Information on EC 4.6.1.1 - adenylate cyclase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
4.6.1.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
adenylate cyclase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP = 3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
P-O bond cleavage
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Purine metabolism
-
-
purine metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing; 3',5'-cyclic-AMP-forming)
Also acts on dATP to form 3',5'-cyclic dAMP. Requires pyruvate. Activated by NAD+ in the presence of EC 2.4.2.31 NAD(P)+---arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
3',5'-cyclic AMP synthetase
-
-
-
-
AC2
-
-
-
-
AC3
-
-
-
-
ACTP10
-
-
-
-
adenyl cyclase
-
-
-
-
Adenylate cyclase, olfactive type
-
-
-
-
adenylyl cyclase
-
-
-
-
Adenylyl cyclase type 10
-
-
-
-
adenylylcyclase
-
-
-
-
ATP pyrophosphate-lyase
-
-
-
-
Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase
-
-
-
-
Ca(2+)/calmodulin activated adenylyl cyclase
-
-
-
-
cyclase, adenylate
-
-
-
-
Edema factor
-
-
-
-
Rutabaga protein
-
-
-
-
xlAC
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9012-42-4
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PCC 7120
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PCC 7120, class III type adeylyl caclase
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PCC 7120
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene cyaC
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Beggiatoa sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
silkworm
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain RB50, no expression in strain 253, gene cyaA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene cyaA
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Tohama I
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains Tohama and 18323, gene cyaA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene cyaA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
calf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SC5314
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 13032
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
class I AC gene
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ADCY6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC
Genbank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC3
Genbank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC4
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC5; isoenzyme AC9
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC7
Genbank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC8
Genbank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme AC9
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme AC10, gene ADCY10
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme AC3; isozyme AC3
Genbank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme AC6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme AC6
Genbank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme ACVI
Genbank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alfalfa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
129:BL6 background
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AC3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AC6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AC7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
adult male C57BL/6 mice, isozyme AC1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
adult male C57BL/6 mice, isozyme AC8
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
adult male C57BL6 mice and B1 vacuolar proton pumping ATPase deficient mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C-57/B6 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57/BL6 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57BL/6 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57BL/6 mice
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57Bl/6 mice, isozyme AC1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57Bl/6 mice, isozyme AC8
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57BL/6J mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57BL/6J strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
female and male 129SVJ mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene Adcy7 encoding isozyme AC7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzymes AC2 and AC4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoforms type 2, type 3 and type 5 adenylyl cyclase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme AC5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme ACVI
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes AC-I-AC-IX
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes AC4 and AC9
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes ACI-ACIX
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymne AC1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain C57BL/6, isozyme AC1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain C57BL/6, isozyme AC8
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus 129:BL6
129:BL6 background
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C-57/B6
C-57/B6 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6
C57/BL6 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6
C57BL/6 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6
C57BL/6 mice
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6
strain C57BL/6, isozyme AC1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6
strain C57BL/6, isozyme AC8
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
C57BL/6J mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
C57BL/6J strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TN104
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TN104
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium avium TN104
strain TN104
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium avium TN104
strain TN104
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
putative adenylate cyclase; H37Rv
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BCG 1721
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv, strain CDC1551
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv, strain CDC1551
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv, strain CDC1551
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv, strain CDC1551
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium tuberculosis BCG 1721
strain BCG 1721
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
putative adenylate cyclase; H37Rv
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv, strain CDC1551
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv, strain CDC1551
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv, strain CDC1551
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv, strain CDC1551
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Bacteroides fragilis
crude cell extract
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
maximal PfACalpha mRNA expression in the sexual stage
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
adult male Sprague-Dawley rats
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzymes AC6, AC5, AC4, AC 7 and AC 9
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male albino Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Fischer 344 rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Spague-Dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male sprague-dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sprague-Dawley rats
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sprague-Dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodococcus hoagii
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several forms of the soluble isozyme, and a transmembrane isozyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a self-fertile filamentous ascomycete, several strains, overview, gene sac1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
squirrel
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PCC 6803
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PCC 6803
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
synthetic construct
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
glucose utilization is inhibited in adenylate cyclase deletion mutant CgYA in the presence of acetate
malfunction
-
inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in amygdala blocks the effect of audiogenic seizure kindling in genetically epilepsy-prone rats
malfunction
-
knockdown of AC5 and AC6 with siRNA reduces the ability of UDP to decrease cAMP
physiological function
-
adenylate cyclase plays an essential role in the acetate metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum
physiological function
-
cardiac-directed adenylyl cyclase 6 expression attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular contractility is increased, diastolic function is improved and left ventricular dilation is reduced by activation of adenylyl cyclase 6 expression
physiological function
-
isoform AC3 is a likely candidate to fulfill an integrative role in sensory, motor and higher-order information processing in the honeybee brain
physiological function
-
the Chp chemotaxis-like system regulates intracellular cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity
physiological function
-
transmembrane adenylyl cyclase regulates amphibian sperm motility through protein kinase A activation
physiological function
-
adenylyl cyclase activity is required in early-mid erythrocytic stages and functions as the parasite's pH sensor during growth inside red blood cells
physiological function
-
the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme serves as a link between the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate/Ca2+ and the cAMP/protein kinase A signalling pathways in the salivary gland of the blowfly and is important for the amplification and optimization of the secretory response
physiological function
Q9HZ23
the enzyme is a key regulator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence
physiological function
-
the enzyme is involved in the activation of L-type Ca2+ channels in a HCO3--dependent braking pathway that results in elevated intracellular Ca2+ and activation of BK channels
physiological function
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692
-
the enzyme is a key regulator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence
-
physiological function
-
the Chp chemotaxis-like system regulates intracellular cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
adenyloimidodiphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
adenylomethyloendiphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rhodococcus hoagii
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
squirrel
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
synthetic construct
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P51828
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P94181
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O06362, O06572, O07732, O53213, O53720, P71914, P94982, P9WM05, P9WMU7, P9WMV1, P9WQ29, P9WQ31, P9WQ33, P9WQ35, Q11028
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q1MU16
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P21932, P26769
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P19754
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q7A2D9, Q8YMH0, Q8YVS0
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
ACA, cAMP signalling is essential for aggregation and development of the amoebae upon starvation
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P71914
ATP substrate affinity is low
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
cAMP is required for expression of the secretion system by which virulence factors are translocated to the host cell
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
cAMP synthesis by the AC6 isoform is not tightly coupled to cAMP hydrolysis, whereas for the other AC isoforms cAMP synthesis and hydrolysis are much more tightly linked
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q7A2D9, Q8YMH0, Q8YVS0
in CyaB1 only GAFB binds cAMP
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q7A2D9, Q8YMH0, Q8YVS0
in CyaB2 both GAFA and GAFB are cAMP receptors
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
photoavoidance is triggered by cAMP formed by a blue-light activated class IIIb AC
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
Rv1900, C-terminal CHD can use both ATP and GTP as substrate but has a 14fold preference for ATP
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
stable co-expression of AC2 with h5-HT6 receptor in CHODUKX cell line displays dose-dependent cAMP accumulation following agonist treatment
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P71914
ATP substrate affinity is low
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P9WM05, P9WMU7, P9WMV1, P9WQ29, P9WQ31, P9WQ33, P9WQ35
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C-57/B6
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P94181
-
-
-
-
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O43306, O60266, O95622, P40145, P51828, Q08462, Q08828, Q96PN6
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8I759
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q86N83
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8I7A1
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P94181
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9EXQ2
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P9WQ35
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O77079
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8KY20
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q7Z1B9
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9Z286
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
I4EC00, I4EC01
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9HZ23
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8I759
adenylyl cyclase also displays ion channel properties
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q86N83
adenylyl cyclase also displays ion channel properties
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8I7A1
adenylyl cyclase also displays ion channel properties
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
bifunctional protein harbouring adenylate cyclase and hemolytic activities
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692
Q9HZ23
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P9WQ35
-
-
?
ATP
cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P9WQ35
-
-
-
?
ATP
cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP
cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium TN104
Q5UFR5
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P97490
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O43306
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O60266
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q96PN6
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9Z286
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P0DKX7
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P40146
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P51829
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O88444, P84309, P97490
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q80TL1
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P84309
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8C0T9
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P00936
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P51829
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O32393
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O88444, P97490
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O88444, P97490
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
B3KYI7
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Beggiatoa sp.
