar injury and greater decline in CO2 assimilation upon exposure to ozone
catalase
agriculture
amendment of sterilized soils with wild-type Pseudomonas putida restores the rate of degradation of peracetic acid to a higher level than observed in the soils amended with the catalase A-deficient mutant. The association of the bacteria with the plant roots results in protection of the wild-type as well as the catalyse-deficient mutant from killing by peracetic acid
peroxidase
agriculture
quality loss of fruits, oxidoreductase enzyme involved in enzymatic browning, because diphenols may function as reducing substrates in its reaction
L-ascorbate peroxidase
agriculture
the results suggest that HvAPX1 plays an important role in zinc and cadmium tolerance, and might be a candidate gene for developing high-biomass tolerant plants for phytoremediation of zinc- and cadmium-polluted environments
L-ascorbate peroxidase
agriculture
the transgenic plants show enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress, salt and drought, PpAPX does not play a significant role under normal growing conditions, but do ameliorate oxidative injury under abiotic stress, the Ad29 promoter shoul be used as an inducible promoter in transgenic works
L-ascorbate peroxidase
agriculture
under flooding stress, Apx enzyme activity decreases and expression is not detected in 5- and 9-day-old seedlings treated with flooding. Under drought stress Apx activity gradually increases from 5-day-old till 9-day-old seedlings. The expression of Apx also increases from 5-day-old till 9-day-old soybean seedlings. Trends in Apx expressions both in hypocotyl and root of drought treated soybean seedlings are similar
L-ascorbate peroxidase
agriculture
expression increases under drought stress, with maximum levels attained 5-days after imposition of stress
L-ascorbate peroxidase
agriculture
enzyme expression markedly increases in leaves of plants subjected to conditions of long-term treatment with salinity, whereas Apx transcript levels remain unaffected in detached leaves during short-term salt treatment
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase
agriculture
overexpression of enzyme in Nicotiana tabacum, transgenic plants have a 10-fold higher resistance to the bleaching herbicide sulcotrione, transgenic seeds have an up to two-fold enhanced level of vitamin E without change in the ratio of gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol. Level of plastoquinone is enhanced in leaves of transgenic lines during leaf senescence
9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase
agriculture
it is possible to manipulate abscisic acid levels in plants by overexpressing the key regulatory gene in abscisic acid biosynthesis. Stress tolerance can be improved by increasing abscisic acid level
carotenoid-9',10'-cleaving dioxygenase
agriculture
a nonsense mutation c.196C>T in the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 gene is found to strongly associate with the yellow fat phenotype in sheep. The existence of individuals lacking this mutation, but still demonstrating yellow fat, suggests that additional mutations may cause a similar phenotype in this population. Animals homozygous for the mutation are not reported to suffer from any negative health or development traits, pointing towards a minor role of BCO2 in vitamin A formation
2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (ethylene-forming)
agriculture
introduction of a gene encoding a chimeric protein consisting of EFE and beta-glucuronidase GUS into the tobacco genome using a binary vector which directs expression of the EFE-beta-glucuronidase fusion protein under the control of constitutive promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA. Transgenic plants produce ethylene at consistently higher rates than the untransformed plant, and their beta-glucuronidase activities are expressed in different tissues. A significant dwarf morphology observed in the transgenic tobacco displaying the highest ethylene production resembles the phenotype of a wild-type plant exposed to excess ethylene
flavanone 3-dioxygenase
agriculture
the aim is to identify the soybean mosaic virus resistance associated single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFS1, IFS2 and F3H gene by association mapping in order to develop valuable genetic markers for future soybean mosaic virus resistance breeding efforts in soybean
flavanone 3-dioxygenase
agriculture
basis for further research on the control of berry skin color and wine quality
gibberellin 2beta-dioxygenase
agriculture
creation of dwarf plants
gibberellin 2beta-dioxygenase
agriculture
ectopic expression of gibberllin 2-oxidase in wheat decreases the content of bioactive gibberellins and produces a range of dwarf plants with different degrees of severity. The dwarf phenotype is stably inherited over at least four generations and includes dark-green leaves, increasing tillering and, in severe cases, a prostrate growth habit. Expression of gibberlic acid biosynthesis genens TaGA20ox1 and TaGA3ox2 is up-regulated ant that of two alpha-amylase genes down-regulated in scutella of semi-dwarf lines. The phenotypes are restored to normal by application of gibberellin 3
gibberellin 2beta-dioxygenase
agriculture
expression of isoform PcGA2ox1 in Solanum melanocerasum and Solanum nigrum results in transgenic plants with a range of dwarf phenotypes associated with a severe reduction in the concentrations of biologically active gibberellins 1 and 4. Flowering and fruit development are unaffected. Transgenic plants contain greater concentrations of chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, although chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents are reduced
gibberellin 2beta-dioxygenase
agriculture
