BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 1.1.1.38

Studies with isolated bundle sheath mitochondria. Evidence for NAD-malic enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of C4 acids in species representing the three C4 metabolic subtypes

Rhathnam, C.K.M.; FEBS Lett. 96, 367-372 (1978)
No PubMed abstract available

Data extracted from this reference:

KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.39
-
NAD+
-
Eleusine indica
0.45
-
NAD+
-
Panicum miliaceum
0.46
-
NAD+
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
0.48
-
NAD+
-
Zea mays
0.49
-
NAD+
-
Megathyrsus maximus
0.51
-
NAD+
-
Eriochloa borumensis
1.34
-
L-malate
-
Panicum miliaceum
1.63
-
L-malate
-
Megathyrsus maximus
1.76
-
L-malate
-
Eleusine indica
1.96
-
L-malate
-
Panicum miliaceum
2.15
-
L-malate
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
2.21
-
L-malate
-
Zea mays
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
mitochondrion
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Eleusine indica
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Eriochloa borumensis
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Megathyrsus maximus
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Panicum miliaceum
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Zea mays
5739
-
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
(S)-malate + NAD+
Zea mays
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Zea mays
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Digitaria sanguinalis
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Megathyrsus maximus
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Megathyrsus maximus
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Panicum miliaceum
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Panicum miliaceum
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Eleusine indica
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Eleusine indica
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Eriochloa borumensis
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Eriochloa borumensis
-
Oxaloacetate
Zea mays
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Zea mays
ir
Oxaloacetate
Digitaria sanguinalis
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
ir
Oxaloacetate
Megathyrsus maximus
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Megathyrsus maximus
ir
Oxaloacetate
Panicum miliaceum
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Panicum miliaceum
ir
Oxaloacetate
Eleusine indica
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Eleusine indica
ir
Oxaloacetate
Eriochloa borumensis
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Eriochloa borumensis
ir
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Digitaria sanguinalis
-
-
-
Eleusine indica
-
-
-
Eriochloa borumensis
-
-
-
Megathyrsus maximus
-
-
-
Panicum miliaceum
-
-
-
Zea mays
-
-
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Zea mays
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Zea mays
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Zea mays
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Zea mays
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Eleusine indica
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Eleusine indica
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Eleusine indica
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Eleusine indica
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
r
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Zea mays
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Zea mays
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Eleusine indica
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Eleusine indica
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
ir
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.3
7.6
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
7.3
7.6
-
Eleusine indica
7.3
7.6
-
Eriochloa borumensis
7.3
7.6
-
Megathyrsus maximus
7.3
7.6
-
Panicum miliaceum
7.3
7.6
-
Zea mays
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NAD+
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
NAD+
-
Eleusine indica
NAD+
-
Eriochloa borumensis
NAD+
-
Megathyrsus maximus
NAD+
-
Panicum miliaceum
NAD+
-
Zea mays
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NAD+
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
NAD+
-
Eleusine indica
NAD+
-
Eriochloa borumensis
NAD+
-
Megathyrsus maximus
NAD+
-
Panicum miliaceum
NAD+
-
Zea mays
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.39
-
NAD+
-
Eleusine indica
0.45
-
NAD+
-
Panicum miliaceum
0.46
-
NAD+
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
0.48
-
NAD+
-
Zea mays
0.49
-
NAD+
-
Megathyrsus maximus
0.51
-
NAD+
-
Eriochloa borumensis
1.34
-
L-malate
-
Panicum miliaceum
1.63
-
L-malate
-
Megathyrsus maximus
1.76
-
L-malate
-
Eleusine indica
1.96
-
L-malate
-
Panicum miliaceum
2.15
-
L-malate
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
2.21
-
L-malate
-
Zea mays
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
mitochondrion
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Eleusine indica
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Eriochloa borumensis
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Megathyrsus maximus
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Panicum miliaceum
5739
-
mitochondrion
-
Zea mays
5739
-
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
(S)-malate + NAD+
Zea mays
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Zea mays
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Digitaria sanguinalis
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Megathyrsus maximus
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Megathyrsus maximus
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Panicum miliaceum
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Panicum miliaceum
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Eleusine indica
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Eleusine indica
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
Eriochloa borumensis
-
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
Eriochloa borumensis
-
Oxaloacetate
Zea mays
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Zea mays
ir
Oxaloacetate
Digitaria sanguinalis
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
ir
Oxaloacetate
Megathyrsus maximus
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Megathyrsus maximus
ir
Oxaloacetate