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
AC1 is a major adenylyl cyclase isoform controlling cyclic AMP synthesis in the mouse retina, dopamine receptor D4R activation tonically regulates the expression of AC1 in photoreceptors
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
activation of cardiac adenylyl cyclase isozyme ACVI expression increases the function of the failing ischemic heart in mice, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
adenylate cyclase toxin CyaA is responsible for modifications of type 2 alveolar L2 cells from flat to round form in rats after infection, overview. CyaA causes similar morphological changes in various cultured cell lines: EBL, HEK293T, MC3T3-E1, NIH 3T3, and Vero cells are rounded by the toxin, whereas Caco-2, Eph4, and MDCK cells are not. CyaA may also affect tissue cells such as respiratory epithelial cells and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the bacterial infection
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 receptor, PAC1-R, is involved in cAMP signalling in the pituitary gland
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
brains from suicide subjects show abnormalities in the cAMP signaling cascade compared to healthy subjects
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases play a specific role in recovery from adaptive presynaptic silencing, involvement of the cAMP pathway in the basal balance between silenced and active synapses, as well as the recovery of baseline function after depolarization-induced presynaptic silencing, e.g. by glutamate, although isozymes AC1 and AC8 are not crucial for the baseline balance between silent and active synapses, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases play a specific role in recovery from adaptive presynaptic silencing, involvement of the cAMP pathway in the basal balance between silenced and active synapses, as well as the recovery of baseline function after depolarization-induced presynaptic silencing, e.g. by glutamate, although isozymes AC1 and AC8 are not crucial for the baseline balance between silent and active synapses, overview. But AC8 plays a particularly important role in rapidly resetting the balance of active to silent synapses after adaptation to strong activity
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
cAMP signaling pathway mediates the activation of exocytosis in sporozoites, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
capacitative Ca2+ entry via plasma membrane pore-forming component Orai1, i.e. Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ modulator 1 or CRACM1, and stromal interacting molecule 1, STIM1, regulates adenylyl cyclase type 8, other modes of Ca2+ entry, including those activated by arachidonate and the ionophore ionomycin, are ineffective, detailed overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P40146
capacitative Ca2+ entry via plasma membrane pore-forming component Orai1, i.e. Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ modulator 1 or CRACM1, and stromal interacting molecule 1, STIM1, regulates adenylyl cyclase type 8, other modes of Ca2+ entry, including those activated by arachidonate and the ionophore ionomycin, are ineffective, detailed overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase 1 and activity-dependent postsynaptic AC1-cAMP signaling are required for thalamocortical synapse functional maturation and the development of normal barrel cortex cytoarchitecture, the formation of the gross morphological features of barrels is independent of postsynaptic AC1 in the layer IV barrel cortex. Regulation mechanism, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclic AMP signaling plays a central role in regulating activity at a number of synapses in the brain, Galpha(i2) inhibition of adenylate cyclase regulates presynaptic activity and unmasks cGMP-dependent long-term depression at Schaffer collateral-CA1 hippocampal synapses, detailed overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
Cyr1p is a key component of the cAMP/PKA-signaling pathway that controls diverse infection-related traits, including hyphal morphogenesis
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme regulation in cAMP signalling, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
interaction of mu-opioid receptors with G proteins and adenylyl cyclase in lumbar segments of the spinal cord, regulation, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P0DKX7
interaction with and invasion of mammalian target cells, such as monocytes and neutrophils, that express the CD11b/CD18, CR3, receptor, is facilitated by acylation of CyaA. CyaA forms small, transient, ionpermeable channels in target membranes. CyaA-induced haemolysis requires higher toxin concentrations and occurs more slowly than intoxication
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P51829
isozyme AC7 is a key regulator for integration of the S1P/G13 effect on cAMP in RAW 264.7 cells, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P97490
isozyme AC8 is required for the hippocampus-dependent working/episodic-like memory, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
most of the effects of cAMP are mediated by its receptor protein kinase A, PKA, cAMP serves as a second messenger and activates the phosphorylation enzyme PKA. The enzyme is part of the adenylyl cyclase-cyclicAMP signaling system, which is implicated in synaptic and structural plasticity and utilized by a number of neurotransmitter receptors, including serotonergic and adrenergic, to mediate their physiological functions, detailed overview. Cross-talk between the AC-cAMP and other signaling systems
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9Z286
regulation of epithelial Na+ transport by soluble adenylyl cyclase in kidney collecting duct cells, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of isozymes in the plasma membrane, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O88444, P97490
roles of calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV in the upregulation of fragile X mental retardation protein, FMRP, by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluRs, in anterior cingulate cortex neurons probably through cAMP response element-binding protein activation, calcium is critical for the regulation of FMRP by group I mGluRs, overview. Isozyme AC1 may contribute to the activation of CREB caused by stimulating group I mGluRs, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O88444, P97490
roles of calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV in the upregulation of fragile X mental retardation protein, FMRP, by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluRs, in anterior cingulate cortex neurons probably through cAMP response element-binding protein activation, calcium is critical for the regulation of FMRP by group I mGluRs, overview. Isozyme AC8 may contribute to the activation of CREB caused by stimulating group I mGluRs, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
roles of G protein regulation of adenylyl cyclases in the brain, olfactory bulb, and heart, overview. Roles for cAMP in a vast number of biological systems, including but not limited to oogenesis, embryogenesis, larval development, hormone secretion, glycogen breakdown, smooth muscle relaxation, cardiac contraction, olfaction, and learning and memory. Physiological roles for individual adenylyl cyclase Isozymes, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
roles of G protein regulation of adenylyl cyclases in the brain, olfactory bulb, and heart, overview. Roles for cAMP in a vast number of biological systems, including but not limited to oogenesis, embryogenesis, larval development, hormone secretion, glycogen breakdown, smooth muscle relaxation, cardiac contraction, olfaction, and learning and memory. Physiological roles for individual adenylyl cyclase Isozymes, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
B3KYI7
SAC1 acts downstream of heterotrimeric G protein GSA3, parallel to a GSA1-GSA2-mediated signaling pathway
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble isozymes sAC play a unique function in male germ cells, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the adenylate cyclase toxin CyaA, released by Bordetella pertussis, is an essential virulence factor for colonization of the host. This toxin inhibits migration and activation of phagocytes, thereby preventing bacterial killing, and it also interferes with the initiation of adaptive immunity by misdirecting dendritic cell differentiation to a suppressive rather than stimulatory phenotype, CyaA directly affects adaptive responses by catalyzing cAMP production in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the adenylyl cyclase signaling cascade is involved in nicotine dependence and withdrawal, but also mediates numerous other neurotransmitter responses, effects of nicotine on adenylate cyclase enzyme activity: adolescent nicotine exposure elicits persistent suppression of basal adenylate cyclase activity and eventual compromise of responses to beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation, with effects emerging in late adulthood, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P84309
the cardiac-specific isozyme AC5 plays an important role in regualting heart rate during parabolic flights, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme acts as a photoreceptor for step-up photophobic response
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is a key component of the adenylate cyclase signaling system, mechanism and regulation, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is associated to the bone mineral density and ADCY10 polymorphisms are involved in low spinal bone mineral density in hypercalciuric patients, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in beta1-AR signaling system that modulates intracellular Ca2+ in the heart. The enzyme is involved in mediation of the antiarrhymthmic effect of electro-acupuncture in the heart, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in cAMP signaling and cAMP/PKA-mediated growth inhibition
cAMP activates protein kinase A
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in regulation of presynaptic terminal excitability
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is one of the signal transducing systems implicated in the regulation of the cardiovascular system and plays a role in signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells, which is decreased by oxidative stress, induced by high glucose, along with the expression of Gialpha proteins, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme modulates the cardiovascular response of posterior hypothalamic adenosine A2A receptor stimulation, adenylate cyclase, but not guanylate cyclase, mediates the depressor and bradycardiac actions of adenosine A2A receptors, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme, via cAMP, participates in the sugar-taste signaling pathway at the low concentration range, the long form of AC78C product is essential for the normal sugar response in adult flies, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O43306, O60266
the reaction is part of the cAMP signaling pathways, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O43306, O60266
the reaction is part of the cAMP signaling pathways, overview
the intimate association between IP3R2 receptor and isozyme AC6 allows cAMP to pass directly from adenylate cyclase to IP3R in a manner analogous to substrate channeling in enzyme complexes, overview
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the secreted adenylate cyclase toxin is a key virulence factor of pathogenic Bordetellae, it penetrates murine host myeloid phagocytes expressing the alphaMbeta2, e.g. J774A.1 cells, RAW 264.7 cells, or bone marrow-derived macrophage-like cells, integrin and paralyzes their bactericidal capacities by uncontrolled conversion of ATP into a key signaling molecule cAMP. cAMP signaling of CyaA causes transient and selective inactivation of RhoA in mouse macrophages in the absence of detectable activation of Rac1, Rac2, or RhoG, modeling of CyaA-mediated subversion of phagocyte functions, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the soluble adenylyl cyclase is the main producer of glucose-induced cAMP in INS-1E insulinoma cells, while the transmembrane adenylyl cyclase does not play a role, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
type 1 adenylyl cyclase is essential for maintenance of remote contextual fear memory
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P00936
S103 is important for substrate binding docking to the gamma-phosphate group of ATP
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the C1 and C2 domains form a single ATP-binding at their interface
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
the C1 and C2 domains form a single ATP-binding at their interface
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mycobacterium tuberculosis BCG 1721
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
enzyme regulation in cAMP signalling, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6
P97490
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6
P97490
isozyme AC8 is required for the hippocampus-dependent working/episodic-like memory, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6
P84309
the cardiac-specific isozyme AC5 plays an important role in regualting heart rate during parabolic flights, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
AC1 is a major adenylyl cyclase isoform controlling cyclic AMP synthesis in the mouse retina, dopamine receptor D4R activation tonically regulates the expression of AC1 in photoreceptors
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dATP
deoxy-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
deoxy-cAMP + diphosphate
ATP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GTP
?
show the reaction diagram
-
Rv1900
-
-
?
GTP
3',5'-cGMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP
c-diGMP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP
3',5'-cyclic-GMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
class IV adenylyl cyclase also functions as guanylyl cyclase with about 20% efficiency
-
-
?
MgATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
MgATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
MgATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
MgATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
MgATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
at pH 7.5
-
-
-
MnATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
MnATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
MnATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P00936
structure-function relationship, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51829
a synergism between the Gs and G13 pathways, mediated by the S1P2 receptor and the heterotrimeric G protein G13, occurs through regulation of a specific isoform of adenylyl cyclase, G13 regulation of AC7 activity is mediated by its alpha-subunit, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51829
a synergism between the Gs and G13 pathways, mediated by the S1P2 receptor and the heterotrimeric G protein G13, occurs through regulation of a specific isoform of adenylyl cyclase, G13 regulation of AC7 activity is mediated by its alpha-subunit, overview. Overexpression of Galpha12/13QL is unlikely to regulate the activity of Gs, rather it acts to attenuate the G13 pathway that converges on AC7
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AC1 is expressed throughout the trigeminal pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
adenylyl cyclase and cAMP formation in mood disorders and the role of the enzyme protein kinase A, mood disorders are among the most prevalent and recurrent forms of psychiatric illnesses, mechanistic basics, overview. In depressed patients, the expression of stimulatory G protein is increased and of inhibitory G protein is decreased, which suggests greater stimulation of the cAMP pathway
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-
additional information
?
