Information on EC 6.3.2.2 - Glutamate-cysteine ligase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
6.3.2.2
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
Glutamate-cysteine ligase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
carboxamide formation
-
-
-
-
carboxylic acid amide formation
-
-
-
-
Ligation
peptide bond ligation
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
-
-
ergothioneine biosynthesis I (bacteria)
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-
glutathione biosynthesis
-
-
glutathione metabolism
-
-
Glutathione metabolism
-
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homoglutathione biosynthesis
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Metabolic pathways
-
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-Glutamate:L-cysteine gamma-ligase (ADP-forming)
Can use L-aminohexanoate in place of glutamate.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9023-64-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
symbiotic sea anemone, genes gclC and gclM encoding the catalytic and the modifier subunits of the enzyme
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mallard duck
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacterium cadaveris
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Crooks
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain FKU-1
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain FKU-3
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain FKU-8
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JM109
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain K-10
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain S-96
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KTCC 2386, gene gshA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KTCC 2386, gene gshA
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC8293, gene gshA
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC8293, gene gshA
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Entamoeba histolytica
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Giardia sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PCC 7120
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas schuylkilliensis
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bifunctional glutamate-cysteine ligase and glutathione synthetase
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene gshA or slr0990
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + alpha-ethyl-L-glutamate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + alpha-ethyl-L-glutamyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + alpha-methyl-DL-glutamate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + alpha-methyl-DL-glutamyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + alpha-methyl-L-glutamate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + alpha-methyl-L-glutamyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + alpha-methylglutamate + L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + alpha-methylglutamyl-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 2-amino-2-methylpentanedioate
-
-
-
ATP + beta-aminoglutarate + L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + beta-aminoglutaryl-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 3-aminopentanedioate
-
-
-
ATP + beta-Glu + L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + beta-Glu-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
17.6% of the activity relative to L-Glu
-
-
-
ATP + beta-glutamate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + beta-glutamyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + beta-methyl-DL-glutamate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + beta-methyl-DL-glutamyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + beta-methylglutamate + L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + beta-methylglutamyl-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 2-amino-3-methylpentanedioate
-
-
-
ATP + D-Glu + L-2-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-D-Glu-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + D-Glu + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-D-Glu-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + D-Glu + L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + D-Glu-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
ATP + DL-alpha-aminoadipate + L-cysteine
ADP + phosphate + DL-aminoadipyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
about 10% of the activity with L-glutamate
-
-
?
ATP + DL-alpha-aminomethylglutarate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + DL-alpha-aminomethylglutaryl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + DL-alpha-aminomethylsuccinate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + DL-alpha-aminomethylsuccinyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + DL-beta-aminoadipate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + DL-beta-aminoadipyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + glutamate + L-cysteine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
random ter-reactant mechanism with a preferred binding order
-
-
?
ATP + L-Glu
ADP + phosphate + 5-oxoproline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + (R)-beta-amino-iso-butyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-(R)-beta-amino-iso-butyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
2fold less reactive as the S-isomer
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + (S)-beta-amino-iso-butyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-(S)-beta-amino-iso-butyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
2fold as reactive as the R-isomer
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + allo-L-threonine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-allo-L-threonine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + beta-amino-iso-butyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-beta-amino-iso-butyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + beta-chloro-L-Ala
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-beta-chloro-L-Ala
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + beta-chloro-L-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-beta-chloro-L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + beta-cyano-L-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-beta-cyano-L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + butylamine
ADP + phosphate + N-butyl-L-glutamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-Glu + D-Cys
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-D-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + L-Glu + DL-allylglycine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-DL-allylglycine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + DL-beta-amino-iso-butyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-DL-beta-amino-iso-butyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + ethylamine
ADP + phosphate + N-ethyl-L-glutamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-Glu + gamma-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-gamma-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
mutant R366A
-
r
ATP + L-Glu + gamma-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + L-Glu-gamma-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + Gly
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-Gly
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + hydroxylamine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-hydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
slow reaction rate
-
-
ATP + L-Glu + L-2-aminobutanoate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-2-aminobutanoate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-2-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-2-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-Glu + L-2-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + L-Glu-2-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-Ala
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-Ala
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-alpha-aminoheptanoate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-alpha-aminoheptanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + L-C-allylglycine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-C-allylglycine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + L-Cys
?
