Information on EC 5.5.1.6 - chalcone isomerase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
5.5.1.6
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
chalcone isomerase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
A chalcone = a flavanone
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
elimination/addition
-
-
intramolecular
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
echinatin biosynthesis
-
-
flavonoid biosynthesis
-
-
Flavonoid biosynthesis
-
-
flavonoid biosynthesis (in equisetum)
-
-
isoflavonoid biosynthesis I
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
naringenin biosynthesis (engineered)
-
-
pinobanksin biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
flavanone lyase (decyclizing)
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9073-57-8
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment; variant mongholicus
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chinese kale, cultivars Jianyexia and Zhonghua
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme I and II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus unshiu Guoqing No. 4 satsuma
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene GbCHI
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain T586, expression is developmentally co-regulated
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain T586, expression is developmentally co-regulated
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
RD
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene CHI
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene CHI
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
synonym Morella rubra, Chinese bayberry
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Stenocereus thurberi
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
variant Gower Ramsay
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Opuntia sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PfO-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PfO-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KT2440
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pv. syringae B728a
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MR-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Soja hispida
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene TFGCHI-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. 'Apeldoorn'
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
RIMD 2210633
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
(2R)-2-(2-fluorophenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
based on substrate (2E)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)acrylic acid in combinatorial expression system of 4-coumaroyl:Co A ligase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and flavanone 3beta-hydrolase
-
-
?
(2E)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
(2R)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
based on substrate (2E)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid in combinatorial expression system of 4-coumaroyl:Co A ligase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and flavanone 3beta-hydrolase
-
-
?
(2E)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
(2R)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
based on substrate (2E)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid in combinatorial expression system of 4-coumaroyl:Co A ligase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and flavanone 3beta-hydrolase
-
-
?
(2E)-3-(4-aminophenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
(2R)-2-(4-aminophenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
based on substrate (2E)-3-(4-aminophenyl)acrylic acid in combinatorial expression system of 4-coumaroyl:Co A ligase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and flavanone 3beta-hydrolase
-
-
?
(2E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
(2R)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
based on substrate (2E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)acrylic acid in combinatorial expression system of 4-coumaroyl:Co A ligase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and flavanone 3beta-hydrolase
-
-
?
(2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
(2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
based on substrate (2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid in combinatorial expression system of 4-coumaroyl:Co A ligase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and flavanone 3beta-hydrolase
-
-
?
2',4',6'-Trihydroxychalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2',4'-Dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methylchalcone
7-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-phenyl)-chroman-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2',4'-dihydroxychalcone
7-hydroxy-2-phenyl-chroman-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2',4'-Dihydroxychalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
Soja hispida
-
-
-
-
-
2',4-dihydroxychalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
2'-Hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
2'-hydroxychalcone
2-phenyl-chroman-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4,2',4',6'-tetrahydrochalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
4,2',4',6'-Tetrahydroxychalcone
5,7,4'-Trihydroxyflavanone
show the reaction diagram
4,2',4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone
5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-chroman-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4,2',4'-trihydrochalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
(2S)-4',7-dihydroxyflavanone
show the reaction diagram
4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-chroman-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4,2',5'-trihydroxychalcone
6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-chroman-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4,2'-dihydrochalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
4,2'-dihydroxychalcone
2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-chroman-4-one
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
6'-deoxychalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
6'-hydroxychalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
butein
butin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
chalcone
(2S)-flavanone
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Chalcone
Flavanone
show the reaction diagram
chalcone
naringenin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
eriodictyol
eriodictyol chalcone
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
?
homoeriodictyol
homoeriodictyol chalcone
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
?
isoliquiritigenin
liquiritigenin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
naringenin
naringenin chalcone
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
?
naringenin chalcone
(2S)-naringenin
show the reaction diagram
-
naringenin chalcone (6'-hydroxychalcone) is the only substrate
-
-
?
naringenin chalcone
naringenin
show the reaction diagram
phloretin
3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
6'-deoxychalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
-
two isoenzymes act on both 6'-hydroxychalcone and 6'-deoxychalcone and are presumably involved in the legume-specific 6'-deoxyflavonoid pathway, while the other acts only on 6'-hydroxychalcone
-
?