-
-
adenylyl cyclase-5 activity in the nucleus accumbens regulates anxiety-related behavior, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P0DKX7
at high toxin concentrations, non-acylated CyaA can intoxicate macrophages by delivery of the catalytic domain. CyaA, but not mutant CyaA*, is able to induce caspase 3/7 activity, CyaA causes 50% inhibition of the zymosan-stimulated oxidative burst
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-
additional information
?
-
-
concomitant activation of adenylyl cyclase suppresses the opposite influences of CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists on tyrosine hydroxylase expression, overview
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CyaA increases the cAMP level and activates PKA in human host T lymphocytes, treatment of human T-lymphocytes with CyaA results in profound impairment of T-lymphocyte activation and chemotaxis, caused by inhibition of T-cell antigen receptor and chemokine receptor signaling via a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent pathway, overview. The biological effects of the toxin are paralleled by inhibition of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q80TL1
cyclase 2 and 5 constitutively form a functional heterodimeric complex in HEK293 cells, overview, cyclases 2 and 5 constitutively form a functional heterodimeric complex in HEK293 cells, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Epstein Barr virus infection of B-lymphocyte renders the cells resistent against to cAMP/PKA-mediated growth inhibition, and the infection abolishes enzyme activation by forskolin, NaF, and G proteins, and the ability of forskolin to inhibit camptothecin-induced apoptosis, and it abolishes the inhibitory effect of forskolin on apoptosis induced by S phase-specific cytotoxic drugs, overview
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
increases in cAMP in sporozoites are required for apical regulated exocytosis for migration through human host liver cells, exocytosis with increased cAMP levels reduces sporozoite migration through host cells, confirming that such extensive migration is no longer necessary when exocytosis is induced by elevations in the level of cAMP, overview
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
increases in cAMP in sporozoites are required for apical regulated exocytosis for migration through rodent host liver cells, exocytosis with increased cAMP levels reduces sporozoite migration through host cells, confirming that such extensive migration is no longer necessary when exocytosis is induced by elevations in the level of cAMP, overview
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-
additional information
?
-
-
inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP production is involved in somatostatin anti-angiogenic actions, neoangiogenesis is a response to retinal hypoxia that is inhibited by somatostatin through its subtype 2 receptor, sst2, hypoxia increases AC responsiveness, especially of isozyme ACVII, in wild-type retinas and in retinas lacking sst2, but not in sst2-overexpressing retinas, overview
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-
-
additional information
?
-
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
key to regulation of AC is the interface between the C1 and C2 domains which forms a single ATP-binding site, regulatory patterns and mechanisms for the various isozyme groups, detailed overview
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key to regulation of adenylate cyclase is the interface between the C1 and C2 domains which forms a single ATP-binding site, regulatory patterns and mechanisms for the various isozyme groups, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
key to regulation of adenylate cyclase is the interface between the C1 and C2 domains which forms a single ATP-binding site, regulatory patterns and mechanisms for the various isozyme groups, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9Z286
netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue, and soluble adenylyl cyclase is not required for axon guidance to netrin-1
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-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8C0T9
netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue, and soluble adenylyl cyclase is not required for axon guidance to netrin-1
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
plant soluble adenylyl cyclases are part of a complex signaling system affected by biotic and abiotic factors, e.g. low temperature, phytohormones, biogenic inductors, light, viruses, and bacterial metabolites
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-
additional information
?
-
O43306, O60266
potentiation of IP3-evoked Ca2+-signals by PTH specifically requires AC6 and IP3R2 receptor, the muscarinic receptors, that alone evoke Ca2+ release, are distributed differently to those that release Ca2+ in synergy with cAMP, overview. Focal inhibition of the enzyme more effectively inhibits Ca2+ signaling than global inhibition
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-
additional information
?
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-
Ras1p and Cyr1p work as a complex that constitutes part of a sensor/effector machinery, and their interaction ensures proper protein folding for optimal ligand sensing and/or subsequent allosteric activation of the catalytic domain, without Ras1p the system functions partially, thereby requiring strong inducing signals to activate downstream events for hyphal growth, overview
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-
additional information
?
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-
reduction of adenylyl cyclase activity induced by NaF and the increase in the Gi/Gs ratio can explain the changes in neurotransmission in olfactory bulbectomy rats, overview. Two weeks after surgery and compared to sham controls, olfactory bulbectomy rats display reduced NaF-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and increased Gi/Gs ratios in the hypothalamus, pre-frontal and cingulate cortices but not in the amygdala, hippocampus and caudate nucleus. No differences are found in basal or forskolin-stimulated conditions
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-
additional information
?
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-
reduction of adenylyl cyclase activity induced by NaF and the increase in the Gi/Gs ratio could explain the changes in neurotransmission in humans with depression
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-
additional information
?
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-
sickle red cell adhesion contributes to sickle cell disease pathophysiology, involving the gene interaction of gene ADCY6, encoding the adenylate cyclase, and gene ADRB2, encoding the beta2-adrenergic receptor, altered interaction affects sickel red cell adhesion to laminin, overview
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-
additional information
?
-
Q9Z286
soluble adenylyl cyclase inhibition blocks ATPase activity without affecting surface expression of the Na+ pump
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-
additional information
?
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-
soluble adenylyl cyclase is an essential component of cAMP-signalling cascades that activate sperm motility and capacitate sperm, but soluble adenylyl cyclase does not have a direct effect on hyperactivation
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additional information
?
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-
the A2B adenosine receptor controls at least three independent signaling pathways, one of which is the Gs-mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase, in mast cells and microvascular endothelial cells
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-
additional information
?
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-
the complexity of signalling by the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP is enhanced by multiple regulatory susceptibilities of its synthesis by adenylyl cyclases and degradation by phosphodiesterases, ACs receive regulatory signals from multiple sources, such as G-proteins, protein kinases, growth factors and Ca2+
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-
additional information
?
-
P40146
the complexity of signalling by the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP is enhanced by multiple regulatory susceptibilities of its synthesis by adenylyl cyclases and degradation by phosphodiesterases, ACs receive regulatory signals from multiple sources, such as G-proteins, protein kinases, growth factors and Ca2+
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-
additional information
?
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-
the CyaA/cAMP-induced drop of RhoA activity yielded dephosphorylation of the actinfilament severing protein cofilin and massive actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, which were paralleled by rapidly manifested macrophage ruffling and a rapid and unexpected loss of macropinocytic fluid phase uptake. CyaA/cAMP signaling further caused a rapid and near-complete block of complement-mediated phagocytosis. CyaA-induced membrane ruffling in host cells is transient and wanes faster at higher toxin concentration, overview
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-
additional information
?
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-
the light- and dopamine D4 receptor-signaling pathways converge on the type 1 Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase to regulate cyclic AMP synthesis in photoreceptor cells, essential roles of D4 receptors and AC1 in photic control of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells, overview
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-
additional information
?
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-
the mu-opioid selective agonists, sufentanil and DAMGO, stimulate 5'-(gamma-thio)-triphosphate binding and inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, through a mechanism involving pertussis toxin, PTX, sensitive Gai/o subunits, the enhanced analgesic response following combined nimodipine treatment with sufentanil is associated with adenylyl cyclase supersensitivity to the opioid inhibitory effect through a mechanism involving PTX-resistant G protein subunits, overview
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additional information
?
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the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 receptor, PAC1-R, a member of the 7-transmembrane domain, group 2 G-protein coupled receptor family, modulate neurotransmission and neurotrophic actions, its activation is pronociceptive. Blockade of the PAC1-R/PACAP complex by PACAP 6-38, a PAC1-R antagonist, can effectively attenuate thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain states, overview
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additional information
?
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-
the transmembrane isozymes is regulated by forskolin and G proteins, while the soluble isozyme is insensitive
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-
additional information
?
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-
there may be ecological niches in which CyaA is not critical for the success of Bordetella bronchiseptica
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additional information
?
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P84309
type 5 adenylyl cyclase plays a major role in stabilizing heart rate in response to microgravity induced by parabolic flight, overview
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additional information
?
-
-
development of a method for fluorimetric assay for real-time monitoring of adenylyl cyclase activity based on terbium norfloxacin, evaluation, application of radioactively labeled substrate, such as [a-32P]ATP, or fluorescently labeled antibodies, overview
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additional information
?
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-
optimization of a radioimmunoassay method for cAMP, with markedly improved speed and reduced cost without sacrificing sensitivity, and also adaptable to analysis of cGMP. Development of a simple, reproducible, and inexpensive method to make the radiomarker used for the radioimmunoassay, overview
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additional information
?
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-
class IV adenylyl cyclase also functions as guanylyl cyclase
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additional information
?
