Information on EC 6.2.1.12 - 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
6.2.1.12
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
4-Coumarate-CoA ligase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Acid-thiol ligation
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
4-coumarate degradation (anaerobic)
-
4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes)
-
4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis V
-
6-gingerol analog biosynthesis
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
caffeoylglucarate biosynthesis
-
coumarins biosynthesis (engineered)
-
flavonoid biosynthesis
-
Metabolic pathways
-
naringenin biosynthesis (engineered)
-
phaselate biosynthesis
-
Phenylalanine metabolism
-
Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
-
phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
-
suberin monomers biosynthesis
-
Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
-
umbelliferone biosynthesis
-
xanthohumol biosynthesis
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
4-Coumarate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
-
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase
Q6ETN3
-
4-coumarate/coenzyme A ligase
-
-
4-coumarate: CoA ligase
-
-
4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase
B3FES3
-
4-coumarate::CoA ligase
-
-
4-coumarate:CoA ligase
-
-
4-coumarate:CoA ligase
-
-
4-coumarate:CoA ligase
O24146
-
4-coumarate:CoA ligase
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2
-
4-coumarate:CoA-ligase
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
-
4-coumarate:CoA-ligase
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
-
-
4-coumarate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase
-
-
4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase
-
-
-
-
4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase
-
-
4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase
O24146
-
4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase
Q6ETN3
-
4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase
-
-
4-coumarate:coenzyme-A ligase-1
-
-
4-coumaroyl-CoA synthase
-
-
-
-
4-coumaroyl:CoA ligase
-
-
4-Coumaryl-CoA synthetase
-
-
-
-
4CL
-
-
-
-
4CL
Q3HUN0
-
4CL
B2KY80
-
4CL
B2KY87, B2KY89, B2KY96
-
4CL
B2KYA4
-
4CL
B2KY93
-
4CL
B2KYA6
-
4CL
B2KYB3
-
4CL
B8QN50
-
4CL
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
-
4CL
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
-
-
4CL-A1
B2KY80
isozyme
4CL-A1
B2KY87, B2KY89, B2KY96
isozyme
4CL-A1
B2KYA4
isozyme
4CL-A1
B2KY93
isozyme
4CL-A1
B2KYA6
isozyme
4CL-A1
B2KYB3
isozyme
4CL-A2
B2KY80
isozyme
4CL-A2
B2KY87, B2KY89, B2KY96
isozyme
4CL-A2
B2KYA4
isozyme
4CL-A2
B2KY93
isozyme
4CL-A2
B2KYA6
isozyme
4CL-A2
B2KYB3
isozyme
4CL-B
B2KY80
isozyme
4CL-B
B2KY87, B2KY89, B2KY96
isozyme
4CL-B
B2KYA4
isozyme
4CL-B
B2KY93
isozyme
4CL-B
B2KYA6
isozyme
4CL-B
B2KYB3
isozyme
4CL1
B7SB99
isozyme
4CL1
B3TJI4
isozyme
4CL1
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4
isozyme
-
4CL2
B7SBA0
isozyme
4CL2
B3TJI5
isozyme
4CL2
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI5
isozyme
-
4CL3
B7SBA1
isozyme
4CL4
B7SBA2
isozyme
Caffeolyl coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
Clone 4CL14
-
-
-
-
Clone 4CL16
-
-
-
-
coumarate:CoA ligase
-
-
Feruloyl CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
Feruloyl coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
Hydroxy-cinnamate:CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
Hydroxycinnamate:CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
Hydroxycinnamoyl CoA synthetase
-
-
-
-
p-Coumaroyl CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
p-coumaroyl-CoA ligase
-
-
p-Coumaryl coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
p-Coumaryl-CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
p-Coumaryl-CoA synthetase
-
-
-
-
p-Hydroxycinnamic acid:CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
p-Hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
Sinapoyl coenzyme A snthetase
-
-
-
-
Synthetase, p-coumaroyl coenzyme A
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
37332-51-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
4CL is encoded by a family of four genes 4CL1-4CL4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ecotype Col-0
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ecotype Landsberg erecta, genes 4CL1 and 4CL2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform 4Cl2, genomic DNA; three isoforms with different substrate specificity and preference, isoforms clustered in class I and II with 4Cl1 and 4Cl2 belonging to class I and 4Cl3 belonging to class II; isoform 4Cl3, genomic DNA; three isoforms with different substrate specificity and preference, isoforms clustered in class I and II with 4Cl1 and 4Cl2 belonging to class I and 4Cl3 belonging to class II
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform 4CL2; isoforms 4CL1, 4CL2 and 4CL3, described experiments performed with isoform 4CL2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Cl1, genomic DNA; three isoforms with different substrate specificity and preference, isoforms clustered in class I and II with 4Cl1 and 4Cl2 belonging to class I and 4Cl3 belonging to class II
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoforms 4CL1 and 4CL2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment; loquat, cultivars LYQ and BS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Forsythia sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 isoenzymes; var. Mandarin
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
4CL1, cDNA; four isoforms 4CL1-4
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
4CL2, cDNA; four isoforms 4CL1-4
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
4CL3, genomic DNA; four isoforms 4CL1-4
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
4CL4, cDNA; four isoforms 4CL1-4
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoforms 4CL1-4CL3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
lines ARK8518 and ARK8518R
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment; variant Larix gmelinii japonica
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment; variant Larix gmelinii olgensis
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
three isoforms, 4CL2 and 4CL3 belonging to class I and 4CL1 belonging to class II type of 4CL-enzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene 4CL2; cv. Samsun, gene 4CL2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene R4CL, putative 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase, i.e. Os02g0177600 protein; gene R4CL
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme 4CL1; subspecies Physcomitrella patens patens
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme 4CL2; subspecies Physcomitrella patens patens
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme 4CL3; subspecies Physcomitrella patens patens
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme 4CL4; subspecies Physcomitrella patens patens
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzymes not detected
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no isoforms detected, one protein with broad substrate specificity
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Polyporus hispidus
strain UBC 513, light-grown cultures yielded preparations with an increased activity
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Polyporus hispidus UBC 513
strain UBC 513, light-grown cultures yielded preparations with an increased activity
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
aspen
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two isoforms, 4CL1 and 4CL2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hybid poplar, clone H1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isoenzymes: I, II, III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme 4CL1; strain R-20
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme 4CL2; strain R-20
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ruta graveolens R-20
isozyme 4CL1; strain R-20
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ruta graveolens R-20
isozyme 4CL2; strain R-20
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoforms
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Cabernet Sauvignon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
4-coumarate + MgATP2- + tetrapolyphosphate
adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
CoA omitted from the incubation mixture
-
r
4-coumarate + MgATP2- + tripolyphosphate
adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
CoA omitted from the incubation mixture
-
r
AMP + 3-oxo-2-(2'-[Z]-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
weak substrate
-
-
?