Panicum miliaceum
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Panicum miliaceum
ir
Oxaloacetate
Eleusine indica
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Eleusine indica
ir
Oxaloacetate
Eriochloa borumensis
-
CO2 + pyruvate
-
Eriochloa borumensis
ir
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Zea mays
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Zea mays
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Zea mays
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Zea mays
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Eleusine indica
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Eleusine indica
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Eleusine indica
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Eleusine indica
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
-
(S)-malate + NAD+
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
CO2 + pyruvate + NADH
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
r
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Zea mays
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Zea mays
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Digitaria sanguinalis
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Megathyrsus maximus
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Panicum miliaceum
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Eleusine indica
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Eleusine indica
ir
Oxaloacetate
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
CO2 + pyruvate
-
286691
Eriochloa borumensis
ir
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.3
7.6
-
Digitaria sanguinalis
7.3
7.6
-
Eleusine indica
7.3
7.6
-
Eriochloa borumensis
7.3
7.6
-
Megathyrsus maximus
7.3
7.6
-
Panicum miliaceum
7.3
7.6
-
Zea mays
Other publictions for EC 1.1.1.38
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
721800
Hou
Efficient synthesis of triazol ...
Escherichia coli
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
21
1667-1669
2011
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
12
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
695884
MacDonald
Mitochondrial malic enzyme (ME ...
Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
488
100-104
2009
3
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
699052
Zheng
Production of L-malic acid wit ...
Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas diminuta IFO13182
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
107
16-20
2009
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
685215
Aktas
Proper positioning of the nico ...
Ascaris suum
Biochemistry
47
2539-2546
2008
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
689861
Wang
Over-expression, purification, ...
Escherichia coli K-12
Protein Expr. Purif.
53
97-103
2007
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
3
1
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
3
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
656983
Lara
Induction of a crassulacean ac ...
Portulaca oleracea
Plant Cell Physiol.
45
618-626
2004
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
1
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
3
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
3
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
656977
Sawada
Photosynthesis with single-roo ...
Amaranthus hybridus subsp. cruentus
Plant Cell Physiol.
43
1293-1301
2002
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
286680
Viljoen
Mutation of Gly-444 inactivate ...
Schizosaccharomyces pombe
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
167
157-162
1998
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
286677
Driscoll
Properties of NAD+ and NADP+-d ...
Sinorhizobium meliloti
Microbiology
143
489-498
1997
1
-
1
-
-
-
4
2
-
5
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
4
-
2
-
5
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
286678
Chooback
Expression, purification, and ...
Ascaris suum
Protein Expr. Purif.
10
51-54
1997
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
1
-
-
2
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
1
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1
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3
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1
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286679
Srivatava
-
Effect of silver nitrate on ac ...
Mangifera indica
Indian J. Exp. Biol.
34
575-576
1996
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1
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2
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1
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3
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286681
Karsten
Stepwise versus concerted oxid ...
Ascaris suum
Biochemistry
33
2096-2103
1994
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1
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2
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3
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1
1
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1
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1
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1
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3
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-
286682
Driscoll
NAD+-dependent malic enzyme of ...
Sinorhizobium meliloti
Mol. Microbiol.
7
865-873
1993
-
-
-
-
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2
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3
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1
1
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3
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286683
Furbank
Regulation of C4 photosynthesi ...
Atriplex spongiosa, Panicum miliaceum, Urochloa panicoides
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
289
376-381
1991
4
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10
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6
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6
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9
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3
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3
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10
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6
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9
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286685
Park
pH Dependence of kinetic param ...