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Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
concomitant activation of adenylyl cyclase suppresses the opposite influences of CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists on tyrosine hydroxylase expression, overview
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-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus C57BL/6
P84309
type 5 adenylyl cyclase plays a major role in stabilizing heart rate in response to microgravity induced by parabolic flight, overview
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-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
the light- and dopamine D4 receptor-signaling pathways converge on the type 1 Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase to regulate cyclic AMP synthesis in photoreceptor cells, essential roles of D4 receptors and AC1 in photic control of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells, overview
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP
3',5'-cAMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O43306, O60266, O95622, P40145, P51828, Q08462, Q08828, Q96PN6
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8I759
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q86N83
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8I7A1
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P94181
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9EXQ2
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P9WQ35
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O77079
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8KY20
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q7Z1B9
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9Z286
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
I4EC00, I4EC01
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9HZ23
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
bifunctional protein harbouring adenylate cyclase and hemolytic activities
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O43306
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q96PN6
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9Z286
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P0DKX7
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O88444, P84309, P97490
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q80TL1
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q8C0T9
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P00936
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P51829
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O32393
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O88444, P97490
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
AC1 is a major adenylyl cyclase isoform controlling cyclic AMP synthesis in the mouse retina, dopamine receptor D4R activation tonically regulates the expression of AC1 in photoreceptors
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
activation of cardiac adenylyl cyclase isozyme ACVI expression increases the function of the failing ischemic heart in mice, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
adenylate cyclase toxin CyaA is responsible for modifications of type 2 alveolar L2 cells from flat to round form in rats after infection, overview. CyaA causes similar morphological changes in various cultured cell lines: EBL, HEK293T, MC3T3-E1, NIH 3T3, and Vero cells are rounded by the toxin, whereas Caco-2, Eph4, and MDCK cells are not. CyaA may also affect tissue cells such as respiratory epithelial cells and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the bacterial infection
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 receptor, PAC1-R, is involved in cAMP signalling in the pituitary gland
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
brains from suicide subjects show abnormalities in the cAMP signaling cascade compared to healthy subjects
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases play a specific role in recovery from adaptive presynaptic silencing, involvement of the cAMP pathway in the basal balance between silenced and active synapses, as well as the recovery of baseline function after depolarization-induced presynaptic silencing, e.g. by glutamate, although isozymes AC1 and AC8 are not crucial for the baseline balance between silent and active synapses, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases play a specific role in recovery from adaptive presynaptic silencing, involvement of the cAMP pathway in the basal balance between silenced and active synapses, as well as the recovery of baseline function after depolarization-induced presynaptic silencing, e.g. by glutamate, although isozymes AC1 and AC8 are not crucial for the baseline balance between silent and active synapses, overview. But AC8 plays a particularly important role in rapidly resetting the balance of active to silent synapses after adaptation to strong activity
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
cAMP signaling pathway mediates the activation of exocytosis in sporozoites, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
capacitative Ca2+ entry via plasma membrane pore-forming component Orai1, i.e. Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ modulator 1 or CRACM1, and stromal interacting molecule 1, STIM1, regulates adenylyl cyclase type 8, other modes of Ca2+ entry, including those activated by arachidonate and the ionophore ionomycin, are ineffective, detailed overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P40146
capacitative Ca2+ entry via plasma membrane pore-forming component Orai1, i.e. Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ modulator 1 or CRACM1, and stromal interacting molecule 1, STIM1, regulates adenylyl cyclase type 8, other modes of Ca2+ entry, including those activated by arachidonate and the ionophore ionomycin, are ineffective, detailed overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase 1 and activity-dependent postsynaptic AC1-cAMP signaling are required for thalamocortical synapse functional maturation and the development of normal barrel cortex cytoarchitecture, the formation of the gross morphological features of barrels is independent of postsynaptic AC1 in the layer IV barrel cortex. Regulation mechanism, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclic AMP signaling plays a central role in regulating activity at a number of synapses in the brain, Galpha(i2) inhibition of adenylate cyclase regulates presynaptic activity and unmasks cGMP-dependent long-term depression at Schaffer collateral-CA1 hippocampal synapses, detailed overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
Cyr1p is a key component of the cAMP/PKA-signaling pathway that controls diverse infection-related traits, including hyphal morphogenesis
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme regulation in cAMP signalling, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
interaction of mu-opioid receptors with G proteins and adenylyl cyclase in lumbar segments of the spinal cord, regulation, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P0DKX7
interaction with and invasion of mammalian target cells, such as monocytes and neutrophils, that express the CD11b/CD18, CR3, receptor, is facilitated by acylation of CyaA. CyaA forms small, transient, ionpermeable channels in target membranes. CyaA-induced haemolysis requires higher toxin concentrations and occurs more slowly than intoxication
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P51829
isozyme AC7 is a key regulator for integration of the S1P/G13 effect on cAMP in RAW 264.7 cells, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P97490
isozyme AC8 is required for the hippocampus-dependent working/episodic-like memory, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
most of the effects of cAMP are mediated by its receptor protein kinase A, PKA, cAMP serves as a second messenger and activates the phosphorylation enzyme PKA. The enzyme is part of the adenylyl cyclase-cyclicAMP signaling system, which is implicated in synaptic and structural plasticity and utilized by a number of neurotransmitter receptors, including serotonergic and adrenergic, to mediate their physiological functions, detailed overview. Cross-talk between the AC-cAMP and other signaling systems
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9Z286
regulation of epithelial Na+ transport by soluble adenylyl cyclase in kidney collecting duct cells, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of isozymes in the plasma membrane, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O88444, P97490
roles of calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV in the upregulation of fragile X mental retardation protein, FMRP, by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluRs, in anterior cingulate cortex neurons probably through cAMP response element-binding protein activation, calcium is critical for the regulation of FMRP by group I mGluRs, overview. Isozyme AC1 may contribute to the activation of CREB caused by stimulating group I mGluRs, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O88444, P97490
roles of calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV in the upregulation of fragile X mental retardation protein, FMRP, by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluRs, in anterior cingulate cortex neurons probably through cAMP response element-binding protein activation, calcium is critical for the regulation of FMRP by group I mGluRs, overview. Isozyme AC8 may contribute to the activation of CREB caused by stimulating group I mGluRs, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
roles of G protein regulation of adenylyl cyclases in the brain, olfactory bulb, and heart, overview. Roles for cAMP in a vast number of biological systems, including but not limited to oogenesis, embryogenesis, larval development, hormone secretion, glycogen breakdown, smooth muscle relaxation, cardiac contraction, olfaction, and learning and memory. Physiological roles for individual adenylyl cyclase Isozymes, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
roles of G protein regulation of adenylyl cyclases in the brain, olfactory bulb, and heart, overview. Roles for cAMP in a vast number of biological systems, including but not limited to oogenesis, embryogenesis, larval development, hormone secretion, glycogen breakdown, smooth muscle relaxation, cardiac contraction, olfaction, and learning and memory. Physiological roles for individual adenylyl cyclase Isozymes, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
B3KYI7
SAC1 acts downstream of heterotrimeric G protein GSA3, parallel to a GSA1-GSA2-mediated signaling pathway
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble isozymes sAC play a unique function in male germ cells, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the adenylate cyclase toxin CyaA, released by Bordetella pertussis, is an essential virulence factor for colonization of the host. This toxin inhibits migration and activation of phagocytes, thereby preventing bacterial killing, and it also interferes with the initiation of adaptive immunity by misdirecting dendritic cell differentiation to a suppressive rather than stimulatory phenotype, CyaA directly affects adaptive responses by catalyzing cAMP production in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the adenylyl cyclase signaling cascade is involved in nicotine dependence and withdrawal, but also mediates numerous other neurotransmitter responses, effects of nicotine on adenylate cyclase enzyme activity: adolescent nicotine exposure elicits persistent suppression of basal adenylate cyclase activity and eventual compromise of responses to beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation, with effects emerging in late adulthood, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P84309
the cardiac-specific isozyme AC5 plays an important role in regualting heart rate during parabolic flights, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme acts as a photoreceptor for step-up photophobic response
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is a key component of the adenylate cyclase signaling system, mechanism and regulation, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is associated to the bone mineral density and ADCY10 polymorphisms are involved in low spinal bone mineral density in hypercalciuric patients, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in beta1-AR signaling system that modulates intracellular Ca2+ in the heart. The enzyme is involved in mediation of the antiarrhymthmic effect of electro-acupuncture in the heart, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in cAMP signaling and cAMP/PKA-mediated growth inhibition
cAMP activates protein kinase A
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in regulation of presynaptic terminal excitability
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is one of the signal transducing systems implicated in the regulation of the cardiovascular system and plays a role in signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells, which is decreased by oxidative stress, induced by high glucose, along with the expression of Gialpha proteins, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme modulates the cardiovascular response of posterior hypothalamic adenosine A2A receptor stimulation, adenylate cyclase, but not guanylate cyclase, mediates the depressor and bradycardiac actions of adenosine A2A receptors, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme, via cAMP, participates in the sugar-taste signaling pathway at the low concentration range, the long form of AC78C product is essential for the normal sugar response in adult flies, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O43306, O60266
the reaction is part of the cAMP signaling pathways, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
O43306, O60266
the reaction is part of the cAMP signaling pathways, overview
the intimate association between IP3R2 receptor and isozyme AC6 allows cAMP to pass directly from adenylate cyclase to IP3R in a manner analogous to substrate channeling in enzyme complexes, overview
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the secreted adenylate cyclase toxin is a key virulence factor of pathogenic Bordetellae, it penetrates murine host myeloid phagocytes expressing the alphaMbeta2, e.g. J774A.1 cells, RAW 264.7 cells, or bone marrow-derived macrophage-like cells, integrin and paralyzes their bactericidal capacities by uncontrolled conversion of ATP into a key signaling molecule cAMP. cAMP signaling of CyaA causes transient and selective inactivation of RhoA in mouse macrophages in the absence of detectable activation of Rac1, Rac2, or RhoG, modeling of CyaA-mediated subversion of phagocyte functions, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the soluble adenylyl cyclase is the main producer of glucose-induced cAMP in INS-1E insulinoma cells, while the transmembrane adenylyl cyclase does not play a role, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
type 1 adenylyl cyclase is essential for maintenance of remote contextual fear memory
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692
Q9HZ23
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mycobacterium tuberculosis BCG 1721
-
-
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
enzyme regulation in cAMP signalling, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6
P97490
isozyme AC8 is required for the hippocampus-dependent working/episodic-like memory, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6
P84309
the cardiac-specific isozyme AC5 plays an important role in regualting heart rate during parabolic flights, overview
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P9WQ35
-
-
?
ATP
3',5'-cyclic-AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
AC1 is a major adenylyl cyclase isoform controlling cyclic AMP synthesis in the mouse retina, dopamine receptor D4R activation tonically regulates the expression of AC1 in photoreceptors
-
-
?
MgATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
MgATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
at pH 7.5
-
-
-
MnATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
MnATP2-
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51829
a synergism between the Gs and G13 pathways, mediated by the S1P2 receptor and the heterotrimeric G protein G13, occurs through regulation of a specific isoform of adenylyl cyclase, G13 regulation of AC7 activity is mediated by its alpha-subunit, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51829
a synergism between the Gs and G13 pathways, mediated by the S1P2 receptor and the heterotrimeric G protein G13, occurs through regulation of a specific isoform of adenylyl cyclase, G13 regulation of AC7 activity is mediated by its alpha-subunit, overview. Overexpression of Galpha12/13QL is unlikely to regulate the activity of Gs, rather it acts to attenuate the G13 pathway that converges on AC7
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AC1 is expressed throughout the trigeminal pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
adenylyl cyclase and cAMP formation in mood disorders and the role of the enzyme protein kinase A, mood disorders are among the most prevalent and recurrent forms of psychiatric illnesses, mechanistic basics, overview. In depressed patients, the expression of stimulatory G protein is increased and of inhibitory G protein is decreased, which suggests greater stimulation of the cAMP pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
adenylyl cyclase-5 activity in the nucleus accumbens regulates anxiety-related behavior, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P0DKX7
at high toxin concentrations, non-acylated CyaA can intoxicate macrophages by delivery of the catalytic domain. CyaA, but not mutant CyaA*, is able to induce caspase 3/7 activity, CyaA causes 50% inhibition of the zymosan-stimulated oxidative burst
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
concomitant activation of adenylyl cyclase suppresses the opposite influences of CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists on tyrosine hydroxylase expression, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CyaA increases the cAMP level and activates PKA in human host T lymphocytes, treatment of human T-lymphocytes with CyaA results in profound impairment of T-lymphocyte activation and chemotaxis, caused by inhibition of T-cell antigen receptor and chemokine receptor signaling via a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent pathway, overview. The biological effects of the toxin are paralleled by inhibition of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q80TL1
cyclase 2 and 5 constitutively form a functional heterodimeric complex in HEK293 cells, overview, cyclases 2 and 5 constitutively form a functional heterodimeric complex in HEK293 cells, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Epstein Barr virus infection of B-lymphocyte renders the cells resistent against to cAMP/PKA-mediated growth inhibition, and the infection abolishes enzyme activation by forskolin, NaF, and G proteins, and the ability of forskolin to inhibit camptothecin-induced apoptosis, and it abolishes the inhibitory effect of forskolin on apoptosis induced by S phase-specific cytotoxic drugs, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
increases in cAMP in sporozoites are required for apical regulated exocytosis for migration through human host liver cells, exocytosis with increased cAMP levels reduces sporozoite migration through host cells, confirming that such extensive migration is no longer necessary when exocytosis is induced by elevations in the level of cAMP, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
increases in cAMP in sporozoites are required for apical regulated exocytosis for migration through rodent host liver cells, exocytosis with increased cAMP levels reduces sporozoite migration through host cells, confirming that such extensive migration is no longer necessary when exocytosis is induced by elevations in the level of cAMP, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP production is involved in somatostatin anti-angiogenic actions, neoangiogenesis is a response to retinal hypoxia that is inhibited by somatostatin through its subtype 2 receptor, sst2, hypoxia increases AC responsiveness, especially of isozyme ACVII, in wild-type retinas and in retinas lacking sst2, but not in sst2-overexpressing retinas, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
key to regulation of AC is the interface between the C1 and C2 domains which forms a single ATP-binding site, regulatory patterns and mechanisms for the various isozyme groups, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key to regulation of adenylate cyclase is the interface between the C1 and C2 domains which forms a single ATP-binding site, regulatory patterns and mechanisms for the various isozyme groups, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
key to regulation of adenylate cyclase is the interface between the C1 and C2 domains which forms a single ATP-binding site, regulatory patterns and mechanisms for the various isozyme groups, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9Z286
netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue, and soluble adenylyl cyclase is not required for axon guidance to netrin-1
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8C0T9
netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue, and soluble adenylyl cyclase is not required for axon guidance to netrin-1
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
plant soluble adenylyl cyclases are part of a complex signaling system affected by biotic and abiotic factors, e.g. low temperature, phytohormones, biogenic inductors, light, viruses, and bacterial metabolites
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O43306, O60266
potentiation of IP3-evoked Ca2+-signals by PTH specifically requires AC6 and IP3R2 receptor, the muscarinic receptors, that alone evoke Ca2+ release, are distributed differently to those that release Ca2+ in synergy with cAMP, overview. Focal inhibition of the enzyme more effectively inhibits Ca2+ signaling than global inhibition
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Ras1p and Cyr1p work as a complex that constitutes part of a sensor/effector machinery, and their interaction ensures proper protein folding for optimal ligand sensing and/or subsequent allosteric activation of the catalytic domain, without Ras1p the system functions partially, thereby requiring strong inducing signals to activate downstream events for hyphal growth, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
reduction of adenylyl cyclase activity induced by NaF and the increase in the Gi/Gs ratio can explain the changes in neurotransmission in olfactory bulbectomy rats, overview. Two weeks after surgery and compared to sham controls, olfactory bulbectomy rats display reduced NaF-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and increased Gi/Gs ratios in the hypothalamus, pre-frontal and cingulate cortices but not in the amygdala, hippocampus and caudate nucleus. No differences are found in basal or forskolin-stimulated conditions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
reduction of adenylyl cyclase activity induced by NaF and the increase in the Gi/Gs ratio could explain the changes in neurotransmission in humans with depression
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
sickle red cell adhesion contributes to sickle cell disease pathophysiology, involving the gene interaction of gene ADCY6, encoding the adenylate cyclase, and gene ADRB2, encoding the beta2-adrenergic receptor, altered interaction affects sickel red cell adhesion to laminin, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9Z286
soluble adenylyl cyclase inhibition blocks ATPase activity without affecting surface expression of the Na+ pump
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
soluble adenylyl cyclase is an essential component of cAMP-signalling cascades that activate sperm motility and capacitate sperm, but soluble adenylyl cyclase does not have a direct effect on hyperactivation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the A2B adenosine receptor controls at least three independent signaling pathways, one of which is the Gs-mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase, in mast cells and microvascular endothelial cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the complexity of signalling by the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP is enhanced by multiple regulatory susceptibilities of its synthesis by adenylyl cyclases and degradation by phosphodiesterases, ACs receive regulatory signals from multiple sources, such as G-proteins, protein kinases, growth factors and Ca2+
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P40146
the complexity of signalling by the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP is enhanced by multiple regulatory susceptibilities of its synthesis by adenylyl cyclases and degradation by phosphodiesterases, ACs receive regulatory signals from multiple sources, such as G-proteins, protein kinases, growth factors and Ca2+
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the CyaA/cAMP-induced drop of RhoA activity yielded dephosphorylation of the actinfilament severing protein cofilin and massive actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, which were paralleled by rapidly manifested macrophage ruffling and a rapid and unexpected loss of macropinocytic fluid phase uptake. CyaA/cAMP signaling further caused a rapid and near-complete block of complement-mediated phagocytosis. CyaA-induced membrane ruffling in host cells is transient and wanes faster at higher toxin concentration, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the light- and dopamine D4 receptor-signaling pathways converge on the type 1 Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase to regulate cyclic AMP synthesis in photoreceptor cells, essential roles of D4 receptors and AC1 in photic control of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the mu-opioid selective agonists, sufentanil and DAMGO, stimulate 5'-(gamma-thio)-triphosphate binding and inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, through a mechanism involving pertussis toxin, PTX, sensitive Gai/o subunits, the enhanced analgesic response following combined nimodipine treatment with sufentanil is associated with adenylyl cyclase supersensitivity to the opioid inhibitory effect through a mechanism involving PTX-resistant G protein subunits, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 receptor, PAC1-R, a member of the 7-transmembrane domain, group 2 G-protein coupled receptor family, modulate neurotransmission and neurotrophic actions, its activation is pronociceptive. Blockade of the PAC1-R/PACAP complex by PACAP 6-38, a PAC1-R antagonist, can effectively attenuate thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain states, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the transmembrane isozymes is regulated by forskolin and G proteins, while the soluble isozyme is insensitive
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
there may be ecological niches in which CyaA is not critical for the success of Bordetella bronchiseptica
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P84309
type 5 adenylyl cyclase plays a major role in stabilizing heart rate in response to microgravity induced by parabolic flight, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
concomitant activation of adenylyl cyclase suppresses the opposite influences of CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists on tyrosine hydroxylase expression, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus C57BL/6
P84309
type 5 adenylyl cyclase plays a major role in stabilizing heart rate in response to microgravity induced by parabolic flight, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
the light- and dopamine D4 receptor-signaling pathways converge on the type 1 Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase to regulate cyclic AMP synthesis in photoreceptor cells, essential roles of D4 receptors and AC1 in photic control of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells, overview
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ADP
-
activation
AMP
-
activation
AMP
-
activation
Calmodulin
-
activation
Calmodulin
-
activation
Calmodulin
-
activation
Calmodulin
-
activates adenylyl cyclases 1 and 8
Calmodulin
-
CyaA binds calmodulin that stimulates about 1000fold its enzymatic activity
Calmodulin
-
-
Calmodulin
-
-
Calmodulin
Beggiatoa sp.
