Information on EC 6.1.1.4 - leucine-tRNA ligase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
6.1.1.4
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
leucine-tRNA ligase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu = AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Aminoacylation
esterification
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
-
-
leucine metabolism
-
-
tRNA charging
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-leucine:tRNALeu ligase (AMP-forming)
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9031-15-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MRE 600
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
-
replacement of Giardia lamblia eukarya-specific insertion 1, GlESI, by human eukarya-specific insertion 1, HsESI, impairs leucine activation, aminoacylation and post-transfer editing functions without changing the editing specificity
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2'-dATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu
2'-dAMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
3'-dATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu
3'-dAMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
8-azaadenosine 5'-triphosphate + L-leucine + tRNALeu
8-azaadenosine 5'-monophosphate + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
8-bromoadenosine 5'-triphosphate + L-leucine + tRNALeu
8-bromoadenosine 5'-monophosphate + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
8-methylaminoadenosine 5'-triphosphate + L-leucine + tRNALeu
8-methylaminoadenosine 5'-monophosphate + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate + L-leucine + tRNALeu
adenosine 5'-monophosphate + thiodiphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
Adenylyl beta,gamma-imido diphosphonate + L-leucine + tRNALeu
Adenylic acid + imido-diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
AMP + diphosphate + Ile-tRNALeu
ATP + L-isoleucine + tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-Pyrococcus horikoshii tRNALeu(GAG)
ATP + L-leucine + Pyrococcus horikoshii tRNALeu(GAG)
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 2-butynylalanine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + 2-butynylalanyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + allylglycine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + allylglycyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + homoallylglycine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + homoallylglycyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + homopropargylglycine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + homopropargylglycyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + L-didehydroleucine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + didehydroleucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction is catalyzed by mutant T252Y, not by wild-type
-
-
?
ATP + L-isoleucine + 2'-deoxaadenosine-tRNALeu
AMP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
2'-deoxyadenosine-tRNA clearly stimulates AMP production in the presence of isoleucine, but not the cognate leucine substrate
-
-
?
ATP + L-isoleucine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + L-isoleucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-leucine + Natrialba magadii tRNALeu(CAA)
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-Natrialba magadii tRNALeu(CAA)
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-leucine + Natrialba magadii tRNALeu(GAG)
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-Natrialba magadii tRNALeu(GAG)
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-leucine + Pyrococcus horikoshii tRNALeu(GAG)
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-Pyrococcus horikoshii tRNALeu(GAG)
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu
?
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu(GAG)
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu(GAG)
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu(UAA)
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu(UAA)
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu(UAG)
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu(UAG)
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu(UUR)
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu(UUR)
show the reaction diagram
-
leucyl-tRNA synthetase contacts tRNALeu(UUR) in the amino acid acid acceptor stem, the anticodon stem, and the D-loop
-
-
?
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeuA35G
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeuA35G
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeuA73
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeuA73
show the reaction diagram
-
class II tRNALeu, recognition requires the discriminator base A73 and the long variable arm of appropriate stem length, especially the specific loop sequence A47CG47D and U47H at the base of the helix
-
?
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeuA73G
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeuA73G
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeuU73
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeuU73
show the reaction diagram
-
class II tRNALeu isoacceptor, 17fold lower activity compared to tRNALeuA73
-
?
ATP + L-leucine + tRNASer mutant
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNASer mutant
show the reaction diagram
-
transplantation of both the discriminator base and the variable arm of tRNALeu are not sufficient to introduce leucylation activity to tRNASer, but additional insertion of additional a nucleotide into the D-loop, which is not involved in the direct interaction with the enzyme, converts tRNASer to an efficient leucine acceptor
-
?
ATP + L-methionine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + L-methionyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-norisoleucine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + L-norisoleucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + L-norvaline + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + L-norvalyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-oxonorvaline + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + oxonorvalyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction is catalyzed by mutant T252Y, not by wild-type
-
-
?
L-isoleucyl-tRNALeu + H2O
t-RNALeu + isoleucine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
editing activity
-
?
L-isoleucyl-tRNALeu + H2O
t-RNALeu + L-isoleucine
show the reaction diagram
-
editing activity
-
?
tubercidin 5'-triphosphate + L-leucine + tRNALeu
tubercidin 5'-phosphate + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + 2-butynylalanine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + 2-butynylalanyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + allylglycine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + allylglycyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + homoallylglycine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + homoallylglycyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + homopropargylglycine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + homopropargylglycyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu
?