Ascaris suum
Biochemistry
25
3752-3759
1986
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-
-
-
-
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-
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-
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3
-
3
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-
2
1
1
5
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4
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1
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1
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3
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2
1
1
5
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4
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286684
Rao
Diethylpyrocarbonate inactivat ...
Ascaris suum
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
241
67-74
1985
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-
-
-
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1
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2
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2
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3
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286686
Park
Kinetic mechanism in the direc ...
Ascaris suum
Biochemistry
23
5446-5453
1984
-
-
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2
4
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2
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2
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3
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1
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1
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4
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2
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3
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286687
Kiick
Determination of dissociation ...
Ascaris suum
Biochemistry
23
5454-5459
1984
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5
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2
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2
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3
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1
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3
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286688
Cook
Distinct metal cofactor-induce ...
Escherichia coli
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
749
198-203
1983
1
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3
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2
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2
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2
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3
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1
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1
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1
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3
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286689
Yamaguchi
Studies on regulatory function ...
Escherichia coli
J. Biochem.
86
325-333
1979
3
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4
5
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4
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3
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2
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7
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2
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1
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3
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1
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4
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5
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4
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2
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7
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2
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-
286690
Milne
-
Role of metal cofactors in enz ...
Escherichia coli
Biochemistry
18
3605-3610
1979
-
-
-
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2
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-
2
-
2
-
1
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3
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1
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1
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1
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2
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2
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3
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1
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-
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-
286691
Rhathnam
-
Studies with isolated bundle s ...
Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Eriochloa borumensis, Megathyrsus maximus, Panicum miliaceum, Zea mays
FEBS Lett.
96
367-372
1978
-
-
-
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12
6
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12
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6
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18
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6
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6
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6
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12
6
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12
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18
-
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6
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-
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-
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-
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286692
Iwakura
Studies on regulatory function ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium tetanomorphum, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes IFO 3320, Erwinia aroidea, Escherichia coli B, Escherichia coli K-12, Escherichia coli W, Proteus vulgaris
J. Biochem.
83
1387-1394
1978
6
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5
8
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11
20
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17
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6
10
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30
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9
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6
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9
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5
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8
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11
20
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6
10
-
30
-
-
-
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-
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286693
Landsperger
NAD+-malic enzyme. Regulatory ...
Ascaris suum
J. Biol. Chem.
251
3599-3602
1976
1
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4
1
1
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2
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3
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3
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1
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1
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1
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4
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1
1
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2
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3
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286694
Yamaguchi
Studies on the regulatory func ...
Escherichia coli W
J. Biochem.
76
1259-1268
1974
4
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-
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1
9
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2
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3
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3
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1
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1
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1
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1
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9
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3
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1
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2
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286695
Schutz
Das 'Malatenzym' von Lactobaci ...
Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum B38, Leuconostoc mesenteroides
Arch. Mikrobiol.
91
183-202
1973
-
-
-
-
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3
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6
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3
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2
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2
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9
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2
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3
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6
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2
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2
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9
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286696
Fuck
-pfelsäurestoffwechsel bei Sa ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Arch. Mikrobiol.
89
223-231
1973
1
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2
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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3
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1
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2
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1
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2
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1
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2
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1
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1
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3
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1
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-
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286697
Yamaguchi M.; Tokushige
Studies on regulatory function ...
Escherichia coli W
J. Biochem.
73
169-180
1973
1
-
-
-
-
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7
5
-
5
2
2
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1
1
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1
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1
3
5
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1
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2
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1
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2
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7
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5
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5
2
2
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1
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1
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1
3
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
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-
-
-
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-
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286698
Sauer
An NAD- and NADP-dependent mal ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
50
524-531
1973
1
-
-
-
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-
1
3
1
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2
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1
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2
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3
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1
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1
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2
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3
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-
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286699
Kaufman
Biosynthesis of dicarboxylic a ...
Lactobacillus plantarum
J. Biol. Chem.
192
301-312
1951
-
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-
-
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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