Information on EC 5.5.1.18 - lycopene epsilon-cyclase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
5.5.1.18
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
lycopene epsilon-cyclase
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
carotenoid psi-end group = carotenoid epsilon-end group
show the reaction diagram
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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Carotenoid biosynthesis
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delta-carotene biosynthesis
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lactucaxanthin biosynthesis
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Metabolic pathways
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carotenoid biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
carotenoid psi-end group lyase (decyclizing)
The carotenoid lycopene has the psi-end group at both ends. When acting on one end, this enzyme forms delta-carotene. When acting on both ends, it forms epsilon-carotene.
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
i.e. Chromochloris zofingiensis, single copy gene Czlcy-e
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Nongdafu 14, gene IbLCYe
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
single copy gene MpLcy-e
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. japonica
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Red Setter, gene Lcy-e
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
a NNFLEETNN motif, conserved in plant beta-cyclases, is present in an equivalent position in LCYe homologues in the form of NNFFEETNN
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
delta-carotene
epsilon-carotene
show the reaction diagram
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?
gamma-carotene
alpha-carotene
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
lycopene
delta-carotene
show the reaction diagram
lycopene
delta-carotene + beta-carotene + alpha-carotene + epsilon-carotene
show the reaction diagram
lycopene
epsilon-carotene
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
delta-carotene
epsilon-carotene
show the reaction diagram
W0SAP4
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-
?
gamma-carotene
alpha-carotene
show the reaction diagram
W0SAP4
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-
-
?
lycopene
delta-carotene
show the reaction diagram
lycopene
delta-carotene + beta-carotene + alpha-carotene + epsilon-carotene
show the reaction diagram
Q8LJ81
the enzyme OsLCYe catalyzes the formation of beta-carotene or delta-carotene from lycopene, and as side activities the formation of gamma-, alpha-, or epsilon-carotene from lycopene, reactions catalyzed by OsLCYe, overview
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?
lycopene
epsilon-carotene
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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Q8LJ81
5-cis-lycopene is not involved in the reaction with OsLCYe acting as an exclusion filter for this naturally occurring isomer. Using liposomes containing 5-cis-lycopene, OsLCYe produces the same moncyclic gamma/delts-carotene pattern as with all-trans-lycopene
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
FMN
FAD or FMN, the enzyme depends on reduced flavin cofactors stabilizing a transient state formed during the non-redox cyclization reaction
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37
assay at
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.95
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sequence calculation
8.45
sequence calculation
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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lower enzyme expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expression levels are similar in males and females
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
47000
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x * 47000, about, sequence calculation
71100
x * 71100, about, sequence calculation
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant enzyme construct His6-GST-3C-OsLCYe harboring a His6-tag, a GST-tag, and a 3C protease cleavage site, from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) to a low level
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
expression in Escherichia coli results in the simultaneous accumulation of alpha- beta-, delta-, and epsilon-carotene
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gene IbLCYe, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis, 4029 bp and 5 introns and 6 exons deduced, real-time quantitative PCR expression analysis, heterologous expression in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 transfection leads to accumulation of significantly increased beta-carotene compared to the untransformed control plants
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gene Lcy-e, expression in tomato fruits under control of the 35S CaMV promoter in cotyledons via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, the transgenic plants show increased lutein levels, quantitative real-time quantitative PCR expression analysis
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gene MpLCYe, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
recombinant expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) of diverse constructs of the enzyme in fusion with GST,HNGW, HXGW, His3 or His6 tags, and in fusion with maltose-binding protein tags, 3C protease cleavage site, N-utilizing substance A, or thioredoxin, for in vivo complementation, the plasmids are transformed into Escherichia coli strain JM109 containing the plasmid pFarbeR enabling lycopene synthesis
single copy gene Czlcy-e, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tree, heterologous expression and complementation in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
high irradiance stress does not increase mRNA levels of lycopene epsilon-cyclase gene lcy-e as compared with low irradiance conditions
the enzyme is downregulated before fruit ripening through a tightly regulated physiological mechanism
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
A447S
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like the wild-type enzyme the mutant enzyme adds two epsilon-rings to lycopene, forming epsilon-carotene
L448H
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the mutant adds two epsilon-ring to lycopene, forming epsilon-carotene
L448R
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the mutant adds two epsilon-ring to lycopene, forming epsilon-carotene
H457D
the mutant enzyme forms a higher amount of ratio delta-carotene compared to the wild-type enzyme
H457L
the mutant adds only one epsilon-ring to lycopene, forming delta-carotene
H457R
like the wild-type enzyme the mutant enzyme predominantly form epsilon-carotene (91%)
H457D
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the mutant enzyme forms a higher amount of ratio delta-carotene compared to the wild-type enzyme
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H457L
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the mutant adds only one epsilon-ring to lycopene, forming delta-carotene
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H457R
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like the wild-type enzyme the mutant enzyme predominantly form epsilon-carotene (91%)
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additional information