6'-hydroxychalcone
?
show the reaction diagram
-
two isoenzymes act on both 6'-hydroxychalcone and 6'-deoxychalcone and are presumably involved in the legume-specific 6'-deoxyflavonoid pathway, while the other acts only on 6'-hydroxychalcone
-
?
naringenin chalcone
naringenin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 6'-hydroxychalcone
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2',4'-Dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone
-
substrate inhibition at 0.025 mM and above
2',4'-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxychalcone
-
inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
3,9-Dihydroxypterocarpan
-
inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
4,4'-Dihydroxychalcone
-
-
5,7,2',4'-Tetrahydroxy-8-(3,3-dimethylallyl)isoflavanone
-
i.e. kievitone, inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
5,7,2',4'-Tetrahydroxyisoflavanone
-
i.e. dalbergioidin, inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone
-
i.e. 2'-hydroxygenistein, inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
5,7,3',4',5'-Pentahydroxyflavonol
-
i.e. myricetin, inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
5,7,4',5'-Tetrahydroxyflavanol
5,7,4'-Trihydroxyflavanone
5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone
-
i.e. apigenin, inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonol
5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone
-
i.e. genistein, inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
6,4'-Dihydroxyaurone
-
inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
7,12-Dihydroxycoumestan
-
i.e. coumestrol, inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
7,3',4'-Trihydroxyflavonol
-
i.e. fisetin, inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
7,3'-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonol
-
inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
7,4'-Dihydroxyflavone
-
inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
7,4'-dihydroxyflavonol
-
inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
7-Hydroxy,4'-methoxyflavone
-
inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
7-Hydroxy-3',4'-dimethylchromanocoumaran
-
i.e. phaseollin, inhibits isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
diethyl dicarbonate
-
4,4'-dihydroxychalcone protects, treatment with hydroxylamine does not restore activity. In the presence of morin hydrate, all of the histidine residues of chalcone isomerase can be modified without significant loss in catalytic activity
EDTA
-
-
10 mM, 25% inactivation
iodoacetamide
mutant enzyme Cys119Ala, is less sensitive than wild type enzyme
morin
-
competitive towards 4,2',4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone
Morin hydrate
-
competitive
N-bromosuccinimide
-
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
naringenin
-
-
0.01 mM, 30% inhibition
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
phloretin
-
-
0.001 mM, 36% inhibition
tetrathionate
-
-
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0072
2',4',6'-Trihydroxychalcone
-
isoenzyme II
0.0227
2',4'-dihydrochalcone
-
pH 7.5, 25C
0.008
2',4'-Dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone
-
-
0.021 - 0.049
2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methylchalcone
0.042 - 0.15
2',4'-dihydroxychalcone
0.01 - 0.021
2'-hydroxychalcone
0.112
4,2',4',6'-tetrahydrochalcone
-
pH 7.5, 25C
0.002 - 0.0162
4,2',4',6'-Tetrahydroxychalcone
0.0084
4,2',4'-trihydrochalcone
-
pH 7.5, 25C
0.0089 - 0.18
4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
0.015 - 0.029
4,2',5'-trihydroxychalcone
0.0425
4,2'-dihydrochalcone
-
pH 7.5, 25C
0.013 - 0.02
4,2'-dihydroxychalcone
0.0075
butein
-
-
-
0.0143
isoliquiritigenin
-
-
-
0.004
liquiritigenin
0.043
naringenin chalcone
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
calculated and experimentally-derived free-energy barriers for the Michael addition of the deprotonated forms of chalcone and 6'-deoxychalcone in aqueous solution and enzyme. Substrates may exist in at least two different conformational forms according to the relative disposition of the carbonyl group and the alpha,beta-double bond. Only the S-trans conformer, which is not the most stable one in aqueous solution, is able to proceed up to the reaction products
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
45300
2',4'-dihydrochalcone
Medicago sativa
-
pH 7.5, 25C
35.5 - 96.8
2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methylchalcone
42 - 86.3
2',4'-dihydroxychalcone
37.4 - 59.9
2'-hydroxychalcone
670800 - 671000
4,2',4',6'-tetrahydrochalcone
1.87 - 833
4,2',4',6'-Tetrahydroxychalcone
135000
4,2',4'-trihydrochalcone
Medicago sativa
-
pH 7.5, 25C
51.3 - 183
4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
32.5 - 62.5
4,2',5'-trihydroxychalcone
5526 - 5530
4,2'-dihydrochalcone
22.6 - 57.4
4,2'-dihydroxychalcone
48.33
butein
-
-
-
38.33
isoliquiritigenin
-
-
-
2300
naringenin chalcone
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
Glycine max
-
-
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
additional information
-
-
native enzyme shows lower catalytic efficacy than wild-type
2
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.2
Soja hispida
-
-
340
-
-
914
-
-
-
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 6.5
-
60% of maximal activity but only 10% of the selfcyclization is observed at pH 7.5, more acurate measurement of enzyme activity than at its optimum pH 7.5
6.6 - 7
-
-
-
7 - 8.7
-
