Information on EC 5.3.99.8 - capsanthin/capsorubin synthase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
5.3.99.8
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
capsanthin/capsorubin synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
antheraxanthin = capsanthin
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
violaxanthin = capsorubin
show the reaction diagram
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-
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
intramolecular oxidoreduction
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isomerization
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
capsanthin and capsorubin biosynthesis
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Carotenoid biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
violaxanthin---capsorubin isomerase (ketone-forming)
This multifunctional enzyme is induced during chromoplast differentiation in plants [1]. Isomerization of the epoxide ring of violaxanthin gives the cyclopentyl-ketone of capsorubin or capsanthin.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
162032-85-1
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Capsicum sp.
red peppers accumulate increasing levels of total carotenoids during ripening, whereas non-red peppers accumulate lower levels of total carotenoids of varying composition. The expression levels of the phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and capsanthin-capsorubin synthase genes are high in peppers with high levels of total carotenoid. The gene of capsanthin-capsorubin synthase is present in two Capsicum varieties whose ripe colour is yellow
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene Llccs
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
capsanthin-capsorubin synthase catalyzes the conversion of antheraxanthin and violaxanthin into capsanthin and capsorubin, respectively.The orange color of tiger lily flowers is due, primarily, to the accumulation of the two kappa-xanthophylls, capsanthin and capsorubin
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
antheraxanthin
capsanthin
show the reaction diagram
antheraxanthin
capsanthin + 5,6-diepikarpoxanthin
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
violaxanthin
capsorubin
show the reaction diagram
violaxanthin
capsorubin + capsanthin-5,6-epoxide + 5,6-diepilatoxanthin
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
antheraxanthin
capsanthin
show the reaction diagram
J9PDV1
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-
-
?
violaxanthin
capsorubin
show the reaction diagram
J9PDV1
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-
-
?
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
FAD
the enzyme contains one noncovalently bound FAD that is essential for enzyme activity only in the presence of NADPH, which functions as the FAD reductant
NADPH
the enzyme contains one noncovalently bound FAD that is essential for enzyme activity only in the presence of NADPH, which functions as the FAD reductant
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.0073
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SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
the expression of Llccs is spatially and temporally regulated, with expression in flower buds and flowers but not in vegetative tissues, expression analysis, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
the enzyme contains a predicted N-terminal plastid-targeting sequence
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
50000
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1 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
60000
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gel filtration
66000
1 * 66000, SDS-PAGE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
monomer
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Q-Sepharose column chromatography, Affigel 501 gel filtration, Mono-P column chromatography, and Sephacryl gel filtration, and Superose 6 gel filtration
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
cDNA encoding capsanthin-capsorubin synthase is placed under the transcriptional control of a tobamovirus subgenomic promoter. Leaves from transfeceted plants expressing capsanthin-capsorubin synthase develop an orange phenotype and accumulate high levels of capsanthin. This phenomenon is associated with thylakoid membrane distortion and reduction of grana stacking
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expressed in Escherichia coli TOPO10 cells
gene Llccs, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, RT-PCR expression analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tree, functional transgenic expression in in callus tissue of Iris germanica using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with the binary vector pWBVec10a/P35S::Llccs::TNos, cloning of the Llccs promoter
the promoter of Capsicum annum capsanthin/capsorubin synthase is strongly upregulated during tomato ripening of transgenic tomato plants that produce fruits of the climacteric type (characterized by an increase in respiration and ethylene production). Induction occurs at the mature green stage preceding ripening. Ethylene positively influences the expression of the gene in tomato. Water loss strongly induces the promoter
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
E295A
the mutation completely abolishes the formation of beta-carotene and kappa-cyclic carotenoids by CCS
E295K
the mutation completely abolishes the formation of beta-carotene and kappa-cyclic carotenoids by CCS
E295R
the mutation completely abolishes the formation of beta-carotene and kappa-cyclic carotenoids by CCS
H360A
the mutant shows completely abolished activity
H360K
the mutant shows partially recovered activity
H360R
the mutant shows partially recovered activity
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
Capsicum sp.
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red peppers accumulate increasing levels of total carotenoids during ripening, whereas non-red peppers accumulate lower levels of total carotenoids of varying composition. The expression levels of the phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and capsanthin-capsorubin synthase genes are high in peppers with high levels of total carotenoid. The gene of capsanthin-capsorubin synthase is present in two Capsicum varieties whose ripe colour is yellow