Information on EC 4.99.1.2 - alkylmercury lyase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.99.1.2
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
alkylmercury lyase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
an alkylmercury + H+ = an alkane + Hg2+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
elimination
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
phenylmercury acetate degradation
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
alkylmercury mercuric-lyase (alkane-forming)
Acts on CH3Hg+ and a number of other alkylmercury compounds, in the presence of cysteine or other thiols, liberating mercury as a mercaptide.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
72560-99-7
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
isoform MerB3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; isoform MerB3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
overproducing strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain R831b
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Tn21
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Flavobacterium rigense
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Bacillus subtilis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Bacillus subtilis 168
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MR-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MR-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
eastern cottonwood
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
-
key enzyme for the detoxification and bioremediation of the organomercurial compound
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
alkyl mercuric halides + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
CH3Hg+ + H+
CH4 + Hg2+
show the reaction diagram
CH3Hg+ + H+
Hg2+ + CH4
show the reaction diagram
crotonyl mercuric bromide + H+
C5H12 + Hg2+ + Br-
show the reaction diagram
ethylmercuric chloride + H+
C2H6 + Hg2+ + Cl-
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ethylmercury chloride
?
show the reaction diagram
merB3 gene product
-
?
ethylmercury chloride
Hg2+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
fluorescein mercury acetate
?
show the reaction diagram
merB3 gene product
-
?
methylmercuric chloride + H+
CH4 + Hg2+ + Cl-
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylmercury chloride
?
show the reaction diagram
merB3 gene product
-
?
methylmercury chloride
Hg2+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
organo-tin compounds
?
show the reaction diagram
-
degradation of biocides, resistant organisms
-
-
-
organomercurial salts
?
show the reaction diagram
-
microbial detoxification
-
-
-
organomercurial salts + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
primary, secondary, tertiary, alkyl, vinyl, allyl, aryl
-
-
?
organotannanes + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-chloromercuribenzoate
Hg2+ + p-hydroxybenzoate
show the reaction diagram
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate + H+
Hg2+ + p-hydroxybenzoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phenyl mercuric acetate + H+
benzene + Hg2+ + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phenylmercuric acetate + H+
benzene + Hg+ + Cl-
show the reaction diagram
phenylmercuric chlorides + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
phenylmercury acetate
?
show the reaction diagram
RHg+ + H+
RH + Hg2+
show the reaction diagram
tetramethyltin + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tetravinyltin + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thimerosal
?
show the reaction diagram
merB3 gene product
-
?
thimerosal
Hg2+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
thimerosal + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
triethylvinyltin + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trimethyltin + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trimethyltin fluoride + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
vinyl mercuric bromide + H+
ethene + Hg+ + Br-
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
CH3Hg+ + H+
CH4 + Hg2+
show the reaction diagram
-
theoretical insights into the mechanism of Hg-C bond protonolysis in methyl mercury coordinated by the tris(2-mercapto-1-tert-butylimidazolyl)hydroborato ligand, the structural and functional analogue of the organomercurial lyase MerB, different cleavage pathways including both frontside and backside attack transition states are systematically studied by the hybrid density functional method B3LYP
-
-
?
organo-tin compounds
?
show the reaction diagram
-
degradation of biocides, resistant organisms
-
-
-
organomercurial salts
?
show the reaction diagram
-
microbial detoxification
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
-
no cofactors
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
no associated metals
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
CH3Hg+
the growth rates of both the wild-type and ppk/merT-transgenic tobacco callus are largely inhibited by CH3Hg+ in a dose-dependent manner
dimethyltin dibromide
-
-
dithiothreitol
iodoacetamide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
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-
additional information
-
strong substrate inhibition above 1 mM
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
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-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3.3
cis-2-butenylmercuric chloride
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-
1.3
crotonylmercuric bromide
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-
0.02
methoxy-ethylmercury chloride
-
-
0.024
methyl mercuric chloride
-
-
0.5
methylmercuric chloride
-
-
0.9
n-butylmercuric chloride
-
-
0.053
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid
-
-
0.11 - 0.6
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
0.0095 - 0.9
phenylmercuric acetate
0.8
sec-butylmercuric bromide
-
-
0.8
tert-butylmercuric chloride
-
-
0.5
tetravinyltin
-
-
0.0153
thiomersol
-
-
-
1
triethylvinyltin
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-
1
vinylmercuric bromide
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TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4
cis-2-butenyl mercuric chloride
Escherichia coli
-
-
0.0167
methyl mercuric chloride
Escherichia coli
-
-
0.333
n-butyl mercurial
Escherichia coli
-
-
-
0.00333
tetravinyltin
Escherichia coli
-
-
additional information
additional information
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 9
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-
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37
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enzyme assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30 - 60
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-
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
19000
-
gel filtration
32000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
monomer
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1 * 22400, SDS-PAGE
additional information
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MerB has a high structural similarity to the copper binding protein NosL, MerB and apo NosL are the only members of a new structural superfamily, each containing two perpendicularly arranged bbab motifs
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
purified recombinant wild-type and mutant MerBs. MerB, C96S MerB, C159S MerB, and C160S MerB, in the free and mercury-bound form, by vapor diffusion at 23C and pH 5.5 using either a 1:1 or 1:2 mixture of protein solution, containing 8 mg/ml initial protein concentration, and precipitant buffer, respectively, that is equilibrated against a reservoir of precipitant buffer , X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.6-1.8 A resolution
X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the enzyme/Hg/dithiothreitol complex
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GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
inactivated by freezing
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
stable for at least 3 months, pH 7.5, 5% glycerol, 2C
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Agrobacterium tumefaciens are transfected with MerB, leaves of Populus deltoides are transfected with MerB by soaking in MerB transfected Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria, generation of transgenic merB Populus deltoides plants which are more resistant to organic mercury than wild-type plants in vitro, probably by converting it to Hg(II) in plant tissues
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co-expression in Escherichia coli DH5alpha with the luciferase gene luxAB from Vibrio harveyi
enzyme plasmid gene in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli
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expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells
expression in Escherichia coli BL21-DE3
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gene merB, overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana of cytoplasmic MerB allows the transgenic plants to grow at 5fold higher methyl mercury concentrations compared to wild-type controls, the additional expression of merApe9 in merA/merB hybrid plants further improves tolerance by a factor of 10 and promots efficient phenyl mercury removal and Hg0 volatization from a model solution, overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts, the phenotype shows doubled biomass yield with seedlings grown on medium with 0.4 mM phenyl-Hg2+. More than a 10fold higher volatization rate is further achieved by the targeting of MerB in the endoplasmic reticulum of merA/merB, where MerB exhibits more than 20times higher specific activity than in plants with cytoplasmically distributed MerB
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gene pIAAD3, expression in Escherichia coli strains DH5ALPHA and SG13009
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C159S
site-directed mutagenesis, inactive mutant
C160S
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant enzyme with moderately reduced activity
C96S
site-directed mutagenesis, inactive mutant
C160S
-
50% inhibition by dithiothreitol in 20 mM cysteine
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
biotechnology
environmental protection
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