Information on EC 6.3.2.18 - gamma-glutamylhistamine synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Aplysia californica

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
6.3.2.18
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
gamma-glutamylhistamine synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + L-glutamate + histamine = products of ATP breakdown + Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine
show the reaction diagram
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-glutamate:histamine ligase
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + L-glutamate + histamine
products of ATP breakdown + Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine
show the reaction diagram
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?
additional information
?
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D-glutamate is 5% as effective as the L-isomer. The HA-acceptor activity of glutamine, glutathione, and alpha-L-glutamyl-L-alanine is 1/50 that of L-glutamate. L-aspartate is used as substrate at 1% the rate of L-glutamate
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + L-glutamate + histamine
products of ATP breakdown + Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
additional information
?
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D-glutamate is 5% as effective as the L-isomer. The HA-acceptor activity of glutamine, glutathione, and alpha-L-glutamyl-L-alanine is 1/50 that of L-glutamate. L-aspartate is used as substrate at 1% the rate of L-glutamate
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
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the requirement for ATP cannot be replaced with ADP, AMP, or GTP
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Mg2+
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essential for activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5-hydroxytryptamine
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effective inhibitor, 1 mM inhibits Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine synthesis by 92%
5-methoxytryptamine
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1 mM inhibits synthesis of Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine by 87%
DL-octopamine
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effective inhibitor, 1 mM inhibits Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine synthesis by 91%
dopamine
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effective inhibitor, 1 mM inhibits Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine synthesis by 84%
gamma-aminobutyric acid
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1 mM inhibits synthesis of Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine by 13%
L-norepinephrine
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1 mM inhibits synthesis of Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine by 73%
N-acetylserotonin
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1 mM inhibits synthesis of Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine by 11%
noradrenaline
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1 mM inhibits Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine synthesis by 73%
serotonin
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1 mM inhibits synthesis of Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine by 92%
tryptamine
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1 mM completely inhibits synthesis of Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine
tyramine
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1 mM inhibits Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine synthesis by 94%; 1 mM inhibits synthesis of Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine by 94%
additional information
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neither L-histidine nor Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine itself have any inhibitory effect on Nalpha-gamma-L-glutamylhistamine formation. In addition, the dipeptides carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine also have little effect on histamine utilization. Taurine, putrescine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan display no inhibitory activity
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
dithiothreitol
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essential for activity
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.653
histamine
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at pH 8.0 and 37C
10.6
L-glutamate
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at pH 8.0 and 37C
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6 - 9
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enzyme activity decreases from optimum at pH 8.0 to less than 10% at pH 6.0, and to 25% of maximum at pH 9.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37 - 41
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incubation at 37C yields more than 90% of maximal activity at 41C
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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less than 10% enzyme activity in heart compared to ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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less than 10% enzyme activity in hemolymph compared to ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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less than 10% enzyme activity in muscle compared to ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team