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-leucine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
ATP + L-norisoleucine + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + L-norisoleucyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
ATP + L-norvaline + tRNALeu
AMP + diphosphate + L-norvalyl-tRNALeu
show the reaction diagram
-
aminoacylation by mutant T252Y
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Al3+
-
accelerates reaction
Ba2+
-
Mg2+, Mn2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ similarly effective, optimal concentration: 0.1 mM
Fe2+
-
accelerates reaction
Fe3+
-
accelerates reaction
Sn2+
-
accelerates reaction
Sn4+
-
accelerates reaction
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2E)-3-(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one
-
-
(2E)-3-(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-7-yl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one
-
-
(E)-[3-(1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborol-7-yl)]acrylic acid ethyl ester
-
-
1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl cyclohexylcarbamate
-
-
1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl phenylcarbamate
-
-
1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborole-7-carbaldehyde
-
-
1-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]-4-methylpentan-2-one
-
-
1-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]butan-2-one
-
-
1-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]pentan-2-one
-
-
2'-dATP
-
-
2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
2,1-benzoxaborole-1,6(3H)-diol
-
-
2-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]pentan-3-one
-
-
2-[3-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]propyl]-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione
-
-
3'-Amino-3'-deoxy adenosine 5'-triphosphate
-
-
3-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]-3-methylbutan-2-one
-
-
3-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]-4-methylpentan-2-one
-
-
3-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]butan-2-one
-
-
3-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]heptan-4-one
-
-
3-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]hexan-2-one
-
-
3-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]pentan-2-one
-
-
5-fluoro-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole
5-fluoro-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
6-(2,2-dimethoxyethoxy)-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-(benzyloxy)-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-(cyclohexylmethoxy)-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-(propan-2-yloxy)-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-(pyridin-2-ylmethoxy)-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-(quinolin-2-yloxy)-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-butoxy-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-dimethylaminopurine riboside 5'-triphosphate
-
-
6-ethoxy-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-mercaptopurine riboside 5'-triphosphate
-
-
6-methylaminopurine riboside 5'-triphosphate
-
-
6-propoxy-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-[(2-fluorobenzyl)oxy]-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
6-[(3-hydroxypentan-2-yl)oxy]-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
-
-
Adenine arabinoside 5'-triphosphate
-
-
adenosine
-
-
adenyl(alpha,beta-methylene)triphosphonate
-
-
adenylyl(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphonate
-
-
adenylyl(beta,gamma-methylene)diphosphonate
-
-
Al3+
-
in vitro the enzyme is inhibited by 40% at 0.04 mM, Al3+ inhibits the enzyme in vivo and in vitro, quantitative analysis, in vivo acceptor activity of tRNALeu is decreased by 23% thereby the leucyl-tRNA synthetase activity is increased by 20%, overview
Cd2+
-
in presence of 0.1 mM Mg2+
diphosphate
-
-
ethyl (2E)-3-(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)prop-2-enoate
-
-
ethyl 2-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]-2-methylpropanoate
-
-
ethyl 2-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]butanoate
-
-
ethyl 2-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]propanoate
-
-
ethyl 3-(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)propanoate
-
-