isomerization of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
7.3 - 7.8
Soja hispida
-
-
8.2
-
4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.4 - 7.6
-
-
90% activity
additional information
-
at pH 7.5 reactions of 4,2',4',6'-tetrahydrochalcone and 4,2',4'-trihydrochalcone and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone are 90% diffusion controlled, whereas cyclization of 4,2'-dihydroxychalcone is limited by a chemical step that likely reflects the higher pKa of the 2'-hydroxyl group. At pH 6.0 the reactions with 4,2',4',6'-tetrahydrochalcone and 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone are 50% diffusion limited, whereas the reactions of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 4,2'-dihydroxychalcone are limited by chemical steps
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30
-
assay at
40
-
-
-
45
-
-
-
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4.7
-
calculated
7.76
-
sequence calulation
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
flower stalk epidermis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
infected with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
root nodule, enzyme expression is localized to the infected cells of the fixation zone
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
15600
-
meniscus-depletion equilibrium sedimentation
23640
-
amino acid sequence
27200
-
gel filtration
32500
-
-
SDS-PAGE
44000
-
enzyme from anthers, gel filtration
62500
-
enzyme from limbs, gel filtration
129000
-
-
non-denaturing PAGE
130000
-
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hexamer
-
-
6 * 32500, trimers of three dimer units as determined by crystal analysis
monomer
tetramer
-
-
4 * 30000, SDS-PAGE
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
no glycoprotein
-
-
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method
-
hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. 1.85 A resolution crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with (2S)-naringenin reveals an open-faced beta-sandwich fold
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
41
-
-
recombinant protein maintains 50% of its activity after incubation at 41C for 6 h
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, 5% glycerol, 35% loss of activity after 6 weeks
-
2C-4C, freeze-dried preparation, stable for several weeks
Soja hispida
-
4C, 0.129 mg enzyme per ml, 95% of the original activity is retained after 6 days
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
partial, 3 isoenzymes
-
recombinant enzyme
recombinant His-tagged CHI from Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3)
-
recombinant; recombinant; recombinant
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
coexpression with a 4-coumarate:CoA ligase and chalcone synthase in Escherichia coli for synthesis of unnatural flavonoids and stilbenes
-
combinatorial expression of 4-coumaroyl:Co A ligase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and flavanone 3beta-hydrolase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells
-
expressed in hairy root cultures of Glycyrrhiza uralensis
expressed in Streptomyces venezuelae strain DHS2001
-
expression in Arabidopsis thaliana transparent testa 5 mutant defective in naringenin production
-
expression in bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae; expression in bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae; expression in bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli JM109
expression in Nicotiana tabacum
-
gene CHI, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, real-time quantitative PCR expression analysis
gene GbCHI, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, real-time quantitative PCR expression analysis, recombinant expression of His-tagged CHI in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3)
-
gene SbCHI, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tree
gene TFGCHI-1, cloning from leaves, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic tree, quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis, recombinant expression in Escherichia coli strains DH10B and BL21(DE3), functional complementation of CHI-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana loss-of-function mutant tt5
-
isolation of cDNA
-
overexpressed in Escherichia coli
-
overexpression in Escherichia coli
overexpression in Saussurea involucrata
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
gene GbCHI is upregulated by UV-B irradiation or treatment with 5-aminolevulinic acid or three plant growth regulator, i.e. ethylene, abscisic acid, and chlormequat, expression analysis, and analysis of the GbCHI promoter region, overview
-
increase at stage of pigmetation inititation
induction of gene cHI expression by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini inoculation and by increased sucrose
SbCHI is induced by treatment with wounding or methyl jasmonate
transcription of MpCHI is up-regulated by 500 mM NaCl
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C119A
mutant enzyme Cys119Ala, is less sensitive to SH-inhibitors, shows chalcone isomerase activity
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
-
transgenic tobacco overexpressing Saussurea medusa enzyme SmCHI produces up to fivefold more total flavonoids than wild-type, mainly due to accumulation of rutin. Transgenic tobacco treated with antisense SmCHI accumulates smaller amounts of flavonoids
analysis
-
improvements in assay procedure
synthesis