Information on EC 5.4.2.10 - phosphoglucosamine mutase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
5.4.2.10
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
phosphoglucosamine mutase
-
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate = D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
The enzyme is involved in the pathway for bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, being an essential step in the pathway for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis. The enzyme from E. coli is activated by phosphorylation and can be autophosphorylated in vitro by glucosamine 1,6-bisphosphate, which is an intermediate in the reaction, glucose 1,6-bisphosphate or ATP. It can also catalyse the interconversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate, although at a much lower rate
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
isomerization
-
-
isomerization
-
-
isomerization
-
-
intramolecular; intramolecular phosphate group transfer
-
isomerization
Streptococcus gordonii DL1, Streptococcus mutans UA159
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
anhydromuropeptides recycling
-
-
CMP-legionaminate biosynthesis I
-
-
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis I
-
-
UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis
-
-
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Biosynthesis of antibiotics
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
alpha-D-glucosamine 1,6-phosphomutase
The enzyme is involved in the pathway for bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide biosyntheses, being an essential step in the pathway for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis. The enzyme from Escherichia coli is activated by phosphorylation and can be autophosphorylated in vitro by alpha-D-glucosamine 1,6-bisphosphate, which is an intermediate in the reaction, alpha-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate or ATP. It can also catalyse the interconversion of alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate, although at a much lower rate.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
aminodeoxyglucose phosphate phosphomutase
-
-
-
-
GlmM
Methanococcus maripaludis 900
-
-
GlmM
-
gene name
GlmM
Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155
-
gene name
-
GlmM
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
;
-
GlmM
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
-
glucosamine phosphomutase
-
-
-
-
MMP1077
Methanococcus maripaludis 900
-
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase
-
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase
-
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
-
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9031-92-9
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
constitutive gene glmM
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Methanococcus maripaludis 900
strain 900
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155
gene glmM
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DL1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
strain DL1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
strain DL1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain UA159
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
glmM mutation causes marked elongation of the streptococcal chains, enlargement of bacterial cells, increased distortion of the bacterial cell surface, and defects in cell separation
malfunction
-
enzyme knockdown results in a decline of cell growth
malfunction
Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155
-
enzyme knockdown results in a decline of cell growth
-
malfunction
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
glmM mutation causes marked elongation of the streptococcal chains, enlargement of bacterial cells, increased distortion of the bacterial cell surface, and defects in cell separation
-
metabolism
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase is involved in the formation of glucosamine-1-phosphate from glucosamine-6-phosphate, the second step in UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway
metabolism
Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase is involved in the formation of glucosamine-1-phosphate from glucosamine-6-phosphate, the second step in UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway
-
physiological function
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase catalyzes the conversion of glucosamine 6-phosphate to glucosamine 1-phosphate, an early step in the formation of the nucleotide sugar UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, which is involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis
physiological function
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase catalyzes the interconversion of glucosamine 6-phosphate to glucosamine 1-phosphate, an essential step in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of the peptidoglycan precursor uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine
physiological function
phosphoglucosamine mutase functions in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan
physiological function
-
GlmM is involved in bacterial cell growth, morphology, biofilm formation, and sensitivity to penicillins
physiological function
-
the enzyme is essential for the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis
physiological function
Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155
-
the enzyme is essential for the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis
-
physiological function
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
GlmM is involved in bacterial cell growth, morphology, biofilm formation, and sensitivity to penicillins; phosphoglucosamine mutase catalyzes the interconversion of glucosamine 6-phosphate to glucosamine 1-phosphate, an essential step in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of the peptidoglycan precursor uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine
-
physiological function
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase functions in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
r
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155
-
-
-
r
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanococcus maripaludis 900
-
-
r
alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate
alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanococcus maripaludis 900
-
-
?
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
ping-pong bi-bi reaction mechanism
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
ping-pong bi-bi reaction mechanism, two basically different reaction sequences, 1. phosphate group transfer yielding the intermediate D-GlcN-1,6-diphosphate, 2. conversion to GlcN-1-phosphate
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
r
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
r
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
-
-
r
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
-
r
D-glucose 1-phosphate
D-glucose 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
in the presence of Glc-1,6-diphosphate, 1400fold lower activity than for D-glucosamine 1-phosphate or D-glucosamine 1,6-diphosphate, ping-pong reaction mechanism
-
?
D-glucose 1-phosphate
D-glucose 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
50fold lower activity than phosphoglucosamine mutase activity
-
?
D-Mannose 1-phosphate
D-Mannose 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
5fold lower activity than phosphoglucosamine mutase activity
-
?
additional information
?
-
activity of GlmU and GlmM from Lactobacillus casei in a coupled enzymatic assay
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8DTC6
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
B3WD16
-
-
r
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155
-
-
-
r
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8DTC6
-
-
?