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-homocysteine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-homoserine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-homoserine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-isoleucine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-isoleucine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + L-leucine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + L-norleucine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-norleucine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-norvaline
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-norvaline
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-Ser
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-Ser
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-serine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-serine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-Thr
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-Thr
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + L-Glu + L-threonine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-threonine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-valine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-valine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + methylamine
ADP + phosphate + N-methyl-L-glutamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-Glu + n-propylamine
ADP + phosphate + N-propyl-L-glutamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-Glu + O-methyl-DL-serine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-O-methyl-DL-serine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + S-methyl-L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-S-methyl-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-Glu + S-methyl-L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-S-methyl-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + S-methyl-L-cysteine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-S-methyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine
ADP + phosphate + ?-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + N-methyl-L-glutamate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + N-methyl-L-glutamyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + N-methyl-L-glutarate + L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + N-methyl-L-glutaryl-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + threo-beta-hydroxy-DL-glutamate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + threo-beta-hydroxy-DL-glutamyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
ATP + threo-beta-hydroxy-L-Glu + L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + threo-beta-hydroxy-L-Glu-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + threo-gamma-hydroxy-L-glutamate + L-alpha-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + threo-gamma-hydroxy-L-glutamyl-L-alpha-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ir
glutamate + ATP + L-cysteine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 8.2
-
-
?
GTP + L-Glu + L-Cys
GDP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
87% of the activity relative to ATP
-
-
-
L-glutamate + L-cysteine + ATP
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UTP + L-Glu + L-Cys
UDP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
-
12% of the activity relative to ATP
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + L-Glu + L-Cys
?
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-Glu + L-Cys
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine
ADP + phosphate + ?-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
As3+
-
As3+ coordinately upregulates GCL catalytic subunit and GCL modifier subunit mRNA levels resulting in increased GCL subunit protein expression, holoenzyme formation, and activity. As3+ increases the rate of transcription of both the GCL catalytic subunit and GCL modifier subunit genes and induces the posttranscriptional stabilization of GCL modifier subunit mRNA. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine abolishes As3+-induced GCL catalytic subunit expression and attenuates induction of GCL modifier subunit. As3+ induction of GCL catalytic subunit and GCL modifier subunit is also differentially regulated by the MAPK signaling pathways and occurrs independent of the Nrf1/2 transcription factors
K+
-
absolute requirement for Mg2+, Mn2+, and K+ ions
Sodium arsenite
-
induces expression of heavy subunit
Zn2+
-
induces expression of heavy subunit
additional information
-
the first metal binding site n1 binds free metal ions and is composed of 3 conserved residues Glu55, Glu93, and Glu100, n1 also is involved in positioning of L-glutamate for the reaction, located in the active site
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2S)-2-amino-4-[(2R,S)-2-carboxy-3-hydroxypropyl-(R,S)-sulfonimidoyl]butanoic acid
-
; slow-binding, irreversible inactivation, ATP-dependent, a N-phosphorylated reaction intermediate is tightly bound to the enzyme, mechanism-based
(2S)-2-amino-4-[(2R,S)-2-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl-(R,S)-sulfonimidoyl]butanoic acid
-
; weak, reversible inhibition
(2S)-2-amino-4-[(2R,S)-2-carboxybutyl-(R,S)-sulfonimidoyl]butanoic acid
-
; slow-binding, irreversible inactivation, ATP-dependent, a N-phosphorylated reaction intermediate is tightly bound to the enzyme, mechanism-based
(2S)-2-amino-4-[(2R,S)-2-carboxyhexyl-(R,S)-sulfonimidoyl]butanoic acid
-
; slow-binding, irreversible inactivation, ATP-dependent, a N-phosphorylated reaction intermediate is tightly bound to the enzyme, mechanism-based
(2S)-2-amino-4-[(2R,S)-2-carboxyoctyl-(R,S)-sulfonimidoyl]butanoic acid
-
; weak, reversible inhibition
(2S)-2-amino-4-[(2R,S)-2-carboxypropyl-(R,S)-sulfonimidoyl]butanoic acid
-
; slow-binding, irreversible inactivation, ATP-dependent, a N-phosphorylated reaction intermediate is tightly bound to the enzyme, mechanism-based
(2S)-2-amino-4-[2-carboxyethyl-(R,S)-sulfonimidoyl]butanoic acid
-
