BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 1.1.1.79

Identification and characterization of a plastid-localized Arabidopsis glyoxylate reductase isoform: comparison with a cytosolic isoform and implications for cellular redox homeostasis and aldehyde detoxification

Simpson, J.P.; Di Leo, R.; Dhanoa, P.K.; Allan, W.L.; Makhmoudova, A.; Clark, S.M.; Hoover, G.J.; Mullen, R.T.; Shelp, B.J.; J. Exp. Bot. 59, 2545-2554 (2008)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
expressed as GFP-fusion protein in tobacco BY-2 cells; expressed as GFP-fusion protein in tobacco BY-2 cells; expressed as His-tag fusion protein in E. coli BL-21(DE3) Rosetta (pLysS), full-length and truncated GR2 sequences introduced into Escherichia coli, only the recombinant truncated GR2 is soluble, expression markedly improved by co-expression of the GroES/GroEL chaperone; expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3) Rosetta (pLysS) cells and in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells
Arabidopsis thaliana
Engineering
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
DELTA1-43
in contrast to the full length sequence yields a soluble protein when expressed in Escherichia coli
Arabidopsis thaliana
DELTA2-45
localizes in the cytosol instead of plastids
Arabidopsis thaliana
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADP+
competitive
Arabidopsis thaliana
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.0012
-
NADPH
recombinant enzyme, using succinic semialdehyde as fixed substrate, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with succinic semialdehyde as substrate, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
0.0014
-
NADPH
recombinant enzyme, using glyoxylate as fixed substrate, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with glyoxylate as substrate, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
0.034
-
glyoxylate
recombinant enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with as NADPH as cofactor, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
8.96
-
Succinic semialdehyde
recombinant enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with as NADPH as cofactor, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
cytosol
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
5829
-
plastid
glyoxylate reductase 2 is localized within the plastid, presumably in the stroma; stroma
Arabidopsis thaliana
9536
-
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
35900
-
x * 35900, truncated enzyme from Escherichia coli including His-tag
Arabidopsis thaliana
36000
-
SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
36200
-
calculated from amino acid sequence
Arabidopsis thaliana
36287
-
x * 36287, calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
glyoxylate + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
detoxification of glyoxylate during stress
glycolate + NADP+
-
-
ir
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
detoxification of succinic semialdehyde during stress
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
r
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Arabidopsis thaliana
F4I907
ecotype Columbia; putative uncharacterized protein At1g17650; ecotype Columbia
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
Q9LSV0
enzyme also displays 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC1.1.1.61) activity but with less efficiency; (L.) Heynh
-
Purification (Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
nickel affinity column chromatography; recombinant truncated protein using His-tag
Arabidopsis thaliana
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Storage Stability
Storage Stability
Organism
-80°C, concentrated enzyme, can be stored for month
Arabidopsis thaliana
-80°C, concentrated protein eluate from the affinity column, for months, enzyme activity is reasonably stable
Arabidopsis thaliana
4°C, concentrated protein eluate from the affinity column, for hours, enzyme activity is reasonably stable
Arabidopsis thaliana
4°C, diluted enzyme, storage during assays, activity starts to decrease within 30 min
Arabidopsis thaliana
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
glyoxylate + NADH
NADH much less effective than NADPH
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NAD+
-
-
-
ir
glyoxylate + NADH + H+
NADH much less effective than NADPH
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NAD+
-
-
-
ir
glyoxylate + NADPH + H+
-
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NADP+
-
-
-
ir
glyoxylate + NADPH + H+
detoxification of glyoxylate during stress
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NADP+
-
-
-
ir
glyoxylate + NADPH + H+
glyoxylate reductase 2 has a 350fold higher preference for glyoxylate than for succinic semialdehyde
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NADP+
-
-
-
ir
additional information
glyoxylate reductase 2 is ineffective in catalysing the reverse reaction utilizing either glycolate or 6-phosphogluconate
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
?
-
-
-
-
succinic semialdehyde + NADH + H+
NADH much less effective than NADPH
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
-
-
-
?
