BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 1.1.1.81

A cytosolic pathway for the conversion of hydroxypyruvate to glycerate during photorespiration in Arabidopsis

Timm, S.; Nunes-Nesi, A.; Paernik, T.; Morgenthal, K.; Wienkoop, S.; Keerberg, O.; Weckwerth, W.; Kleczkowski, L.A.; Fernie, A.R.; Bauwe, H.; Plant Cell 20, 2848-2859 (2008)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
expressed in Escherichia coli; recombinant expression of GFP-tagged HPR2 in transgenic Arabidospsis thaliana plants
Arabidopsis thaliana
Engineering
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
construction of hpr1 knockout and hpr2 knockout. Deletion of HPR2 results in elevated levels of hydroxypyruvate and other metabolites in leaves, photosynthetic gas exchange is slightly altered, especially under long-day conditions. Deletion of HPR1 does not show a severe phenotype, overview. The combined deletion of HPR1 and HPR2 is detrimental to air-grown mutants and alters steady state metabolite profiles, phenotypes, overview. The most prominent naturally occuring mutation causes the decrease in Ala content coupled with enhanced levels of Arg, Asn, and Asp in the hpr1 mutant and the double knockout plant; HPR1 knockout plants show slight visually noticeable impairments in air. Under shorter daylengths of 8 h, somewhat slower growth of the hpr1 mutants than of the wild-type, in combination with an approximately 4-week delay in bolting. Combined deletion of both HPR1 and HPR2 (EC 1.1.1.81) results in distinct air-sensitivity and a dramatic reduction in photosynthetic performance
Arabidopsis thaliana
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
oxalate
; strong inhibition of HPR2
Arabidopsis thaliana
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
cytosol
HPR2
Arabidopsis thaliana
5829
-
peroxisome
HPR!
Arabidopsis thaliana
5777
-
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
43200
-
x * 43200, HPR2, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
hydroxypyruvate + NAD(P)H + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
D-glycerate + NAD(P)+
-
-
?
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Arabidopsis thaliana
Q9C9W5
-
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
Q9CA90
HPR2; gene At1g79870 encodes isozyme HPR2
-
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
; both HPR1 and HPR2 (EC 1.1.1.81) are the major hydroxypyruvate-reducing enzymes in leaves
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
glyoxylate + NAD(P)H + H+
-
700736
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NAD(P)+
-
-
-
?
hydroxypyruvate + NAD(P)H + H+
-
700736
Arabidopsis thaliana
D-glycerate + NAD(P)+
-
-
-
?
hydroxypyruvate + NADPH
-
700736
Arabidopsis thaliana
D-glycerate + NADP+
-
-
-
?
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
?
x * 43200, HPR2, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADH
; 4fold lower activity with HPR2 compared to NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
NADPH
preferred cofactor of HPR2; shows some reactivity with NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
expressed in Escherichia coli
Arabidopsis thaliana
recombinant expression of GFP-tagged HPR2 in transgenic Arabidospsis thaliana plants
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADH
4fold lower activity with HPR2 compared to NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
NADH
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
NADPH
preferred cofactor of HPR2
Arabidopsis thaliana
NADPH
shows some reactivity with NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
Engineering (protein specific)
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
construction of hpr1 knockout and hpr2 knockout. Deletion of HPR2 results in elevated levels of hydroxypyruvate and other metabolites in leaves, photosynthetic gas exchange is slightly altered, especially under long-day conditions. Deletion of HPR1 does not show a severe phenotype, overview. The combined deletion of HPR1 and HPR2 is detrimental to air-grown mutants and alters steady state metabolite profiles, phenotypes, overview. The most prominent naturally occuring mutation causes the decrease in Ala content coupled with enhanced levels of Arg, Asn, and Asp in the hpr1 mutant and the double knockout plant
Arabidopsis thaliana
additional information
HPR1 knockout plants show slight visually noticeable impairments in air. Under shorter daylengths of 8 h, somewhat slower growth of the hpr1 mutants than of the wild-type, in combination with an approximately 4-week delay in bolting. Combined deletion of both HPR1 and HPR2 (EC 1.1.1.81) results in distinct air-sensitivity and a dramatic reduction in photosynthetic performance
Arabidopsis thaliana
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
oxalate
strong inhibition of HPR2
Arabidopsis thaliana
oxalate
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
cytosol
HPR2
Arabidopsis thaliana
5829
-
peroxisome
HPR!
Arabidopsis thaliana
5777
-
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
43200
-
x * 43200, HPR2, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
hydroxypyruvate + NAD(P)H + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
D-glycerate + NAD(P)+
-
-
?
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
leaf
both HPR1 and HPR2 (EC 1.1.1.81) are the major hydroxypyruvate-reducing enzymes in leaves
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
glyoxylate + NAD(P)H + H+
-
700736
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NAD(P)+
-
-
-
?
hydroxypyruvate + NAD(P)H + H+
-
700736
Arabidopsis thaliana
D-glycerate + NAD(P)+
-
-
-
?
hydroxypyruvate + NADPH
-
700736
Arabidopsis thaliana
D-glycerate + NADP+
-
-
-
?