AMP + 3-oxo-2-(2'-[Z]-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-hexanoic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
weak substrate
-
-
?
AMP + dinor-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + (2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 2-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 2-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 2-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 2-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme 1 is active, isoenzyme 2 not
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
?
ATP + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme 1 is active, isoenzyme 2 not
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
84% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for 4CL1 but not for 4CL2 and 4CL3
-
?
ATP + 3-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 3-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 3-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Polyporus hispidus
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Forsythia sp.
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9S725
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q6ETN3
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B3FES3, -
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B2KY87, B2KY89, B2KY91, B2KY96, B2KYA2, -
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B2KYA4, -
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B2KYB3, B2KYB6, -
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B2KYA6
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B2KY80, B2KY81, B2KY86
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B2KY93, B2KY95
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B8QN50, -
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
140% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
94% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
100% activity
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9S725
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, 4CL2 involved in coenzyme A ester formation and cocatalytic AMP-donor in (di)adenosine polyphosphate synthesis
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, class II enzymes part of flavonoid pathway, class I enzymes probably involved in lignin formation and phenolic compound other than flavonoids
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme 4CL1 exhibits very high activity towards p-coumarate, isoenzymes 4CL2 and 4CL3 are active
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 98%, predominantly trans-isomer
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
highest catalytic efficiency towards 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 7.5
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Polyporus hispidus UBC 513
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
100% activity
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of general phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme of B-ring-deoxy flavonoid biosymthesis
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
physiological role in lignin biosynthesis
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the isoenzymes can play an important role in the control of the monomeric composition of lignins
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme has an important role in the determination of the composition and the amount of lignin in tobacco plants
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
4-coumarate-CoA ligase is the last enzyme of the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, supplying substrates for lignin formation and other individual phenylpropanoid pathways
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is involved in the resistance response of soybean against pathogen attack. The different substrate affinities for substituted cinnamic acids and the differential regulation of the 3 isoenzymes, may play a pivotal role in distributing substituted cinnamate intermediates at a branch point of general phenylpropanoid metabolism into subsequent specific pathways
-
-
-
ATP + 4-methoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-methoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-methoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-methoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-methoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-methoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 4-methoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-methoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme 1 is active, isoenzyme 2 not
-
-
-
ATP + 4-methoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-methoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
68% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + 4-methoxycinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-methoxycinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
12% of the activity relative to 4-coumarate
-
-
-
ATP + 5-hydroxyferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 5-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 5-hydroxyferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 5-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 5-hydroxyferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 5-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 5-hydroxyferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 5-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + 5-hydroxyferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 5-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
17% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + 5-hydroxyferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 5-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
41% of the activity relative to p-hydroxycinnamate
-
-
-
ATP + 5-hydroxyferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 5-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme I is active, no activity is detectable with isoenzyme II and III
-
-
-
ATP + 5-hydroxyferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 5-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
18% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + 5-hydroxyferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 5-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme 4CL2, weak activity, isoenzyme 4CL1 and 4CL3 show no activity
-
-
?
ATP + acetate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9S725
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Polyporus hispidus
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9S725
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
-
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
61% of the activity relative to p-hydroxycinnamate
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
at 4% of the activity relative to 4-coumarate
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
48% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
14% of the activity relative to 4-coumarate
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
86% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme III is active, no activity is detectable with isoenzyme I and II
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
same activity as with 4-coumarate
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme 4CL1, 4CL2 and 4CL3 show activity
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
48% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
86% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Polyporus hispidus UBC 513
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
86% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + caffeate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
48% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + caffeic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-caffeoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, 98%, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, 98%, predominantly trans-isomer
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
-
-
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
-
-
-
-
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
-
-
-
ir
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
14% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of the activity relative to 4-coumarate
-
-
-
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
roughly 30% of activity
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
same Vmax like 4-coumarate
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
5.0% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
54% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
54% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
5.0% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + cinnamic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + cinnamoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid, 98%
-
-
?
ATP + decanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + decanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
weak substrate
-
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Polyporus hispidus
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Forsythia sp.
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
-
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
-
-
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
67% of the activity relative to p-hydroxycinnamate
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
49% of the activity relative to 4-coumarate
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
3% of the activity relative to 4-coumarate
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
M293P/K320L mutant enzyme, no substrate for wild type enzyme
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9S725
only 4CL1 and 4CL3, no substrate for 4CL2, some 4CL2 mutants are active with ferulate
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
only 4CL1, no substrate for 4CL2
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
only 4CL1, no substrate for 4CL2
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
roughly 60% of activity
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
same activity as with 4-coumarate
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for 4CL1 and 4CL2, very poor substrate for 4CL3
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
very poor substrate for the wild type enzyme, effective substrate for M293P/K320L mutant enzyme
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme 4CL2 and 4CL3 are active, no activity with isoenzyme 4CL1
-
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
2.5% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
50.5% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Polyporus hispidus UBC 513
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
2.5% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + ferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
50.5% activity compared to 4-coumarate
-
-
?