-
-
Calmodulin
-
-
Calmodulin
-
-
Calmodulin
-
-
IMP
-
activation
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
bicarbonate
Q96PN6
activates
bicarbonate
-
activates
Ca2+
O77079
1 mM, 2-3fold stimulation, Km of 0.22 mM
Ca2+
-
half-maximal activation at 0.75 mM, synergistic activation in the presence of HCO3-
Ca2+
O43306, O60266, O95622, P40145, P51828, Q08462, Q08828, Q96PN6
activation; stimulation
Ca2+
-
-
Ca2+
-
-
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
during artificial or agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations, periodic changes in cAMP that depended upon Ca2+ stimulation of AC8 with subsequent PKA-mediated phosphodiesterase 4 activity
Ca2+
-
required by AC1 and AC8, AC1 is sensitive to lower concentrations of Ca2+ and shows a greater synergistic response to Ca2+ and Galphas than does AC8
Ca2+
-
required by AC8
Ca2+
-
Ca2+/calmodulin enhance cAMP production through AC9
Ca2+
-
requirement for dual regulation of the AC by both Gs activation and Ca2+/calmodulin in a time-dependent manner
Ca2+
-
stimulates AC8
Ca2+
-
stimulates AC1 and AC8
Ca2+
-
L-type Ca2+ channel interacting with signaling proteins like adenylate cyclase, to create a large signaling complex that provides rapid and specific signaling of Cav1.2 during beta2-AR activation
Ca2+
-
required for activity
Ca2+
-
Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated isozyme AC1; Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated isozyme AC8
Ca2+
-
stimulates the Ca2+-activated isozymes
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
P0DKX7
activates
Ca2+
Q96PN6
activates
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
O88444, P97490
activates isozyme AC1; activates isozyme AC8
Ca2+
P97490
AC1 activity is regulated by both Ca2+/calmodulin and G proteins; AC8 is a pure Ca2+/calmodulin sensor
Ca2+
-
isozymes AC1 and AC8 are the major Ca2+-sensitive AC isoforms, generally ubiquitous role of Ca2+ in the induction of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity
Ca2+
-
AC1 and the formation of cAMP,are stimulated by increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels in an activity-dependent manner
Ca2+
-
stimulates the soluble isozyme
Ca2+
P0DKX7
CyaA is a calcium-binding protein, Ca2+ binding leads a a rearrangement of the enzyme's secondary structure, overview
Ca2+
-
stimulates Ca2+ stimulates transmembrane isozymes AC1 and AC8 via calmodulin, and inhibits AC5 and AC6 directly, capacitative Ca2+ entry via Orai1 and STIM1 regulates adenylyl cyclase type 8, other modes of Ca2+ entry, including those activated by arachidonate and the ionophore ionomycin, are ineffective, AC8 shows a dis-inhibitory activation mechanism
Ca2+
P40146
Ca2+ stimulates transmembrane isozyme AC8 via calmodulin, capacitative Ca2+ entry via Orai1 and STIM1 regulates adenylyl cyclase type 8, other modes of Ca2+ entry, including those activated by arachidonate and the ionophore ionomycin, are ineffective, AC8 shows a dis-inhibitory activation mechanism
Ca2+
-
the isozyme group I consists of Ca 2+ -stimulated AC1, AC3 and AC8, isozyme group III is comprised of Gialpha /Ca2+ -inhibited isozymes AC5 and AC6, mode of regulation, overview
Ca2+
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
isozyme group III is comprised of Gialpha /Ca2+ -inhibited isozymes AC5 and AC6, mode of regulation, overview; isozyme group III is comprised of Gialpha /Ca2+-inhibited isozymes AC5 and AC6, mode of regulation, overview; the isozyme group I consists of Ca2+-stimulated AC1, AC3 and AC8, mode of regulation, overview; the isozyme group I consists of Ca2+-stimulated AC8, mode of regulation, overview; the isozyme group I consists of Ca2+-stimulated isozymes AC1, AC3 and AC8, mode of regulation, overview
Ca2+
-
stimulates the soluble adenylyl cyclase
Ca2+
-
stimulates activity
Ca2+
-
stimulates isoform AC3
Ca2+
-
maximum stimulatory effect at 0.002 mM Ca2+. (increase of 387% activity). Antagonists of calmodulin, N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride, at concentrations of 0.02-0.1 mM decrease the stimulatory effect of 0.005 mM Ca2+, while at the higher concentrations inhibit it completely. Chloropromazine decreases the Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity only at concentrations of 0.2-1.0 mM
Ca2+
-
dependent on
Cr6+
-
maximal enzyme stimulation at 10-8 M, inhibition at 10-5 M
Cu2+
-
stimulation of enzyme activity at nanomolar concentrations, strong inhibition in the micromolar range
F-
-
-
F-
-
-
HCO3-
-
stimulates the soluble adenylyl cyclase
Mg2+
-
Km: 4.1 mM
Mg2+
-
-
Mg2+
-
-
Mg2+
-
Km: 4.0 mM
Mg2+
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
Mg2+
Q8I7A1
2 mM required for activity, recombinant AC expressed from synthetic AC gene PfAC526-884
Mg2+
P94181
supports activity of recombinant cyaB1 AC better than Mn2+
Mg2+
Q8KY20
required for activity, recombinant cyaC
Mg2+
-
5 mM, activates sAC
Mg2+
O77079
-
Mg2+
-
activation in the presence of HCO3-
Mg2+
Q7Z1B9
very little activity in the presence of Mg2+
Mg2+
-
10 mM, 19fold increase in activity, recombinant CyaB1-maltose binding protein fusion
Mg2+
-
in the absence of Mg2+ no activity observed
Mg2+
-
about 50fold lower enzyme activity than in the presence of Mn2+
Mg2+
-
3' hydroxyl group bound to a Mg-ion complexed to RP-ATP-alphaS
Mg2+
Q1MU16
-
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
P00936
the class I enzyme shows a requirement for free metal ions in addition to the MgATP2- complex, operating with a two-metal-ion mechanism in analogy to class II and calss III enzymes. The native enzyme shows very little activity when the concentration of Mg2+ is much lower than that of ATP, and activity rises strongly when the concentration of Mg2+ exceeds that of ATP
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
-
Mg2+ is required for forskolin-dependent accumulation of cAMP, best at 1-3 mM
Mg2+
-
requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ as cofactors
Mg2+
-
essential for activity
Mg2+
-
the wild type enzyme activity is stimulated by Mg2+
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
Mg2+ is the physiological cation involved in adenylyl cyclase enzyme activity
Mn2+
-
-
Mn2+
-
-
Mn2+
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
Mn2+
P94181
activation of recombinant cyaB1 AC
Mn2+
Q9EXQ2
1 mM, strong activation
Mn2+
-
5 mM, activates sAC
Mn2+
P9WQ35
1 mM, 47fold activation
Mn2+
O77079
8-10fold higher activity than in the presence of Mg2+
Mn2+
-
required for activity
Mn2+
Q7Z1B9
maximum activity at 1 mM and 3 mM Mn2+, respectively
Mn2+
-
10 mM, 50fold increase in activity, recombinant CyaB1-maltose binding protein fusion
Mn2+
-
required for activity
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
Q5UFR5
-
Mn2+
P71914
dependent on
Mn2+
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
Mn2+
-
prefered by sAC
Mn2+
-
activates the soluble isozyme
Mn2+
-
required for activity by the transmembrane isozyme
Mn2+
-
activates the soluble isozyme
Mn2+
-
requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ as cofactors
Mn2+
-
the wild type enzyme is about 2.5fold more active with saturating Mg2+ than with saturating Mn2+
Mn2+
-
required, the enzyme has higher specific activity for Mn2+-ATP versus Mg2+-ATP
Mn2+
-
may replace Mg2+
Mn2+
-
required
NaF
-
activates
Mn2+
-
optimum activity at 10 mM
additional information
-
no metals bound in the structure of the c-diGMP-bound PleD complex
additional information
-
K+ is not required for induction of exocytosis by 8-bromo-cAMP, cAMP, or forskolin, but extracellular K+ is required for sporozoite apical regulated exocytosis itself via K+ channels
additional information
-
isoform AC4 is insensitive to Ca2+
additional information
-
the basal activity of isoform AC3 does not change in the presence of Ca2+ or Ca2+/calmodulin
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(4-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)cyclopent-2-en-1-yl)acetic acid
-
i.e. PMC-4, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 6.998 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.117 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.22 mM
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,13,13,14,14-dodecachloro-1,4,4a,4b,5,8,8a,12b-octahydro-11-sulfo-1,4:5,8-dimethanotriphenylene-10-carboxylic acid
O32393
the compound defines an AC inhibitor scaffold with high affinity for human soluble isozyme and less inhibitory effect on mammalian transmembrane isozymes
1-(bromo(1-naphthyl)methyl)naphthalene
O32393
-
17beta-estra-1(10),2,4-triene-2,3,17-triol
O32393
-
1alpha,9alpha-dihydroxy-labd-13(E)-ene-8a,15-diol
-
a derivative of each of the two stereoisomers of labd-13(E)-ene-8a,15-diol, overview
1alpha-hydroxy-labd-13(E)-ene-8a,15-diol
-
a derivative of each of the two stereoisomers of labd-13(E)-ene-8a,15-diol, overview
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ADP
P00936
slight competitive inhibition
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-AMP
P00936
slight competitive inhibition
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
P00936
competitive
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATPgammaS
-
-
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-CTP
-
-
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2, incompletely defined structure 2'- or 3'-substituted nucleoside triphosphate
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
-
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTPgammaS
-
-
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio-]triphosphate
-
inhibits AC5, reduces basal L-type Ca2+ currents as a function of time, significantly and almost completely diminishes the increase of L-type Ca2+ currents due to isoproterenol, basal and isoproterenol-stimulated inhibition of L-type Ca2+ currents is concentration-dependent
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
most potent inhibitor of heart adenylyl cyclase and recombinant AC5
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
highest potency on both cortical and medullary adenylyl cyclase in presence of Mn2+ as well as in presence of Mg2+
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITPgammaS
-
-
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-UTP
-
-
2',3'-bis[(2-(N-methylanthraniloyl)amino)ethyl-carbamoyl]-ATP
-
-
2',3'-bis[(2-(N-methylanthraniloyl)amino)ethyl-carbamoyl]-ATP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2',3'-di[(2-(N-methylanthraniloyl)amino)ethyl-carbamoyl]-ATP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2',3'-di[(2-(N-methylanthraniloyl)amino)ethyl-carbamoyl]-ATP
-
-
2',3'-isopropylidene adenosine
-
-
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ADP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ADP
-
-
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-AMP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-AMP
-
-
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP
-
most potent inhibitor for isoform ACV
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-CTP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-CTP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2, incompletely defined structure 2'- or 3'-substituted nucleoside triphosphate
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-CTP
-
-
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-GDP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-GDP