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
ping-pong bi-bi reaction mechanism
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
ping-pong bi-bi reaction mechanism, two basically different reaction sequences, 1. phosphate group transfer yielding the intermediate D-GlcN-1,6-diphosphate, 2. conversion to GlcN-1-phosphate
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucoamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in formation of cell-wall precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
r
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
-
-
r
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Mg2+
-
essential for autophosphorylation and catalytic activity
Mg2+
activity is 95% lower when MgCl2 is used instead of MnCl2
Mn2+
required for activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Ca2+
-
80% reduced activity
EDTA
-
abolishes autophosphorylation and catalytic activity
Mn2+
-
80% reduced activity
Zn2+
-
efficient autophosphorylation, but absence of catalytic activity
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
required to activate the enzyme
D-glucosamine 1,6-diphosphate
-
retains the enzyme in an active and phosphorylated form
D-glucose 1,6-diphosphate
-
retains the enzyme in an active and phosphorylated form
D-glucose 1,6-diphosphate
-
100fold activation
D-glucose 1,6-diphosphate
-
20fold activation at 0.7 mM
dithiothreitol
1 mM, required for maximal activity
additional information
no activity is observed with ATP as an activator
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.08
D-glucosamine 1,6-diphosphate
-
-
0.08
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
-
-
0.05
D-Glucosamine 6-phosphate
-
-
0.5
D-glucose 1,6-diphosphate
-
-
0.08
D-glucose 1-phosphate
-
single mutation S100T
0.65
D-glucose 1-phosphate
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.52
alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
Methanococcus maripaludis
Q6LYB4
-
0.1
alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate
Methanococcus maripaludis
Q6LYB4
-
2.42
D-Glucosamine 6-phosphate
Escherichia coli
-
6 x His-tagged recombinant enzyme
7.9
D-Glucosamine 6-phosphate
Escherichia coli
-
-
0.0055
D-glucose 1-phosphate
Escherichia coli
-
-
0.0138
D-glucose 1-phosphate
Escherichia coli
-
single-mutation S100T
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.007
-
substrate: D-glucose 6-phosphate
0.06
-
substrate: D-glucose 1-phosphate
0.55
-
substrate: D-mannose 1-phosphate
2.5
-
substrate: D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
3
-
6x His-tagged recombinant enzyme
10
-
substrate: D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
strain BL23 does not produce exopolysaccharides, therefore it might be a suitable host for the production of oligosaccharides
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (strain SCHU S4 / Schu 4)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
48370
calculated from amino acid sequence
692372
50000
His-tagged recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
692372
50000
SDS-PAGE
692855
50960
-
-
701529
93100
dynamic light scattering
715384
340000
gel filtration
692855
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
homodimer
2 * 51000, X-ray crystallography
trimer
-
3 * 47412, gel filtration, mass spectrometry
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phosphoprotein
-
in vitro autophosphorylation at S102 in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP
phosphoprotein
-
the only phosphogroup at Ser102
phosphoprotein
-
-
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
the crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis phosphoglucosamine mutase is determined to a resolution of 2.7 A
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
using His-Select Ni-Affinity gel
-
near homogeneity
-
near homogeneity, recombinant enzyme
-
near homogeneity; near homogeneity, recombinant enzyme
-
near homogeneity, recombinant enzyme
-
Ni+ affinity column chromatography
near homogeneity, recombinant enzyme
-
to homogeneity, recombinant enzyme
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
into the pDONR221 vector and subsequently into the pDEST17 vector for expression in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 cells
-
overexpression in Escherichia coli
-
overexpression in Escherichia coli
-
gene glmM, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, transcriptional and expression analysis, recombinant overexpression in Lactobacillus casei BL23 leading to a 6.43fold increased enzyme activity
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
gene glmM, subcloning in Escherichia coli strain NOvaBlue
-
overexpression in Escherichia coli
-
overexpression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3) cells
into the pFW5 (Spec_r) Escherichia coli - streptococcus shuttle plasmid to create the mutant glmM gene, into the shuttle vector pDL289 to complement the glmM-deficient mutant strain
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a glmM-deficient Streptococcus mutans strain is used
a glmM-deficient Streptococcus mutans strain is used
-
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
S100A
-
50fold less active
S100A
-
very low activity
S100T
-
contributes to the specificity towards sugar- or aminosugar-phosphates, much more efficient in catalysis of the phosphoglucose mutase reaction
S102A
-
completely inactive, loss of autophosphorylation ability
glmM mutant
-
mutation resulted in increased sensitivity to polymorphonuclear leukocyte, PMN, -dependent killing, mutant induces increased superoxide anion production and lysozyme release by PMNs, mutant is more sensitive to lysozyme
glmM mutant
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
mutation resulted in increased sensitivity to polymorphonuclear leukocyte, PMN, -dependent killing, mutant induces increased superoxide anion production and lysozyme release by PMNs, mutant is more sensitive to lysozyme
-
glmM mutant
mutant shows an altered general phenotype, reduced growth rate and increased autolysis, mutation results in defect biofilm formation
glmM mutant
-
mutant shows an altered general phenotype, reduced growth rate and increased autolysis, mutation results in defect biofilm formation
-
S102A
-
site of phosphorylation, no activity
additional information
metabolic engineering of Lactobacillus casei for production of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
additional information
-
generation of a glmM knockout strain with highly reduced enzyme activity, growth of the strain is inducible by tetracycline, cells show morphological changes, phenotype, overview
additional information
Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155
-
generation of a glmM knockout strain with highly reduced enzyme activity, growth of the strain is inducible by tetracycline, cells show morphological changes, phenotype, overview
-
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
medicine
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase could be a a novel drug target
medicine
Streptococcus gordonii DL1
-
phosphoglucosamine mutase could be a a novel drug target
-
medicine
the glmM gene may have a constructive role in the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans
medicine
-
the glmM gene may have a constructive role in the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans
-