ATP + ferulic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, 99%
-
-
?
ATP + heptanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + heptanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
weak substrate
-
-
?
ATP + hexanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + indole propanoic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + isoferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + isoferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + isoferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + isoferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + isoferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + isoferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + isoferulate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + isoferuloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
as effective as ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + nonanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + nonanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + octadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
weak substrate
-
-
?
ATP + octanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + propanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + propanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
weak substrate
-
-
?
ATP + sinapate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
-
-
ATP + sinapate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + sinapate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
-
?
ATP + sinapate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for 4CL1 but not for 4CL2 and 4CL3
-
?
ATP + sinapate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes 4CL2 and 4CL3 are active, isoenzyme 4CL1 is inactive
-
-
?
ATP + sinapic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 98%, predominantly trans isomer
-
-
?
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
48% of the activity relative to ferulate
-
-
-
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme I is active, no activity with isoenzyme II and III
-
-
-
ATP + sinapoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + sinapoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme 1 is active with sinapoate, isoenzyme 2 not
-
-
-
ATP + tetradecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + tetradecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + ferulate + CoA
CMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
7.7% of the activity relative to ATP
-
-
-
GTP + ferulate + CoA
GMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
5.7% of the activity relative to ATP
-
-
-
ITP + ferulate + CoA
IMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
20.2% of the activity relative to ATP
-
-
-
UTP + ferulate + CoA
UMP + diphosphate + feruloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
12.5% of the activity relative to GTP
-
-
-
MgATP2-
diadenosine 5',5'',P1,P4-tetraphosphate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
no additional substrate, CoA omitted from the incubation mixture
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
absolute requirement for ATP
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme from different tissues varies significantly in substrate specificity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
most of angiosperm and gymnosperm enzymes are active with ferulate but not with sinapoate (?). The enzymes of Erythrina crista-galli, Robinia pseudoacacia and bamboo show considerable activity with sinapoate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
in ATP-diphosphate exchange reaction absolute specificity for cinnamate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
ATP-diphosphate exchange reaction is activated by cinnamate, dihydro-4-coumarate, caprylate and malonate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
inactive against sinapic acid
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q42524, Q9S725
inactive against sinapic acid
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q42524, Q9S725
inactive against sinapic acid and ferulic acid
-
?
additional information
?
-
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
no reaction with 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate and sinapate
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the isoform 4CL1 has a strong substrate preference for p-coumarate, but lacked the activity for ferulate and sinapate. The other hand, 4CL2 and 4CL3 display activity towards sinapate and also possess high activity towards caffeate as well as p-coumarate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
biosynthesis of lignin monomers occurs via the phenylpropanoid pathway, in which the enzyme 4-coumarate-CoA ligase plays a key role by catalyzing the formation of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA esters, subsequently reduced to the corresponding monolignols hydroxycinnamoyl alcohols, overview, cis-regulatory elements involved in the developmental and wound-induced regulation of the 4CL gene family members, stress-regulated expression, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, 4CL, gene family members are involved in channeling carbon flow into branch pathways of phenylpropanoid metabolism, identification of regulatory genes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6ETN3
the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 4-coumaric acid into coumaroyl-CoA and a few related substrates into their corresponding products such as cinnamoyl-CoA, caffeoyl-CoA, and feruloyl-CoA in a process utilizing ATP, and thus channels the common, phenylalanine-derived building block into the widely distinct branches of general phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
three key enzymes: phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, and 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase, catalyzing the biosynthesis of these compounds during berry development, contents of gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and caffeic acid all change drastically during berry development, while other compounds containing 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, chlorogenic, 4-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acid vary only slightly
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme performs synthesis of (5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromanone)-propenoic acid in concert with chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and flavanone 3-hydroxylase, fed with a number of aromatic acrylic acids, mechanism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B8QN50, -
4CL has a key role in the biosynthesis of monolignols in softwood species
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
a 7fold increase in 4CL activity is observed in elicited cultures after 24 h of chitosan treatment (200 mg/l) as compared to control
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
sinapate is not accepted as a substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
the enzyme does not activate sinapate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, anthranilic acid, and (N-methyl)anthranilic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Ruta graveolens R-20
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
the enzyme does not activate sinapate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, anthranilic acid, and (N-methyl)anthranilic acid
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q6ETN3
-
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9S725
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, 4CL2 involved in coenzyme A ester formation and cocatalytic AMP-donor in (di)adenosine polyphosphate synthesis
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q42524, Q9S725
plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, class II enzymes part of flavonoid pathway, class I enzymes probably involved in lignin formation and phenolic compound other than flavonoids
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 4-coumaroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway
-
-
?