cryptochromes are required for the transient induction of GA2ox1 expression in etiolated seedlings exposed to blue light, for the sustained elevation of GA2ox1 expression in seedlings grown in continuous blue light, and for maintaining a high amplitude of the circadian rhythm of GA2ox1 expression in seedlings grown in long-day photoperiods
gibberellin 2beta-dioxygenase
agriculture
breeding plants with reduced height, increased root biomass, normal flowering and seed production by overexpression of C20 gibberellin 2-oxidases: first overexpression of GA2ox9ACT mutant generates semidwarf rice with only slightly reduced grain weight and fertility, increased tiller number (by 22%) compared to wild-type, second overexpression of C20 GA2oxs with defective motif III, such as GA2ox5delta335-341ACT mutant, generates a semidwarf rice variety with reduced grain weight (by 16%) and fertility (by 12%) and twofold increased tiller number, third overexpression of a selected C20 GA2ox gene, such as GA2ox6 with less effect on plant growth under the control of a weak promoter could be beneficial without sacrificing seed production
leucocyanidin oxygenase
agriculture
basis work for molecular directional breeding of sweet potato
nicotine demethylase
agriculture
while the nornicotine content of most commercial burley tobacco is low, a process termed conversion can bestow considerably increased nornicotine levels in a portion of the plants within the population. Transcript accumulation of isoform CYP82E4 is enhanced as much as 80fold in converter vs nonconverter tobacco. An optimized RNAi construct 82E4Ri298 suppresses nicotine to nornicotine conversion from 98% to as low as 0.8% in a strong converter tobacco line, a rate of nornicotine production that is about 3.6fold lower than typically detected in commercial varieties. Greenhouse-grown transgenic plants transformed with the RNAi construct are morphologically indistinguishable from the empty vector or wild-type controls
flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase
agriculture
enzyme expression is under control of pericarp color1, P1. The P1 controlled 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and C-glycosyl flavone defence compounds accumulate at significantly higher levels in Pr1 silks as compared to pr1 silks. By virtue of increased maysin synthesis in Pr1 plants, corn ear worm larvae fed on Pr1/P1 silks show slower growth as compared to pr1/P1 silks
(S)-limonene 3-monooxygenase
agriculture
cosuppression of limonene-3-hydroxylase in peppermint promotes accumulation of limonene in the essential oil. Pathway engineering can be employed to significantly alter essential oil composition without adverse metabolic consequences
sterol 14alpha-demethylase
agriculture
target enzyme for azole antifungal agents. These specific inhibitors are of great importance as plant growth regulators, fungicides and herbicides in the agricultural and medical fields
sterol 14alpha-demethylase
agriculture
all known functional sterols lack a 14alpha-methyl group, and therefore the 14alpha-demethylation reaction has received much attention from the pharmaceutical and agriculture-chemical industry as a possible means to specifically control and inhibit sterol biosynthesis in mammals, fungi, and plant; target enzyme for azole antifungal agents. These specific inhibitors are of great importance as plant growth regulators, fungicides and herbicides in the agricultural and medical fields
sterol 14alpha-demethylase
agriculture
silencing of enzyme by potato virus X::Nt CYP51-1 transcripts, accumulation of obtusifoliol and other 14alpha-methyl sterols
sterol 14alpha-demethylase
agriculture
the enzyme is a target for antifungal inhibitors in protection of crops against fungal pathogens
sterol 14alpha-demethylase
agriculture
target enzyme for azole antifungal agents. These specific inhibitors are of great importance as plant growth regulators, fungicides and herbicides in the agricultural and medical fields; target of important agrochemicals such as fungicides, plant growth regulators and herbicides
methylsterol monooxygenase
agriculture
enzyme is an antifungal target
(+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase
agriculture
introduction of drought tolerance in apple seedlings, the 3R-isomer of the abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase inhibitor abscinazole-F1 (3R-(E)-6-tert-butyl-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-6,8-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazin-8-ol) has no growth-retardant effect on apple seedlings but induces stomatal closure and drought tolerance during dehydration at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 microM (spray treatment)
methyl farnesoate epoxidase
agriculture
the enzyme may be useful in the design and screening of selective insect control agents
1,3,7-trimethyluric acid 5-monooxygenase
agriculture
treatment of coffee waste with caffeine-degrading microorganisms (either wild type or recombinant) may transform the waste into a valuable by-product, rather than a waste stream, because a caffeine concentration in the waste greater than 1% makes it unsuitable as animal feed or as a biofuel feedstock
unspecific monooxygenase
agriculture
enzyme expressed in Oryza sativa results in high tolerance to herbicides mefenacet, pyributicarb, amiprofos-methyl, trifluralin, pendimethalin, norflurazon, chlorotoluron and five chloroacetamides
unspecific monooxygenase
agriculture
cytochrome P450 monooxygenase as a tool for metabolizing of herbicides in plants
unspecific monooxygenase
agriculture
the enzyme is of great importance commercially not only from the point of view of herbicide resistance but also in terms of ecotoxicology
tyrosine N-monooxygenase
agriculture
transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 from Sorghum bicolor, i.e. the entire biosynthetic pathway for the tyrosine-derived cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin, accumulate 4% dry-weight dhurrin with marginal inadvertent effects on plant morphology, free amino acid pools, transcriptome, and metabolome. Plants expressing only CYP79A1 accumulate 3% dry weight of the tyrosine-derived glucosinolate, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate with no morphological pleitropic effects. Insertion of CYP79A1 plus CYP71E1 results in stunted plants, transcriptome alterations, accumulation of numerous glucosides derived from detoxification of intermediates in the dhurrin pathway, and in loss of the brassicaceae-specific UV protectants sinapoyl glucose and sinapoyl malate and kaempferol glucosides. The accumulation of glucosides in the plants expressing CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 is not accompanied by induction of glycosyltransferases
tyrosine N-monooxygenase
agriculture
simultaneous expression of the two multifunctional Sorghum cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis leads to cyanogenic plants. In transgenic plants expressing CYP79A1 as well as CYP71E1, the activity of CYP79A1 is higher than that of CYP71E1, resulting in the accumulation of several 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime-derived products in the addition to those derived from 4-hydroxymandelonitrile. Transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing only CYP79A1 accumulate the same 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime-derived products as transgenic plants expressing both sorghum cytochrome P450 enzymes. The transgenic CYP79A1 Arabidopsis plants accumulate large amounts of 4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate
4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime monooxygenase
agriculture
transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 from Sorghum bicolor, i.e. the entire biosynthetic pathway for the tyrosine-derived cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin, accumulate 4% dry-weight dhurrin with marginal inadvertent effects on plant morphology, free amino acid pools, transcriptome, and metabolome. Plants expressing only CYP79A1 accumulate 3% dry weight of the tyrosine-derived glucosinolate, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate with no morphological pleitropic effects. Insertion of CYP79A1 plus CYP71E1 results in stunted plants, transcriptome alterations, accumulation of numerous glucosides derived from detoxification of intermediates in the dhurrin pathway, and in loss of the brassicaceae-specific UV protectants sinapoyl glucose and sinapoyl malate and kaempferol glucosides. The accumulation of glucosides in the plants expressing CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 is not accompanied by induction of glycosyltransferases
4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime monooxygenase
agriculture
simultaneous expression of the two multifunctional sorghum cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 in tobacco and Arabidopsis leads to cyanogenic plants. In transgenic plants expressing CYP79A1 as well as CYP71E1, the activity of CYP79A1 is higher than that of CYP71E1, resulting in the accumulation of several 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime-derived products in the addition to those derived from 4-hydroxymandelonitrile. In transgenic Arabidopsis expressing CYP71E1, this enzyme and the enzymes of the pre-existing glucosinolate pathway compete for the 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime as substrate, resulting in the formation of small amounts of 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate
valine N-monooxygenase
agriculture
expression of CYP79D2 from cassava in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the production of valine- and isoleucine-derived glucosinolates not normally found in this ecotype. The transgenic lines show no morphological phenotype, and the level of endogenous glucosinolates is not affected. The novel glucosinolates constitute up to 35% of the total glucosinolate content in mature rosette leaves and up to 48% in old leaves. At increased concentrations of these glucosinolates, the proportion of Val-derived glucosinolates decreases. As the isothiocyanates produced from the Val- and isoleucine-derived glucosinolates are volatile, metabolically engineered plants producing these glucosinolates have acquired novel properties with great potential for improvement of resistance to herbivorous insects and for biofumigation
choline monooxygenase
agriculture
enhancing glycine betaine synthesis is one of the most promising ways to improve salt tolerance in cotton
aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase
agriculture
plants transformed with an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase antisense constructs show reduced ethylene production and a delayed senescence
aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase
agriculture
plants transformed with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase 1 and 2 antisense constructs show a significantly reduced post-harvest ethylene production
tyrosinase
agriculture
application of boron at high concentrations (10 and 20 mM) to maize seeds or even application very near to the seeds is not advisable
stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase
agriculture
disease resistance
stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase
agriculture
higher enzymic acitivity in Jersey-sired cattle than in Limousin-sired cattle, positive relationship between adipose tissue beta-carotene and desaturation
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] 9-desaturase
agriculture
mutant strain showing contents of up to 20% of unusual acyl chains such as 16:1DELTA9, 16:2DDELTA9,12, 18:1DELTA11, increase of enzyme activity in mutant
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