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
?
x * 43200, HPR2, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
physiological function
deletion of any of the core enzymes of the photorespiratory cycle, one of the major pathways of plant primary metabolism, results in severe air-sensitivity of the respective mutants with the exception of the peroxisomal enzyme hydroxypyruvate reductase, HPR1, due to the existence of a second hydroxypyruvate reductase, HPR2, in the cytosol, overview. The enzyme provides a cytosolic bypass to the photorespiratory core cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana
Arabidopsis thaliana
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
physiological function
deletion of any of the core enzymes of the photorespiratory cycle, one of the major pathways of plant primary metabolism, results in severe air-sensitivity of the respective mutants with the exception of the peroxisomal enzyme hydroxypyruvate reductase, HPR1, due to the existence of a second hydroxypyruvate reductase, HPR2, in the cytosol, overview. The enzyme provides a cytosolic bypass to the photorespiratory core cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana
Arabidopsis thaliana
Other publictions for EC 1.1.1.81
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
739242
Zong
Up regulation of glyoxylate re ...
Homo sapiens
Pathol. Res. Pract.
212
365-371
2016
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
739674
Lassalle
New insights into the mechanis ...
Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Pyrococcus yayanosii, Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1
Sci. Rep.
6
20629
2016
-
-
3
3
-
-
3
6
-
-
-
8
-
4
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
6
4
-
-
-
-
3
6
3
-
-
-
3
4
6
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
6
737745
Hoover
Identification of catalyticall ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1834
2663-2671
2013
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
726219
Timm
The hydroxypyruvate-reducing s ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Physiol.
155
694-705
2011
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
695413
Piotrowska
-
Cellular response of light/dar ...
Chlorella vulgaris
Acta Physiol. Plant.
31
573-585
2009
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
5
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
705820
Wang
Shoot-specific down-regulation ...
Brassica napus
Mol. Plant
2
191-200
2009
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
700736
Timm
A cytosolic pathway for the co ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Cell
20
2848-2859
2008
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
2
-
1
1
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
684141
Yoshikawa
Structure of archaeal glyoxyla ...
Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. D
63
357-365
2007
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
688165
Shen
Over-expression of a hydroxypy ...
Methylobacterium sp., Methylobacterium sp. MB200
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
34
657-663
2007
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
669886
Booth
Structural basis of substrate ...
Homo sapiens, Mus musculus
J. Mol. Biol.
360
178-189
2006
-
-
2
2
8
-
1
-
1
-
-
6
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
3
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
2
8
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
6
-
-
-
2
-
3
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
286510
Hagishita
Immunological characterization ...
Cucumis sativus, Hyphomicrobium methylovorum GM2, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, Methylobacterium organophilum, Spinacia oleracea
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
142
49-52
1996
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287364
Yoshida
Cloning and expression of the ...
Hyphomicrobium methylovorum GM2
Eur. J. Biochem.
223
727-732
1994
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287365
Oliver
Inhibition of tobacco NADH-hyd ...
Nicotiana tabacum cv. SR1
Mol. Gen. Genet.
239
425-434
1993
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
286505
Kleczkowski
Oxalate as a potent and select ...
Spinacia oleracea
Biochem. J.
276
125-127
1991
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
286508
Chistoserdova
Purification and characterizat ...
Methylobacterium extorquens AM1
J. Bacteriol.
173
7228-7232
1991
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
5
-
-
2
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
3
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
5
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
3
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287368
Kleczkowski
Enzymology of the reduction of ...
Hordeum vulgare
Plant Physiol.
94
819-825
1990
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
1
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287369
Krema
-
Hydroxypyruvate reductase from ...
Methylobacterium extorquens AM1
Methods Enzymol.
188
373-378
1990
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287370
Kleczkowski
Identification of hydroxypyruv ...
Zea mays
Plant Physiol.
91
278-288
1989
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287371
Murray
Metabolism of hydroxypyruvate ...
Hordeum vulgare
Plant Physiol.
91
395-400
1989
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287372
Sautter
Import of peroxisomal hydroxyp ...
Citrullus lanatus subsp. vulgaris, Cucurbita pepo, Spinacia oleracea
Planta
176
149-158
1988
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
3
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287373
Kleczkowski
Subcellular location of NADPH- ...
Pisum sativum, Spinacia oleracea
Plant Physiol.
88
1182-1185
1988
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287374
Kleczkowski
Purification and characterizat ...
Spinacia oleracea
Biochem. J.
250
145-152
1988
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
2
1
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287383
Coderch
Effect of salts on D-glycerate ...
Bos taurus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
566
21-31
1979
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
4
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287375
Bamforth
-
Hydroxypyruvate reductase acti ...
Paracoccus denitrificans
J. Gen. Microbiol.
101
259-267
1977
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
6
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
6
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287376
Feld
Comparison of D-glycerate dehy ...
Bos taurus, Sus scrofa
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
166
417-425
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
3
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
3
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287377
Feld
D-Glycerate dehydrogenase from ...
Sus scrofa
Methods Enzymol.
41B
289-293
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287378
Sugimoto
Mechanisms of inhibition and a ...
Bos taurus
J. Biochem.
72
1317-1325
1972
6
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287379
Sugimoto
Purification and properties of ...
Bos taurus
J. Biochem.
72
1307-1315
1972
-
-
-
-
-
1
9
4
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
9
-
4
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287380
Uhr
Glycine and serine inhibition ...
Rattus norvegicus
FEBS Lett.
17
137-140
1971
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287381
Kohn
Tartaric acid metabolism. VII. ...
Delftia acidovorans
J. Biol. Chem.
243
2494-2499
1968
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
4
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
287382
Kohn
-
Hydroxypyruvate reductase (D-g ...
Delftia acidovorans
Methods Enzymol.
9
229-232
1966
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-