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of general phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme of B-ring-deoxy flavonoid biosymthesis
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
physiological role in lignin biosynthesis
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the isoenzymes can play an important role in the control of the monomeric composition of lignins
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme has an important role in the determination of the composition and the amount of lignin in tobacco plants
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
4-coumarate-CoA ligase is the last enzyme of the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, supplying substrates for lignin formation and other individual phenylpropanoid pathways
-
-
-
ATP + 4-coumarate + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is involved in the resistance response of soybean against pathogen attack. The different substrate affinities for substituted cinnamic acids and the differential regulation of the 3 isoenzymes, may play a pivotal role in distributing substituted cinnamate intermediates at a branch point of general phenylpropanoid metabolism into subsequent specific pathways
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
biosynthesis of lignin monomers occurs via the phenylpropanoid pathway, in which the enzyme 4-coumarate-CoA ligase plays a key role by catalyzing the formation of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA esters, subsequently reduced to the corresponding monolignols hydroxycinnamoyl alcohols, overview, cis-regulatory elements involved in the developmental and wound-induced regulation of the 4CL gene family members, stress-regulated expression, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, 4CL, gene family members are involved in channeling carbon flow into branch pathways of phenylpropanoid metabolism, identification of regulatory genes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6ETN3
the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 4-coumaric acid into coumaroyl-CoA and a few related substrates into their corresponding products such as cinnamoyl-CoA, caffeoyl-CoA, and feruloyl-CoA in a process utilizing ATP, and thus channels the common, phenylalanine-derived building block into the widely distinct branches of general phenylpropanoid metabolism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
three key enzymes: phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, and 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase, catalyzing the biosynthesis of these compounds during berry development, contents of gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and caffeic acid all change drastically during berry development, while other compounds containing 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, chlorogenic, 4-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acid vary only slightly
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B8QN50, -
4CL has a key role in the biosynthesis of monolignols in softwood species
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
a 7fold increase in 4CL activity is observed in elicited cultures after 24 h of chitosan treatment (200 mg/l) as compared to control
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
B2KY80, B2KY81, B2KY86
-
ATP
B2KY87, B2KY89, B2KY91, B2KY96, B2KYA2, -
-
ATP
B2KY93, B2KY95
-
ATP
B2KYB3, B2KYB6, -
-
ATP
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
-
ATP
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
;
ATP
B8QN50, -
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
33% of the activation compared to Mg2+
Co2+
-
divalent cation required, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ are equally effective
Co2+
-
97% of the activation relative to Mg2+
Co2+
-
can partially substitute for Mg2+
Mg2+
Forsythia sp.
-
-
Mg2+
-
required in a molar ratio of 1:1 with ATP
Mg2+
-
divalent cation required, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ are equally effective
Mg2+
-
required in a molar ratio of 1:1 with ATP
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
optimal concentration 10 mM; required
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
Q6ETN3
-
Mn2+
-
divalent cation required, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ are equally effective
Mn2+
-
97% of the activation compared to Mg2+
Mn2+
-
85% of the activation relative to Mg2+
Ni2+
-
81% of the activation relative to Mg2+
Ni2+
-
can partially substitute for Mg2+
Zn2+
-
can partially substitute for Mg2+, very low activity
Mn2+
-
can partially substitute for Mg2+
additional information
-
no effect with Ca2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3,4-methylenedioxycinnamic acid
-
potent inhibitor
4-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
4-coumarate
-
above 0.1 mM
4-coumarate
-
inhibition above 0.6 mM
4-coumarate
-
strong competitive inhibitor for the other substrates
alachlor
-
slight inhibition
bentazone
-
slight inhibition
caffeate
-
inhibition above 0.2 mM
caffeate
-
strong competitive inhibitor for the other substrates
chlornitrofen
-
-
CoA
-
substrate inhibition
CoASH
-
above 0.1 mM
coniferin
-
-
dimepiperate
-
-
fenoxaprop-ethyl
-
-
ferulate
-
strong substrate inhibition above 0.2 mM
ferulate
-
inhibition above 0.4 mM
ferulate
-
strong competitive inhibitor for the other substrates
Heat-labile high-molecular-weight factor from tobacco stem extract
-
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
-
Ionic strength
-
activity of isoenzyme 1 decreases steadily with increasing ionic strength at least in the range from 0.1 to 0.8 M Tris-HCl, highest rate of isoenzyme 2 activity is obtained at concentrations of about 0.3 M Tris-HCl
-
linuron
-
slight inhibition
mefenacet
-
slight inhibition
Naringenin
-
-
nitrofen
-
slight inhibition
Pentachlorophenol
-
slight inhibition
pretilachlor
-
slight inhibition
propanil
-
72% inhibition at 0.1 mM
propanil
-
a herbicide, 71.8% inhibition at 0.1 mM, uncompetitive inhibition towards 4-coumaric acid
pyrazosulfuron-ethyl
-
slight inhibition
simazine
-
slight inhibition
simetryn
-
slight inhibition
swep
-
98% inhibition at 0.1 mM
swep
-
a herbicide, 97.1% inhibition at 0.1 mM, uncompetitive inhibition towards 4-coumaric acid
thiobencarb
-
slight inhibition
molinate
-
slight inhibition
additional information
-
the sinapate-converting activity is not inhibited by other cinnamate derivatives, such as p-coumarate, caffeate or ferulate
-
additional information
-
development and optimization of a high-throughput miniaturized screening system of plant growth inhibitors targeting 4CL in the phenylpropanoid pathway, in vitro inhibitor screening using 28 existing herbicides, overview, no inhibition by pendimethalin, trifluralin, alloxydim-sodium, bispyribac-sodium, dimethenamid, metolachlor, pyrazolate, bensulfuron-methyl, and imazosulfuron
-
additional information
-
in vitro inhibitor screening using existing herbicides, screening assay optimization, overview
-
additional information
B8QN50, -
95% suppression of 4CL can lead to an about 50% reduction in lignin content and affects lignin composition
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
S-methyl 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate
-
