Information on EC 5.1.1.9 - arginine racemase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Pseudomonas

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
5.1.1.9
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
arginine racemase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-arginine = D-arginine
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
racemization
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-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
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Lysine degradation
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Metabolic pathways
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
arginine racemase
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37290-94-1
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Pseudomonas graveolens
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-alanine
L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
D-arginine
L-arginine
show the reaction diagram
D-lysine
L-lysine
show the reaction diagram
-
103% activity compared to D-arginine
-
-
?
D-ornithine
L-ornithine
show the reaction diagram
-
42% activity compared to D-arginine
-
-
?
L-2,3-Diaminopropionate
D-2,3-Diaminopropionate
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas graveolens
-
-
-
-
L-2,4-Diaminobutyrate
D-2,4-Diaminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas graveolens
-
-
-
-
L-alanine
D-alanine
show the reaction diagram
L-Arg
D-Arg
show the reaction diagram
L-arginine
D-arginine
show the reaction diagram
L-Citrulline
D-Citrulline
show the reaction diagram
L-Ethionine
D-Ethionine
show the reaction diagram
L-Glu
D-Glu
show the reaction diagram
L-Homoarginine
D-Homoarginine
show the reaction diagram
L-Homocitrulline
D-Homocitrulline
show the reaction diagram
L-Lys
D-Lys
show the reaction diagram
L-lysine
D-lysine
show the reaction diagram
-
104% activity compared to L-arginine
-
-
?
L-Met
D-Met
show the reaction diagram
L-Orn
D-Orn
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas graveolens
-
-
-
-
L-Ornithine
D-Ornithine
show the reaction diagram
L-Theanine
D-Theanine
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas graveolens
-
-
-
-
N5-Acetyl-L-Orn
N4-Acetyl-L-Orn
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas graveolens
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-
-
-
N6-Acetyl-L-Lys
N6-AcetylD-Lys
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas graveolens
-
-
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additional information
?
-
Pseudomonas graveolens
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the enzyme catylzes transamination between L-Orn or D-Orn and pyruvate with the formation of racemic Ala and DELTA1-pyrroline-2-carboxylic acid. The rate of transamination is very low as compared to that of racemization
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-arginine
L-arginine
show the reaction diagram
-
racemization of arginine is a two-step mechanism, intermediate is 2-keto-arginine, a first enzyme (DauA) catalyzes oxidative deamination of D-arginine into 2-ketoarginine and ammonia, and the second enzyme DauB is able to use 2-ketoarginine and ammonia as substrates and convert them into L-arginine in the presence of NADPH or NADH, DauA and DauB are coupled catabolic and anabolic dehydrogenases to perform D-to-L racemization of arginine, which serves as prerequisite of D-arginine utilization through L-arginine catabolic pathways
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ir
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
D-Orn
DL-Penicillamine
Pseudomonas graveolens
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-
hydroxylamine
Pseudomonas graveolens
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L-2,4-diaminobutyrate
Pseudomonas graveolens
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-
L-Orn
Pseudomonas graveolens
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inactivated by preliminary incubation at pH 10.0. The inactivation is prevented and the inactivated enzyme is reactivated by addition of pyruvate or oxaloacetate
N4-Acetyl-L-Orn
Pseudomonas graveolens
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inactivated by preliminary incubation at pH 10.0. The inactivation is prevented and the inactivated enzyme is reactivated by addition of pyruvate or oxaloacetate
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
8.8 - 15
D-alanine
1
D-Arg
Pseudomonas graveolens
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-
1 - 1.2
D-arginine
1.8 - 2.4
D-Lysine
3.1 - 3.6
D-ornithine
8.4 - 15.7
L-alanine
1 - 1.2
L-arginine
1.8 - 2.4
L-lysine
3 - 3.7
L-ornithine
0.0004
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Pseudomonas graveolens
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-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2.6 - 6.8
D-alanine
94.6 - 119
D-arginine
81.7 - 104
D-Lysine
67.5 - 83.3
D-ornithine
2.4 - 6.3
L-alanine
93.5 - 119
L-arginine
84.9 - 109
L-lysine
68.8 - 87.7
L-ornithine
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.17 - 0.77
D-alanine
164
94.6 - 96
D-arginine
1255
43.7 - 45.1
D-Lysine
1531
22.1 - 23
D-ornithine
2550
0.15 - 0.74
L-alanine
103
92.6 - 101
L-arginine
123
46.2 - 47.4
L-lysine
134
22.9 - 23.4
L-ornithine
192
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
10.5
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periplasmic arginine racemase activity, mutant enzyme C74A/C73A, in 0.6 M CHES-NaOH buffer (pH 10.0). 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, at 37C
70.2
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periplasmic arginine racemase activity, wild type enzyme, in 0.6 M CHES-NaOH buffer (pH 10.0). 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, at 37C
1250
Pseudomonas graveolens
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pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7 - 10
Pseudomonas graveolens
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theanine
7.5 - 10.6
Pseudomonas graveolens
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L-Lys
7.5 - 8.5
Pseudomonas graveolens
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Orn
9 - 10.6
Pseudomonas graveolens
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D-Arg
10 - 10.6
Pseudomonas graveolens
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11
Pseudomonas graveolens
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transamination
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
42000
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2 * 42000
167000
Pseudomonas graveolens
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sedimentation equilibrium method
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
homodimer
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-
Pseudomonas graveolens
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GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate slighly increases stability
Pseudomonas graveolens
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the disulfide bond of ArgR is essential for ArgR to fold
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STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
3-7C, as a suspension in 0.02 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, containing 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and 60% saturated ammonium sulfate, stable for 6 months
Pseudomonas graveolens
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C47A/C73A