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
-
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
-
r
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
detoxification of succinic semialdehyde during stress
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
-
r
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
reverse reaction less efficient than forward reaction
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
-
r
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
glyoxylate reductase 2 has a 350fold higher preference for glyoxylate than for succinic semialdehyde
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
-
ir
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
?
x * 35900, truncated enzyme from Escherichia coli including His-tag; x * 36287, calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence
Arabidopsis thaliana
Turnover Number [1/s]
Turnover Number Minimum [1/s]
Turnover Number Maximum [1/s]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
10.7
-
NADPH
recombinant enzyme, using succinic semialdehyde as fixed substrate, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with succinic semialdehyde as substrate, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
12
-
NADPH
recombinant enzyme, using glyoxylate as fixed substrate, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with glyoxylate as substrate, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
17
-
Succinic semialdehyde
recombinant enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with as NADPH as cofactor, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
22.5
-
glyoxylate
recombinant enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with as NADPH as cofactor, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
6.8
7.8
; with glyoxylate and NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
pH Range
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
5.5
9
approximately 10% of activity at pH 5.5 and 9
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADH
much less effective than NADPH; much less effective than NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
NADPH
glyoxylate reductase 2 uses either NADPH or NADH as a cofactor, however, much greater activity is found with NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
pI Value
Organism
Commentary
pI Value Maximum
pI Value
Arabidopsis thaliana
calculated from amino acid sequence
-
8.5
Arabidopsis thaliana
calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence
-
8.54
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
expressed as GFP-fusion protein in tobacco BY-2 cells
Arabidopsis thaliana
expressed as GFP-fusion protein in tobacco BY-2 cells; expressed as His-tag fusion protein in E. coli BL-21(DE3) Rosetta (pLysS), full-length and truncated GR2 sequences introduced into Escherichia coli, only the recombinant truncated GR2 is soluble, expression markedly improved by co-expression of the GroES/GroEL chaperone; expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3) Rosetta (pLysS) cells and in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADH
much less effective than NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
NADPH
; glyoxylate reductase 2 uses either NADPH or NADH as a cofactor, however, much greater activity is found with NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
NADPH
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
Engineering (protein specific)
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
DELTA1-43
in contrast to the full length sequence yields a soluble protein when expressed in Escherichia coli
Arabidopsis thaliana
DELTA2-45
localizes in the cytosol instead of plastids
Arabidopsis thaliana
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADP+
competitive
Arabidopsis thaliana
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.0012
-
NADPH
recombinant enzyme, using succinic semialdehyde as fixed substrate, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with succinic semialdehyde as substrate, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
0.0014
-
NADPH
recombinant enzyme, using glyoxylate as fixed substrate, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with glyoxylate as substrate, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
0.034
-
glyoxylate
recombinant enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with as NADPH as cofactor, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
8.96
-
Succinic semialdehyde
recombinant enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with as NADPH as cofactor, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
cytosol
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
5829
-
plastid
glyoxylate reductase 2 is localized within the plastid, presumably in the stroma; stroma
Arabidopsis thaliana
9536
-
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
35900
-
x * 35900, truncated enzyme from Escherichia coli including His-tag
Arabidopsis thaliana
36000
-
SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
36200
-
calculated from amino acid sequence
Arabidopsis thaliana
36287
-
x * 36287, calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
glyoxylate + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
detoxification of glyoxylate during stress
glycolate + NADP+
-
-
ir
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
detoxification of succinic semialdehyde during stress
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
r
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
nickel affinity column chromatography; recombinant truncated protein using His-tag
Arabidopsis thaliana
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Storage Stability
Organism
-80°C, concentrated enzyme, can be stored for month
Arabidopsis thaliana
-80°C, concentrated protein eluate from the affinity column, for months, enzyme activity is reasonably stable
Arabidopsis thaliana
4°C, concentrated protein eluate from the affinity column, for hours, enzyme activity is reasonably stable
Arabidopsis thaliana
4°C, diluted enzyme, storage during assays, activity starts to decrease within 30 min
Arabidopsis thaliana
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
glyoxylate + NADH
NADH much less effective than NADPH
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NAD+
-
-
-
ir
glyoxylate + NADH + H+
NADH much less effective than NADPH
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NAD+
-
-
-
ir
glyoxylate + NADPH + H+
-
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NADP+
-
-
-
ir
glyoxylate + NADPH + H+
detoxification of glyoxylate during stress
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NADP+
-
-
-
ir
glyoxylate + NADPH + H+
glyoxylate reductase 2 has a 350fold higher preference for glyoxylate than for succinic semialdehyde
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate + NADP+
-
-
-
ir
additional information
glyoxylate reductase 2 is ineffective in catalysing the reverse reaction utilizing either glycolate or 6-phosphogluconate
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
?