treatment of fruits
additional information
-
developmental and wound-induced regulation, stress-regulated expression
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.09
-
2-coumarate
-
isoenzyme 2
0.18
-
2-coumarate
-
isoenzyme 1
0.23
-
3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate
-
isoenzyme 1
0.049
-
3,4-dimethoxycinnamate
-
4CL1
0.083
-
3,4-dimethoxycinnamate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.55
-
3,4-dimethoxycinnamate
-
-
0.028
-
3-coumarate
-
-
0.03
-
3-coumarate
-
isoenzyme 2
0.0031
-
4-coumarate
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
isozyme 4CL2, at pH 7.8 and 32C
0.0036
-
4-coumarate
-
4CL2, pH 7.5, 30C
0.004
-
4-coumarate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL1
0.0055
-
4-coumarate
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
isozyme 4CL1, pH 7.8, 32C
0.0062
-
4-coumarate
-
-
0.009
-
4-coumarate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.009
-
4-coumarate
-
4CL3
0.01
-
4-coumarate
-
isoenzyme II
0.01
-
4-coumarate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.013
-
4-coumarate
-
isoenzyme III
0.016
-
4-coumarate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL2
0.017
-
4-coumarate
-
isoenzyme 2
0.017
-
4-coumarate
-
5-hydroxyferulate
0.022
-
4-coumarate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.022
-
4-coumarate
-
M293P/K320L mutant enzyme
0.023
-
4-coumarate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
0.025
-
4-coumarate
-
4CL1, pH 7.8, room temperature
0.027
-
4-coumarate
-
M293P/K320L mutant enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.029
-
4-coumarate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL3
0.031
-
4-coumarate
-
-
0.032
-
4-coumarate
-
isoenzyme 1
0.032
-
4-coumarate
-
ATP
0.038
-
4-coumarate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
0.042
-
4-coumarate
-
isoenzyme I
0.042
-
4-coumarate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.042
-
4-coumarate
-
4CL2
0.05
-
4-coumarate
-
4CL1
0.056
-
4-coumarate
-
4CL1, pH 7.5, 30C
0.08
-
4-coumarate
-
room temperature
0.22
-
4-coumarate
-
4CL2, pH 7.8, room temperature
0.233
-
4-coumarate
-
wild-type enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.233
-
4-coumarate
-
wild-type enzyme
0.252
-
4-coumarate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
0.246
-
4-coumaric acid
-
-
0.38
-
4-methoxycinnamate
-
isoenzyme 1
0.5
-
4-methoxyferulate
-
-
0.012
-
5-hydroxyferulate
-
isoenzyme 1
0.12
-
5-hydroxyferulate
-
isoenzyme 2
0.34
-
5-hydroxyferulate
-
-
0.064
-
adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate
-
reverse reaction, M293P/K320L mutant enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.004
-
ATP
-
wild-type enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.029
-
ATP
-
K457S mutant enzyme
0.036
-
ATP
-
-
0.065
-
ATP
-
isoenzyme 2
0.151
-
ATP
-
K211S mutant enzyme
0.163
-
ATP
-
wild type
0.17
-
ATP
-
3-coumarate, , isoenzyme 1
0.173
-
ATP
-
C403 mutant enzyme
0.24
-
ATP
-
E401Q mutant enzyme
1.507
-
ATP
-
R449Q mutant enzyme
0.005
-
caffeate
-
K457S mutant enzyme
0.011
-
caffeate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
0.013
-
caffeate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.013
-
caffeate
-
4CL2
0.014
-
caffeate
-
isoenzyme 2
0.014
-
caffeate
-
2-coumarate
0.014
-
caffeate
-
K211S mutant enzyme
0.0161
-
caffeate
-
-
0.018
-
caffeate
-
C403A mutant enzyme
0.02
-
caffeate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
0.022
-
caffeate
-
wild-type enzyme
0.024
-
caffeate
-
wild type
0.024
-
caffeate
Q9S725
wild type enzyme
0.024
-
caffeate
-
wild-type enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.025
-
caffeate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL1
0.028
-
caffeate
-
E401Q mutant enzyme
0.033
-
caffeate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.034
-
caffeate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.035
-
caffeate
-
4CL1, pH 7.5, 30C
0.037
-
caffeate
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
isozyme 4CL2, at pH 7.8 and 32C
0.04
-
caffeate
-
isoenzyme 1
0.041
-
caffeate
-
M293P/K320L mutant enzyme
0.042
-
caffeate
-
4CL2, pH 7.5, 30C
0.045
-
caffeate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL2
0.048
-
caffeate
-
M293P/K320L mutant enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.0484
-
caffeate
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
isozyme 4CL1, pH 7.8, 32C
0.05
-
caffeate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.05
-
caffeate
-
4CL3
0.081
-
caffeate
-
4CL1
0.374
-
caffeate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
0.4
-
caffeate
-
R449Q mutant enzyme
0.725
-
caffeate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL3
0.037
-
cinnamate
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
isozyme 4CL2, at pH 7.8 and 32C
0.05
-
cinnamate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL1
0.059
-
cinnamate
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
isozyme 4CL1, pH 7.8, 32C
0.064
-
cinnamate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL3
0.066
-
cinnamate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL2
0.26
-
cinnamate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.28
-
cinnamate
-
-
0.292
-
cinnamate
-
M293P/K320L mutant enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
1.048
-
cinnamate
-
room temperature
1.1
-
cinnamate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
1.1
-
cinnamate
-
4CL3
1.3
-
cinnamate
-
isoenzyme 1
1.7
-
cinnamate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
1.7
-
cinnamate
-
4CL2
2.07
-
cinnamate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
4.4
-
cinnamate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
4.4
-
cinnamate
-
4CL1
4.5
-
cinnamate
-
isoenzyme 2
6.32
-
cinnamate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
6.35
-
cinnamate
-
wild-type enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
6.63
-
cinnamate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
0.0032
-
CoA
-
-
0.004
-
CoASH
-
isoenzyme 2
0.007
-
CoASH
-
isoenzyme 1
0.0021
-
ferulate
-
-
0.004
-
ferulate
-
4CL1
0.0047
-
ferulate
-
-
0.008
-
ferulate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.009
-
ferulate
-
isoenzyme 1
0.011
-
ferulate
-
isoenzyme II
0.0137
-
ferulate
-
-
0.015
-
ferulate
-
isoenzyme III
0.02
-
ferulate
-
-
0.02
-
ferulate
-
caffeate
0.02
-
ferulate
-
ferulate, , isoenzyme I
0.03
-
ferulate
-
M293P/K320L mutant enzyme
0.033
-
ferulate
-
-
0.046
-
ferulate
-
-
0.046
-
ferulate
-
M293P/K320L mutant enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.057
-
ferulate
-
4CL1, pH 7.8, room temperature
0.073
-
ferulate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL2
0.102
-
ferulate
-
room temperature
0.112
-
ferulate
-
4CL1, pH 7.5, 30C
0.13
-
ferulate
-
isoenzyme 2
0.139
-
ferulate
-
4CL2, pH 7.5, 30C
0.14
-
ferulate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.14
-
ferulate
-
4CL2
0.166
-
ferulate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
0.187
-
ferulate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL1
0.199
-
ferulate
Q42524, Q9S725
room temperature
0.8
-
ferulate
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant isozyme 4CL3
1.3
-
ferulate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
3.1
-
ferulate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