-
-
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-GTP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-GTP
-
-
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-UTP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-UTP
-
most potent inhibitor for isoforms ACI and ACII
2',3'-O-(N-anthraniloyl)-ADP
-
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-anthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-anthraniloyl)-IMP
-
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ADP
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-CDP
-
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-CTP
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTPgammaS
-
potent inhibitor of isoform AC5
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-IDP
-
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-IMP
-
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITPgammaS
-
potent inhibitor of isoform AC5
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-UDP
-
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-UTP
-
-
2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-XTP
-
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-acetamidoanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-bromoanthraniloyl)-ADP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-bromoanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-bromoanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-chloroanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-chloroanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-methylanthraniloyl)-ADP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-methylanthraniloyl)-CTP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-methylanthraniloyl)-IDP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-methylanthraniloyl)-IMP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-methylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-propylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis(5-propylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
-
2',3'-O-bis-anthraniloyl-IMP
-
-
2',3'-O-isopropylidene adenosine
-
specifically inhibits ACA in intact cells, without affecting ACB or ACG
2',5'-dd-3'-ATP
-
most potent inhibitor
2',5'-dideoxy-3'-adenosine triphosphate
Q5UFR5
IC50 of about 730 nM
2',5'-dideoxy-3'-ATP
-
a P-site inhibitor, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview
2',5'-dideoxy-3'-ATP
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
a P-site inhibitor, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview; a P-site inhibitor, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview; a P-site inhibitor, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview; a P-site inhibitor, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview; a P-site inhibitor, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview; a P-site inhibitor, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview; a P-site inhibitor, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview; a P-site inhibitor, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview
2',5'-dideoxyadenosine
-
mixed-type inhibition
2',5'-dideoxyadenosine
-
inhibits forskolin induced tmAC stimulation at 0.15 mM
2',5'-dideoxyadenosine
-
inhibits ACA, ACB and ACG in cell lysates, but not in intact cells
2',5'-dideoxyadenosine
O43306, O60266
massive inhibition of cAMP formation with a combination of enzyme inhibitors 9-(tetrahydro-29-furyl)adenine and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine; massive inhibition of cAMP formation with a combination of enzyme inhibitors 9-(tetrahydro-29-furyl)adenine and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine
2',5'-dideoxyadenosine 3'-monophosphate
-
-
2',5'-dideoxyadenosine-3'-triphosphate
-
-
2'-d-(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
determination of Ki values under various experimental conditions
2'-deoxy-3'-2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
-
2'-deoxy-3'-2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
-
-
2'-deoxy-3'-adenosine monophosphate
Q5UFR5
IC50 of about 50 microM
2'-deoxyadenosine
-
-
2'-deoxyadenosine
-
-
2'-deoxyadenosine
-
-
2'-deoxyadenosine 3'-monophosphate
O77079
0.1 mM, 50% inhibition
2'-methylanthraniloyl-3'-d-ATP
-
-
2'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-3'-deoxy-GTP
-
determination of Ki values under various experimental conditions
2'-O-methyladenosine
-
-
2,3,6,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid
O32393
-
2,3-dibromo-1-(4-(hydroxy(oxido)amino)phenyl)-3-(4-quinolinyl)-1-propanone
O32393
-
2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-ATP
-
-
2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-CTP
-
-
2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-GTP
-
-
2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-UTP
-
-
2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-ylthio)-N'-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) propanehydrazide
-
0.07 mM used in assay conditions
-
2-(4-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)cyclopent-2-en-1-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide
-
i.e. PMC-3, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 3.76 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.098 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.076 mM
2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diol
-
i.e. Ara-Ade, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 7.202 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.375 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.0098mM
2-amino-7-(2-furyl)-7,8-dihydroquinazolin-5(6H)-one
-
i.e. RS-2 or NKY80, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 2.63 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.2264 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.015 mM
2-amino-7-(4-chlorophenyl)-7,8-dihydroquinazolin-5(6H)-one
-
i.e.RS-4, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 6.61 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 1.988 mM
2-amino-7-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7,8-dihydroquinazolin-5(6H)-one
-
i.e. RS-1, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 2.64 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 1.32 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 1.95 mM
2-amino-7-(furanyl)-7,8-dihydro-5(6H)-quinazolinone
-
-
2-amino-7-phenyl-7,8-dihydroquinazolin-5(6H)-one
-
i.e. RS-3, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 6.31 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.56 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.21 mM
2-hydroxy-17beta-estradiol
-
specific sAC inhibitor, blocks CO2/HCO3- mediated cAMP production
2-hydroxyestradiol
-
IC50 of about 2 microM
2-hydroxyestradiol
-
reversible inhibition of recombinant soluble enzyme in dose dependent manner, IC50 in low micromolar range, trans-membrane enzyme VII IC50 of about 2 microM
2-hydroxyestradiol
-
selective sAC inhibitor, inhibits the jelly induced acrosome reaction by 30% as well as the increase in cAMP levels by 42%
2-hydroxyestradiol
-
0.01 mM used in assay conditions
2-hydroxyestradiol
Q9HZ23
significant inhibition at 0.1 mM
2-hydroxyestradiol
-
-
2-hydroxyestrone
-
reversible inhibition of recombinant soluble enzyme in dose dependent manner, IC50 in low micromolar range
2OH-17beta estradiol
-
inhibits bicarbonate-induced cAMP production
3'-AMP
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
3'-AMP
-
type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.263 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.030 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.015 mM
3'-AMP
-
-
3'-dATP
-
competitive inhibition
3'-deoxy-2'-2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
-
3'-deoxy-2'-2',3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
-
-
3'-methylanthraniloyl-2'-d-ATP
-
-
3'-O-(5-acetamidoanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
3'-O-(5-acetamidoanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
-
3'-O-(5-bromoanthraniloyl)-ADP
-
-
3'-O-(5-bromoanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
3'-O-(5-bromoanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
-
3'-O-(5-chloroanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
3'-O-(5-chloroanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
-
3'-O-(5-propylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
-
3'-O-(5-propylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
-
3,20-dioxopregn-4-en-21-yl 4-bromobenzenesulfonate
O32393
; discriminates between soluble isozyme and transmembrane isozymes, and appears to simultaneously block the original binding pocket and a neighboring interaction site
3-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-N-hydroxycyclopentanecarboxamide
-
i.e. PMC-6, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.065 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.011 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.00032 mM
3-[(9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carbonyl)-amino]-benzoic acid
-
-
4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid
-
-
4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-3,3-bis(6-hydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one
O32393
-
4-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-N-hydroxybutanamide
-
i.e. PMC-2, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.32 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.13 mM
4-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-N-hydroxycyclopent-2-ene-1-carboxamide
-
i.e. PMC-5, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 6.02 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.137 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.046 mM
4-hydroxyestradiol
-
-
4-hydroxyestradiol
-
reversible inhibition of recombinant soluble enzyme in dose dependent manner, IC50 in low micromolar range
4-hydroxyestradiol
-
a catechol estrogen and sAC-selective inhibitor
5'-benzyl-12'-hydroxy-2'-methyl-3',6',18-trioxoergotaman
O32393
-
5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-N-hydroxypentanamide
-
i.e. PMC-1, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 1.303 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.154 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.030 mM
5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrofuran-3-ol
-
i.e. 2'5'-dd-Ado, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 2.382 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.253 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.0016 mM
8-[(4-(N-methylanthraniloyl)amino)butyl]amino-ATP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
8-[(6-(N-methylanthraniloyl)amino)hexyl]-amino-ATP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
9-(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine
-
i.e. SQ22536, type 2 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.285 mM, type 3 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.101 mM, type 5 enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.0022 mM
9-arabinofuranosyladenine
-
-
9-CPA
-
a adenylate cyclase P-site inhibitor
9-tetrahydro-2'-furyladenine
-
effective and specific inhibitor for ACA in cell lysates and intact cells
9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine diphosphate
-
-
adenosine
-