ethyl 3-(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-7-yl)propanoate
-
-
ethyl [(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy](phenyl)acetate
-
-
ethyl [(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]acetate
-
-
methyl [(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]acetate
-
-
N-ethyl-2-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]acetamide
-
-
N-tert-butyl-2-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]acetamide
-
-
NaCl
-
no activity of isoform LeuRS1 is detected in NaCl solutions
Nalidixic acid
-
-
norvaline
-
-
novobiocin
-
-
O-[N-(L-norvalyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine
analogue to the reaction intermediate, non-hydrolyzable
Oxolinic acid
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
Purine riboside 5'-triphosphate
-
-
tert-butyl [(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]acetate
-
-
tert-butyl [2-[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]ethyl]carbamate
-
-
Zn2+
-
in presence of 0.1 mM Mg2+
[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]acetaldehyde
-
-
[(1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-6-yl)oxy]acetic acid
-
-
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Al3+
-
in vivo acceptor activity of tRNALeu is decreased by 23% thereby the leucyl-tRNA synthetase activity is increased by 20%, overview
cadmium
-
-
putrescine
-
optimal concentration: 5.5 mM
spermidine
tRNALeu
additional information
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicum
-
a complex between prolyl-tRNA synthetase, ProRS, and LeuRS in Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus enhances tRNAPro aminoacylation, overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.045
3'-dATP
-
-
0.16
8-azaadenosine 5'-triphosphate
-
-
1
8-bromoadenosine 5'-triphosphate
0.07
8-Methylaminoadenosine 5'-triphosphate
-
-
0.055
adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)
-
-
0.08 - 2.177
ATP
0.002 - 0.0025
Ile-tRNALeu
1.034
L-didehydroleucine
-
mutant T252Y
0.25 - 14
L-isoleucine
0.0092 - 0.0173
L-isoleucyl-tRNALeu
0.008 - 0.05
L-Leu
0.0011 - 0.9
L-leucine
0.01251 - 0.01643
L-leucyl-Pyrococcus horikoshii tRNALeu(GAG)
0.983 - 7.5
L-methionine
0.096
L-norvaline
-
37C
2.245
L-oxonorvaline
-
mutant T252Y
0.01
Leu
0.01101 - 0.01313
Natrialba magadii tRNALeu(CAA)
0.00335 - 0.00773
Natrialba magadii tRNALeu(GAG)
0.0001 - 0.0273
tRNALeu
0.0003 - 0.0014
tRNALeu from Aquifex aeolicus
0.00076 - 0.0015
tRNALeu from Escherichia coli
0.00032 - 0.0075
tRNALeu(GAG)
0.0013 - 0.0044
tRNALeu(UAA)
0.0076
tRNALeu(UAG)
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.8), 30 mM KCl, 12 mM MgCl2, 5 mM dithiothreitol, at 30C
-
0.0179
tRNALeu(UUR)
-
-
-
0.0012
tRNALeuA35G
-
37C, pH 7.8
-
0.00052
tRNALeuA73
-
wild-type tRNALeu, pH 7.5, 37C
-
0.011
tRNALeuA73G
-
37C, pH 7.8
-
0.0002 - 0.025
tRNALeuCUN
0.0003
tRNALeuGAG
-
pH 6.8, 65C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
-
0.0047
tRNALeuU73
-
tRNALeu isoacceptor, pH 7.5, 37C
-
0.000018 - 0.006
tRNALeuUUR
0.0014
tRNASer mutant
-
pH 7.5, 37C
-
0.065
tubercidin 5'-triphosphate
-
-
additional information
additional information
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.094 - 60.2
ATP
7 - 8.8
Ile-tRNALeu
1.08
L-didehydroleucine
Escherichia coli
-
mutant T252Y
0.07 - 18
L-isoleucine
0.19 - 1.52
L-isoleucyl-tRNALeu
0.00961 - 171
L-leucine
0.00119 - 0.0418
L-leucyl-Pyrococcus horikoshii tRNALeu(GAG)
3.2 - 19
L-methionine
12.6
L-norvaline
Aquifex aeolicus
-
37C
0.06
L-oxonorvaline
Escherichia coli
-
mutant T252Y
2 - 50
Leu
2.05 - 23.8
Leu-tRNALeu
0.000418 - 0.0464
Natrialba magadii tRNALeu(CAA)
0.000668 - 0.064
Natrialba magadii tRNALeu(GAG)
13.5
norvaline
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
P26637
-
0.003 - 13.6
tRNALeu
0.006 - 1.5
tRNALeu from Aquifex aeolicus
0.003 - 0.4
tRNALeu from Escherichia coli
1.48 - 1.8
tRNALeu(GAG)
0.02 - 6.5
tRNALeu(UAA)
2
tRNALeu(UAG)
Mycoplasma mobile
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.8), 30 mM KCl, 12 mM MgCl2, 5 mM dithiothreitol, at 30C
-
0.31
tRNALeuA35G
Aquifex aeolicus
-
37C, pH 7.8
-
0.11
tRNALeuA73G
Aquifex aeolicus
-
37C, pH 7.8
-
0.35 - 24
tRNALeuCUN
1.5
tRNALeuGAG
Aquifex aeolicus
-
pH 6.8, 65C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
-
0.000018 - 0.14
tRNALeuUUR
additional information
additional information