3.1
-
ferulate
-
4CL3
0.026
-
isoferulate
-
-
0.1
-
isoferulate
-
3,4-dimethoxycinnamate, , isoenzyme 1
0.15
-
isoferulate
-
isoenzyme 2
0.69
-
p-methoxycinnamate
-
-
0.005
-
sinapate
-
4CL1
0.011
-
sinapate
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
-
0.001
-
sinapoate
-
-
0.011
-
sinapoate
-
isoenzyme 1
0.022
-
sinapoate
-
isoenzyme I
0.336
-
m-methoxycinnamate
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
Q9S725
Km values for all mutant enzymes given
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics in presence of inhibitors
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.004
-
caffeate
-
4CL1 with 4-coumarate as substrate, pH 7.5, 30C
0.012
-
caffeate
-
4CL2 with 4-coumarate as substrate, pH 7.5, 30C
0.1
-
ferulate
-
4CL1 with 4-coumarate as substrate, pH 7.5, 30C
0.3
-
ferulate
-
4CL2 with 4-coumarate as substrate, pH 7.5, 30C
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0396
-
propanil
-
-
0.006
-
swep
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.013
-
-
purified leaf enzyme, room temperature
0.13
-
-
purified cell culture enzyme, room temperature
0.33
-
-
purified xylem enzyme, room temperature
0.34
-
-
K211S mutant enzyme with caffeate as substrate
0.37
-
-
R449Q mutant enzyme with caffeate as substrate
0.46
-
-
K457S mutant enzyme with caffeate as substrate
2.64
-
-
E401Q mutant enzyme with caffeate as substrate
3.624
-
-
purified recombinnat enzyme, substrate 4-coumaric acid
5.64
-
-
C403A mutant enzyme with caffeate as substrate
12.5
-
-
wild type with caffeate as substrate
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
Polyporus hispidus
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
changes in phenolic acids contents in fruits during development, overview
additional information
-
-
38.3 U/mg protein, 1 unit is defined as the amount of enzyme causing an increase in absorbtion, day 2 of storage at 1C
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
8
-
adenosine 5' tetraphosphate formation
7
8
-
ATP-diphosphate exchange
7
-
-
ATP-diphosphate exchange reaction
7.3
-
-
formation of feruloyl-CoA
7.5
8
Polyporus hispidus
-
-
7.5
-
-
-
7.5
-
-
assay at
7.6
8
-
Tris-HCl or sodium-potassium phosphate buffer
7.7
-
-
formation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA, isoenzyme 2
7.8
8
-
formation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA
7.8
-
-
assay at
8.3
-
-
formation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA, isoenzyme 1
8.5
-
-
-
8.9
-
-
assay at
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4.5
9
-
half maximal activity, adenosine 5' tetraphosphate foormation
6.2
8
-
half-maximum activity at pH 6.2 and 8
6.8
7.5
-
6.8: about 80% of maximal activity, 7.5: maximal activity
7
8.5
Polyporus hispidus
-
the activity is greatly reduced below pH 7.0 and above pH 8.5
7.2
9.5
-
about 55% of maximal activity at pH 7.2 and 9.5
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
-
-
-
30
-
-
assay at
40
-
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
40
-
20C: about 70% of maximal activity, 40C: about 80% of maximal activity
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.8
-
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
calculated from amino acid sequence, isozyme 4CL1
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
apparent ectopic GUS expression in the cotyledons and mature leaves outside of the vascular tissues in some cases, but this was restricted to the veins in the wounded area in a pattern reminiscent of 4CL3 expression, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
; isozyme 4CL1 is mostly expressed in the flower
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ruta graveolens R-20
-
; isozyme 4CL1 is mostly expressed in the flower
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the enzyme is located predominantly in the secondarily thickened walls and the parenchyma cells of mesocarp vascular tissue, developmental changes in enzyme activity, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B3FES3, -
expression of 4CL in cultivar BS fruit increases during the first 6 days, again slightly preceding a rise in enzyme activity, while expression in ripening cultivar LYQ fruit remains at a relatively low level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
infected with a non pathogenic isolate of Botrytis cinerea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
apparent ectopic GUS expression in the cotyledons and mature leaves outside of the vascular tissues in some cases, but this was restricted to the veins in the wounded area in a pattern reminiscent of 4CL3 expression, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
3 isoenzymes are present at very low level of activity, isoenzyme II is the major isoenzyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme activity dominates in mesophyll protoplasts and in vascular elements, the enzyme from different tissues varies significantly in substrate specificity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
negligible expression in the root; negligible expression in the root
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ruta graveolens R-20
-
negligible expression in the root; negligible expression in the root
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
only isoenzyme I is detectable
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
etiolated
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
; isozyme 4CL2 is expressed mostly in the shoot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ruta graveolens R-20
-
; isozyme 4CL2 is expressed mostly in the shoot
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Forsythia sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
young, lignifying
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activity is controlled by light
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
differentiating
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
3 isoenzymes present
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
4CL2 is the major isoform in developing xylem extract, 4CL3 is a very minor one
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ruta graveolens R-20
-
;
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
developmental and wound-induced regulation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
-
subcellular enzyme localization in berries
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
40000
-
-
gel filtration
41000
-
-
gel filtration
50000
-
-
gel filtration
55000
-
-
gel filtration
55000
-
-
gel filtration
57000
-
-
gel filtration
57000
-
-
gel filtration
62380
-
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
calculated from amino acid sequence, isozyme 4CL1
64000
-
-
-
64000
-
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
SDS-PAGE, isozyme 4CL3
65000
-
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
SDS-PAGE, isozyme 4CL1; SDS-PAGE, isozyme 4CL2
66000
-
Q42524, Q9S725
SDS-PAGE
67000
-
-
gel filtration
75000
-
-
also 2 small peaks with MW 20000 are detected, 2 isoenzymes, which differ in ionic properties and substrate specificity can exist in two or three molecular weight forms. There is evidence that theses forms are under certain circumstances interconcertible, gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 62000, SDS-PAGE
?