; slow-binding, irreversible inactivation, ATP-dependent, a N-phosphorylated reaction intermediate is tightly bound to the enzyme, mechanism-based
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal
-
treatment with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal results in the dose-dependent adduction of both monomeric GCLC and GCLM. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal-mediated adduction of monomeric GCLC results in a dose-dependent increase in GCLC enzymatic activity. Treatment of GCL holoenzyme causes a dose-dependent decrease in GCL activity. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal-mediated inhibition of GCL holoenzyme activity is associated with a reduction in the levels of heterodimeric GCL holoenzyme complex due to increase in high molecular weight complexes. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal modification simultaneously activates monomeric GCLC activity and prevents its ability to heterodimerize with GCLM and form functional GCL holoenzyme
4-Methylene glutamate
4-methylene-L-glutamate
; weak, competitive
5'-ADP
-
-
5'-AMP
-
-
5-Chloro-4-oxo-L-norvaline
; irreversible, binding is reduced by L-glutamate, increased by L-alpha-aminobutyrate, and is completely dependent on divalent cations
acetaminophen
-
treatment promotes the loss of glutamate cysteine ligase in liver. Activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta is a key mediator of the initial phase of acetaminophen-induced liver injury through modulating GCL and Mcl-1 degradation, as well as JNK activation in liver. The silencing of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta decreases the loss of hepatic GCL, and promotes greater GSH recovery in liver following acetaminophen treatment
Ag+
-
complete inactivation
alpha-Methyl-DL-glutamate
-
-
antimony
-
heterozygous mutants with one allele inactivated show a significant decreased survival in the presence of antimony
ATP
-
substrate inhibition of mutant R179A, when only one other substrate is saturating
beta-Methylglutamate
-
-
buthionine sulfone
-
buthionine sulfoxime
-
-
buthionine sulfoximine
carbon tetrachloride
-
a single dose of 1589 mg/kg body weight of carbon tetrachloride causes changes in CGL activity and glutathione content in multiple organs of deer mice. Hepatic GCL activity and GSH content are depleted substantially, renal GCL activity increases. Blood, brain and heart GCL activities increase, whereas GSH contents decrease significantly
ciprofibrate
-
inhibits expression of heavy subunit
cis-1-Amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclohexane
-
-
Co2+
-
22% residual activity
Cu2+
-
27% residual activity
cystamine
cysteamine
D-3-Amino-1-chloro-2-pentanone
diquat
-
inhibits expression of heavy subunit
dithioerythritol
-
-
dithiothreitol
DL-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutanoate
-
-
DL-alpha-Aminomethylglutarate
-
-
DL-Aminoadipate
-
weak
gamma-Glu-2-aminobutanoyl-Gly
-
i.e. ophthalmic acid, inhibits only slightly, but inhibits much more after treatment of the holoenzyme with DTT, the recombinant and isolated heavy subunit enzyme is substantially inhibited without DTT
gamma-glutamylcysteine
-
-
gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys
-
-
gamma-methylene-D-glutamate
-
gamma-Methylglutamate
glutathione
iodoacetamide
L-2-Amino-4-oxo-5-chloropentanoate
-
inactivation requires very low concentration, 0.003-0.006 mM, of Mg2+ or certain other divalent cations, L-Glu, but not D-Glu protects competitively against inactivation, protection is increased in the presence of ATP or ADP
L-2-aminohexanedioate
-
i.e. L-alpha-aminoadipate
L-3-Amino-1-chloro-2-pentanone
-
highly potent irreversible inactivator
L-alpha-aminobutyrate
-
substrate inhibition of mutant R179A, when only one other substrate is saturating
L-buthionine sulfone
competitive, reversible
L-buthionine sulfoximine
L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine
-
cotreatment with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and fibroblast growth factor 9 inhibits increased neuron viability compared to the group treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and fibroblast growth factor 9, to levels comparable to those of the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-treated group
L-buthionine-R,S-sulfoximine
i.e. BSO, specific, irreversible
L-buthionine-R-sulfoximine
L-buthionine-S-sulfoximine
L-buthionine-SR-sulfoximine
L-cysteine
L-glutamic acid gamma-monohydroxamate
-
ATP-dependent irreversible inactivation, loss of 90% activity within 3 days, inactivation mechanism, no inactivation occurs in absence of ATP or with AMP-PNP
L-glutamine
inhibition of enzyme activity in tumor tissue
L-Homocysteate
-
-
L-Homocysteine sulfinate
-
-
L-methionine
-
inhibits expression of heavy subunit
lipopolysaccharides
-
inhibits expression of heavy subunit
-
methionine
-
inhibits induction of GSH1 expression, independently of GSH
methionine sulfoximine
MgATP2-
Monodansylcystamine
-
-
N-Methyl-L-glutamate
-
-
N-[2(2-Aminoethyl)-dithioethyl]4-azido-2-nitrobenzeneamine
-
-
NF-kappaB
-
inhibits induction of enzyme expression by other substances, e.g. buthionine sulfoximine or tert-butylhydroquinone
-
Ni2+
-
complete inactivation
NO
P97494, Q97SC0
-
oxidative stress
-
heterozygous mutants with one allele inactivated are more susceptible to oxidative stresses in vitro as promastigotes and show decreased survival inside activated macrophages producing reactive oxygen or nitrogen species
-
Pb2+
-
in deer mice exposed to Pb, or Pb together with Cu and Zn via drinking water for 4 weeks. GCL activities are not significantly affected by treatments. Metal-contaminated soils do not lead to significant effects in pups via lactation, 50-day exposure alters glutathione content marginally, while 100-day exposure results in marked GCL activity depletion. After 100-day exposure, GCL activities of the medium soil-, high soil- and Pb-treated deer mice are only 53%, 40% and 46% of the control, respectively
Prothionine sulfoximine
S-(S-Methyl)cysteamine
-
- <