-
-
-
-
succinic semialdehyde + NADH + H+
NADH much less effective than NADPH
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
-
-
-
?
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
-
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
-
r
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
detoxification of succinic semialdehyde during stress
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
-
r
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
reverse reaction less efficient than forward reaction
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
-
r
succinic semialdehyde + NADPH + H+
glyoxylate reductase 2 has a 350fold higher preference for glyoxylate than for succinic semialdehyde
688090
Arabidopsis thaliana
4-hydroxybutyrate + NADP+
-
-
-
ir
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
?
x * 35900, truncated enzyme from Escherichia coli including His-tag; x * 36287, calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence
Arabidopsis thaliana
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
Turnover Number Minimum [1/s]
Turnover Number Maximum [1/s]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
10.7
-
NADPH
recombinant enzyme, using succinic semialdehyde as fixed substrate, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with succinic semialdehyde as substrate, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
12
-
NADPH
recombinant enzyme, using glyoxylate as fixed substrate, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with glyoxylate as substrate, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
17
-
Succinic semialdehyde
recombinant enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with as NADPH as cofactor, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
22.5
-
glyoxylate
recombinant enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), at 30°C; with as NADPH as cofactor, pH 7.6, 30°C
Arabidopsis thaliana
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
6.8
7.8
; with glyoxylate and NADPH
Arabidopsis thaliana
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
5.5
9
approximately 10% of activity at pH 5.5 and 9
Arabidopsis thaliana
pI Value (protein specific)
Organism
Commentary
pI Value Maximum
pI Value
Arabidopsis thaliana
calculated from amino acid sequence
-
8.5
Arabidopsis thaliana
calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence
-
8.54
Other publictions for EC 1.1.1.79
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
739242
Zong
Up regulation of glyoxylate re ...
Homo sapiens
Pathol. Res. Pract.
212
365-371
2016
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
722899
Ching
Glyoxylate reductase isoform 1 ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
J. Integr. Plant Biol.
54
152-168
2012
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
696125
Allan
Role of plant glyoxylate reduc ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Biochem. J.
423
15-22
2009
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
685774
Ogino
Characterization of recombinan ...
Thermus thermophilus, Thermus thermophilus HB27
Biotechnol. Prog.
24
321-325
2008
-
-
2
-
-
-
3
8
-
-
1
2
10
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
5
1
2
-
4
8
1
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
-
-
-
-
3
-
8
-
-
1
2
10
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
5
1
2
-
4
8
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
688090
Simpson
Identification and characteriz ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
J. Exp. Bot.
59
2545-2554
2008
-
-
1
-
2
-
1
4
2
-
4
4
-
7
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
4
15
1
-
-
-
4
1
1
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
2
4
-
2
-
-
1
-
4
2
-
4
4
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
4
15
1
-
-
-
4
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
688091
Allan
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate accumula ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum
J. Exp. Bot.
59
2555-2564
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
684141
Yoshikawa
Structure of archaeal glyoxyla ...
Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. D
63
357-365
2007
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
685902
Hoover
Kinetic mechanism of a recombi ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Can. J. Bot.
85
896-902
2007
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
8
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
3
8
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
690207
Rintala
The ORF YNL274c (GOR1) codes f ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742
Yeast
24
129-136
2007
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
21
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
6
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
6
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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Fukuda
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Sagisaka
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Tochikura
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