Q6ETN3
x * 86000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
?
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
x * 65000, isozyme 4CL1, SDS-PAGE
?
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
x * 62384, calculated from amino acid sequence, isozyme 4CL1
?
Ruta graveolens R-20
-
x * 62384, calculated from amino acid sequence, isozyme 4CL1
-
monomer
-
1 * 63000, SDS-PAGE
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
8.5
-
stable
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
47
-
-
rapid inactivation
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
complete stabilization in presence of 30% glycerol or 30% ethylene glycol
-
sucrose stabilizes
-
purified enzyme is very labile, no stabilizer found
-
30% glycerol or 15% ethylene glycol stabilizes
-
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ethylene glycol
-
30% ethylene glycol stabilizes. Loss of activity after 7 days is reduced from 80% to about 25%
Glycerol
-
30% glycerol stabilizes. Loss of activity after 7 days is reduced from 80% to about 25%
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, 10% or 30% glycerol, or 10% ethylene glycol, stable for 10 days
-
-20C, 50% glycerol
-
1C, after two days decrease in enzyme activity
-
-20C, several weeks without significant loss of activity
-
crude enzyme preparation is unstable in buffered aqueous solution at temperatures at or above 0C
-
complete loss of activity in crude enzyme extract after 4 days at 4-6C. 0.92 M sucrose can reduce the loss of activity to 20%. Complete stabilization in presence of 30% glycerol or 30% ethylene glycol
-
-20C, 10 mM sodium/potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 42 mM mercaptoethanol, 20% ethyleneglycol, stable for several months
-
-20C, stable for 2 or 3 months, crude enzyme extract
-
stable for several weeks at -20C or two days at 0C, in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, 30% glycerol or 15% ethylene glycol
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
recombinant enzyme
-
recombinant enzyme using His-tag
-
using His-tag
-
partial
-
recombinant protein using His-tag
-
recombinant enzyme 6.3fold from Escherichia coli strain JM105 by a multistep process involving anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration
-
recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli strain JM105 by a multistep process involving anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration
-
recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21 to near homogeneity
Q6ETN3
Ni-NTA column chromatography; Ni-NTA column chromatography; Ni-NTA column chromatography; Ni-NTA column chromatography
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
recombinant protein using His-tag
-
partial
Polyporus hispidus
-
recombinant protein using His-tag
-
native and recombinant enzymes
-
Sephadex G-25 gel filtration; Sephadex G-25 gel filtration
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
; expression in together with tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Escherichia coli
-
cloning of 4CL, encoded by a family of four genes 4CL1-4CL4
-
expressed in Escherichia coli as His-tag fusion protein and in native form
Q42524, Q9S725
expressed in Escherichia coli M15 as His-tag fusion protein
-
expressed in Escherichia coli M15[pRP4] as His-tag fusion protein
-
expressed in Escherichia coli strains DH5alpha and M15
-
expression in Escherichia coli M15(pRP4)
Q9S725
expression in Lactococcus lactis
-
insertion of phenylalanine ammonia lyase from the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and chalcone synthase from the plant Hypericum androsaemum into a yeast expression vector. Each gene is under the control of its own galactose-inducible promoter. Yeast harboring this vector produces naringenin and pinocembrin through the phenylpropanoid pathway, as well as four by-products, two of which are identified as phloretin and 2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone through a sequential side reaction
Q42524
nucleotide sequence of cDNA
-
transgenic Arabidopsis plants containing the At4CL1 or At4CL2 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene show developmentally regulated GUS expression in the xylem tissues of the root and shoot, identification of regulatory genes involved in the developmental regulation of At4CL, overview
-
expressed in Escherichia coli as His-tag fusion protein
-, P31687, Q8S564, Q8S5C1, Q8S5C2
expression in Escherichia coli as His-tag fusion protein
-
expressed in Escherichia coli strains JM109 and BLR(DE3)
-
expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli strain BL21, co-expression with stilbene synthase, gene STS, from Vitis vinifera establishing an resveratrol expression system with 4-coumaric acid as precursor, biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol, overview
O24146
gene 4CL, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression in Escherichia coli strain JM105
-
gene R4CL, expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21
Q6ETN3
two distinct 4CL genes, highly homologous for several hundred base pairs
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells; expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells; expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells; expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
B7SB99, B7SBA0, B7SBA1, B7SBA2, -
60-66% sequence identity with 4-coumarate:CoA ligase sequences from herbaceous angiosperms
-
expressed in Escherichia coli as His-tag fusion protein
-
a binary vector containing Pto4CL1p promoter fused with 4CL1 gene is transferred into tobacco. The activity of the 4CL1 enzyme doubles in the stems of transgenic tobacco but does not increase in the leaves. The content of lignin is increased 25% in the stem but there is no increase in the leaves of transgenic tobacco
-
expressed in Escherichia coli as His-tag fusion protein
-
expressed in Sf9 cells using the baculovirus system
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
B3TJI4, B3TJI5
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
exposure of tea shoots to 50-100 microM catechins leads to down-regulation of the expression of 4CL
Q3HUN0
strong positive correlation coefficient between catechins content and the expression of Cs4Cl throughout a variety of environmental conditions such as drought stress, abscisic acid and gibberellic acid treatments, and wounding. Tea clones with high levels of catechins have higher expression of 4CL whereas tea clones with lower catechins exhibit lower expression of this gene
Q3HUN0
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
C403A
-
activity reduced to 45% of wild-type level, no effect on Km values for ATP and caffeate
E401Q
-
activity reduced to 21% of wild-type level, no effect on Km values for ATP and caffeate
K211S
-
activity reduced to 2.7% of wild-type level
K320A
Q9S725
new substrate specificity, accepts ferulate as substrate
K320L
Q9S725
new substrate specificity, accepts ferulate as substrate
K445T
-
activity reduced to 0.2% of wild-type level
K457S
-
activity reduced to 4% of wild-type level
K540N
-
no activity
L356A
-
only little effect on activity
M293A
Q9S725
new substrate specificity, accepts ferulate as substrate
M293A/V294L
Q9S725
substitution of valine decreases Km for ferulate 2-3fold compared to single methionine substitution mutant
M293F
Q9S725
no reaction with ferulate, increases Km for caffeate
M293P
Q9S725
new substrate specificity, accepts ferulate as substrate
M293P/K320L
-
strongly affects Km for all substrates, capable in using ferulate, capable in adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate formation at 10fold higher rate than wild type enzyme
M293P/K320L
-
effectively uses ferulate as substrate, changes in Km for all substrates
M293P/V294M
Q9S725
substitution of valine decreases Km for ferulate 2-3fold compared to single methionine substitution mutant
M293W
Q9S725
no reaction with ferulate
N256A/M293P/K320L
-
effectively uses ferulate and cinnamate as substrates, 10fold reduced activity with caffeate
R449Q
-
activity reduced to 3% of wild-type level, Km values significantly increased
V294L
Q9S725
slightly reduced activity with caffeate, no activity with ferulate
V294M
Q9S725
slightly reduced activity with caffeate, no activity with ferulate
V355A
-
strongly reduced activity
V355A/L356A
-
strongly reduced activity
E340A
-
4CL1-mutant, activity almost completely abolished
G333A
-
4CL1-mutant, activity almost completely abolished
G337A
-
4CL1-mutant, activity almost completely abolished
G342A
-
4CL1-mutant, activity almost completely abolished
I346A
-
4CL1-mutant, very low activity with all substrates
L344A
-
4CL1-mutant, activity almost completely abolished
M338A
-
4CL1-mutant, activity almost completely abolished
P285A
-
4CL1-mutant, very low activity with all substrates
P286A
-
4CL1-mutant, minor changes in activity
P343A
-
4CL1-mutant, very low activity with all substrates
Q334A
-
4CL1-mutant, very low activity with all substrates
T331A
-
4CL1-mutant, minor changes in activity
T339A
-
4CL1-mutant, activity almost completely abolished
V284A
-
4CL1-mutant, minor changes in activity
Y336A
-
4CL1-mutant, activity almost completely abolished
M293Y
Q9S725
no reaction with ferulate, increases Km for caffeate
additional information
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construction of chimeric proteins consisting of fragments of isoforms 4CL1 and 4CL2
additional information
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domain exchange experiments with gramicidine synthetase from Bacillus brevis
additional information
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generation of ethyl methyl sulfate mutagenized populations of At4CL1-GUS and At4CL2-GUS transgenic lines, DNA methylation of the proximal promoter sequences of the transgene only in the mutant lines, while silencing in the seedlings of the At4CL1-GUS lines is root-specific in seedlings, it affects all organs in the At4CL2-GUS lines, analysis of endogenous 4CL expression in epimutant lines, and phenotype analysis, overview
additional information
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expression of artificial zinc finger chimeras, e.g. transgenic lines expressing chimeras with the KOX/KRAB repression domain or the VP16 activation domain, regulates the enzyme in positive and negative manner, repression of gene 4CL1 results in reduced lignin production and severely diminished lignin distribution, while enzyme upregulation causes an increase in lignin content and ectopic lignin distribution by plant stems
M348A
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4CL1-mutant, activity almost completely abolished
additional information
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construction of hybrid enzymes using different portions of isoforms 4CL1-4CL3, some of the constructed proteins were found to be inactive
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
synthesis
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heterologous expression of biosynthetic genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase and tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana and pepper, respectively. Simultaneous supplementation of substrates to the recombinant Escherichia coli results in the secretion of multiple tyramine derivatives into the medium at high yield: 4-coumaroyltyramine at 189 mg/l, feruloyltyramine at 135 mg/l, caffeoyltyramine at 40 mg/l. The recombinant Escherichia coli also produces, albeit at low concentration, a range of dopamine derivatives such as feruloyldopamine
drug development
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the enzyme is a target for developing effective plant growth inhibitors, overview
synthesis
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crude aspen CoA ligase can be effectively and economically used to synthesize caffeoyl CoA
biotechnology
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viability of a flavonoid network to utilize acrylic acid analogues and describe the combinatorial mutasynthesis of novel unnatural flavonoids using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, overview
synthesis
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viability of a flavonoid network to utilize acrylic acid analogues and describe the combinatorial mutasynthesis of novel unnatural flavonoids using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, overview