-
adenosine
-
-
alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate
-
in presence of diphosphate
alpha-cyano-(3,4,5-trihydroxy)cinnamonitrile
-
effective and specific inhibitor for ACG in cell lysates
anthraniloyl-ADP
-
-
anthraniloyl-ATP
-
-
anthraniloyl-GTP
-
-
anthraniloyl-IMP
-
-
arginine-vasopressin
-
-
ATP
-
high concentrations
ATP
-
high concentrations
ATP
-
high concentrations
ATP
-
high concentrations
ATP
-
substrate inhibition at high concentrations, inhibition is relieved in the presence of HCO3-, no substrate inhibition in the presence of 50 mM HCO3-
BAPTA
-
inhibits calcium-stimulated AC
BAPTA
-
inhibition of Ca2+-stimulated AC, buffers cytosolic Ca2+ and shifts activation in the hyperpolarizing direction, so that MDL 12330A has little or no further effect
beta, gamma subunit of the guanine-nucleotide binding regulatory protein
-
-
-
beta, gamma subunit of the guanine-nucleotide binding regulatory protein
-
-
-
bis-acetamido-anthraniloyl-ITP
-
-
buprenorphine
-
a low-efficacy partial mu-opioid agonist
Ca2+
-
-
Ca2+
-
-
Ca2+
-
-
Ca2+
-
type V adenylyl cyclase
Ca2+
-
type II adenylyl cyclase
Ca2+
O43306, O60266, O95622, P40145, P51828, Q08462, Q08828, Q96PN6
at low concentrations; inhibition by low concentrations
Ca2+
-
bradykinin receptor-mediated increases in the release of intracellular calcium inhibits AC6 activity
Ca2+
-
addition of Ca2+ to cells which have been depleted of intracellular Ca2+ markedly suppress cAMP synthesis by AC9
Ca2+
-
capacitative operated Ca2+ entry inhibits AC6
Ca2+
-
calcium-inhibited AC5 isozyme
Ca2+
-
Ca2+ stimulates transmembrane isozymes AC1 and AC8 via calmodulin, and inhibits AC5 and AC6 directly
Ca2+
-
inhibits isoforms AC5 and AC6, but not isoform AC4
Ca2+
-
AC5 and AC6 are inhibited by Ca2+ at both sub- and supra-micromolar concentration, Ca2+ inhibits the soluble adenylate cyclase core composed of the C1 domain of AC5 and the C2 domain of AC2, at micromolar concentration Ca2+ inhibition is non-exclusive with respect to diphosphate, but at 0.1 mM Ca2+ and above inhibition appears to be exclusive with respect to diphosphate
Ca2+
-
calcium entrance in the cell inhibits the enzyme
Ca2+
-
isoforms AC5 and AC6 are inhibited by Ca2+
Ca2+
-
inhibits isoform AC6
Ca2+
-
at 0.1 mM and higher, the calcium cations inhibit the adenylyl cyclase activity
Ca2+
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase AC5 is sensitive to inhibition by Ca2+
Ca2+/calcineurin
-
-
-
Ca2+/calmodulin
-
the Ca2+/calmodulin inhibition of isoform AC3 occurs at rather high concentrations (0.1 mM/0.0005 mM)
-
Caffeine
-
inhibits cAMP accumulation by ACB and ACG. None among ACA, ACB and ACG is a direct target for the inhibitory effects of caffeine
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
-
in vivo
-
cAMP
-
in presence of diphosphate
cAMP
-
mutant K372A shows at least 20fold increase in the IC50 value
Carbachol
-
increases intracellular calcium, inhibits A2bR mediated increase in cAMP by 53%
carbamazepine
-
carbamazepine preferentially inhibits forskolin-stimulated isoforms AC5 and AC1 and all D1 agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclases, with isoforms AC5 and AC7 being the most sensitive. When compared to 1 or 3 mM Mg2+, 10 mM Mg2+ reduces lithium-induced AC5 inhibition by 70%. Carbamazepine competes for adenylate cylcase's catechol-estrogen site
catechol
-
and derivatives
catechol
-
noncompetetive inhibitor
Chloropromazine
-
-
Chloropromazine
-
-
cis-N-(2-phenylcyclopentyl)azacyclotridec-1-en-2-amine
-
inhibits ACA, ACB and ACG
Co2+
-
high concentrations
CTP
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
cyclic poly-phosphate 17
-
-
cyclic triphosphate
-
-
cytidine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate
-
-
DAMGO
-
a higher efficacy mu-opioid agonist
DAMGO
-
a mu-opioid receptor agonist, inhibits the forskolin-activated enzyme, the combined treatment with sufentanil and nimodipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, increases mu-opioid-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and switched it to a predominantly PTX-resistant response, overview
delta opioid receptor agonist DPDPE
-
i..e. d-Pen2,d-Pen5 enkephalin, delta opioid receptor agonist, 0.001 mM significantly represses forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity
-
delta opioid receptor agonist DT II
-
i.e.(d-Ala2)-deltorphin II, delta opioid receptor agonist, 0.001 mM significantly represses forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity
-
Dextran sulfate
-
-
-
di-methylanthraniloyl-IMP
-
-
diphosphate
-
-
diphosphate
-
-
diphosphate
-
-
diphosphate
-
no difference between wild type and mutant K372A
diphosphate
-
non-competitive inhibitor with respect to ATP
EDTA
-
-
EGTA
-
-
EGTA
-
freshly activated CyaA is inhibited by EGTA at low calmodulin concentrations
epinephrine
-
overexposure to epinephrine inactivates adenylate cyclase
flufenazine
-
-
Foscarnet
-
a diphosphate analogue, is able to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac myocytes, but does not inhibit activity of recombinant murine isozyme ACVI in virus-infected myocytes
Galphai
-
inhibits Galphas-stimulated activities of ACVI, Gbetagamma does not alter the ability of Galphai to inhibit the activities of ACVI
-
GALPHAI protein
-
inhibits basal activity of isoform V, not the basal activity of isoform VI
-
Galphai2G203T
Q04400
chronic treatment of HEK-293T cells reduces AC5 activity
-
Gi GTP-binding protein
-
inhibitory G-protein signaling acts presynaptically to regulate release, and, when paired with elevations in the concentration of cyclic GMP, converts a transient cyclic GMP-induced depression into a long-lasting decrease in release, overview
-
Gialpha
-
inhibits AC5 and AC6
-
GTP
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
GTP
Q8KY20
competitive inhibition
guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
at low concentrations
guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
-
guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate
-
-
HgCl2
-
inhibitory at 100microM
inhibitory G protein
-
Galphai subunits contribute to the reduction of adenylyl cyclase activity after either forskolin or GalphaS activation
-
inhibitory G protein
-
-
-
inhibitory G protein
O43306
-
-
inhibitory G protein
P97490
AC1 activity is regulated by both Ca2+ and G proteins
-
inhibitory G protein
-
both alpha and betagamma subunits, activated by GTP binding, can modulate activity of effectors in transduction signaling, including adenylyl cyclase. In depressed patients, the expression of stimulatory G protein is increased and of inhibitory G protein is decreased, which suggests greater stimulation of the cAMP pathway
-
inhibitory G protein
-
isozyme group III is comprised of Gialpha /Ca2+ -inhibited isozymes AC5 and AC6. G proteins interact with AC mainly through their switch II alpha-helices, which are conformational sensors for the alpha-activation state, mode of regulation, overview
-
inhibitory G protein
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
isozyme group III is comprised of Gialpha /Ca2+ -inhibited isozymes AC5 and AC6. G proteins interact with adenylate cyclase mainly through their switch II alpha-helices, which are conformational sensors for the alpha-activation state, mode of regulation, overview; isozyme group III is comprised of Gialpha /Ca2+-inhibited isozymes AC5 and AC6. G proteins interact with adenylate cyclase mainly through their switch II alpha-helices, which are conformational sensors for the alpha-activation state, mode of regulation, overview
-
inosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
-
inosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate
-
-
ITP
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
KH7
-
sAC-specific inhibitor
KH7
-
potent, specific inhibitor
L-(+)-2,3-butanediol
-
isoform AC7 activity is inhibited to about 50% with 100 mM L-(+)-2,3-butanediol
labd-13(E)-ene-8a,15-diol
-
isolated from the resin Ladano of the plant Cistus creticus subsp. creticus that grows in the island of Crete, Greece. Docking calculations of the two stereoisomers of the compound and derivatives to the enzyme at the forskolin binding site, overview
Li+
-
lithium preferentially inhibits adenylyl cyclase V and VII isoforms, moderately also isozyme AC-II, but does not inhibit Ca2+-activated isozymes AC-I and AC-VIII, it interferes with the transduction pathways mediated via isozymes AC-V and AC-IIV. The inhibitor effect is abolished for the superactivated isozyme, overview
lithium
-
lithium preferentially inhibits isoform AC5, lithium competes with Mg2+, which is essential for adenylate cyclase activity
lubrol-PX
-
-
MANT-GTP
-
inhibits the VC1-IIC2 heterodimer
MDL 12330A
-
inhibitor of AC1 activity, shifts activation in the hyperpolarizing direction. Buffering cytosolic Ca2+ with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA shifts activation in the hyperpolarizing direction, so that MDL 12330A has little or no further effect
MDL 12330A
-
specific transmembrane adenylyl cyclase inhibitor
MDL-12,330A
-
-
MDL-12330A
-
the adenylate cyclase inhibitor depresses the response in GRNs to trehalose as well as sucrose in gustatory receptor neurons
methylanthraniloyl-ADP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-ATP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-ATPgammaS
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-CDP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-CTP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-GDP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-GTP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-GTPgammaS
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-IDP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-IMP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-ITP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-ITPgammaS
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-UDP
-
-
methylanthraniloyl-UTP
-
-
Mg2+
-
high concentrations
morphine
-
a higher efficacy mu-opioid agonist
N6-[6-((N-methylanthraniloyl)amino)hexyl]-ATP
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
NaCl
Q5UFR5
reduced enzyme activity in the presence of 500 mM NaCl
NaHCO3
-
approximately 50% inhibition of enzyme activity by 50 mM NaHCO3
nalbuphine
-
a low-efficacy partial mu-opioid agonist
NKY80
-
selective adenylyl cyclase-V inhibitor, completely blocks both 5,5'-dimethyl-1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acidstimulated cAMP formation and renin release
NO
-
NO functions either via an as yet unidentified regulator of adenylyl cyclase or the enzyme itself is the target of NO, inhibition is reversed by reducing agents
NO
-
inhibits forskolin- and Galphas-stimulated activity of recombinant AC5 and AC6, but neither AC1 nor AC2 in N18TG2 cells
noradrenaline
-
adenylate cyclase is almost completely inhibited by 0.5 mM noradrenaline
Nucleotides
-
-
-
opioid receptor agonist DAMGO
-
i.e. (d-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly5-ol)enkephalin, micro opioid receptor agonist, 0.001 mM significantly represses forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity
-
oxaloacetate
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
Oxytocin
-
-
PAPANANOATE
-
nitric oxide donor, completely abolishes A2bR mediated cAMP production
pertussis toxin
Q04400
chronic treatment of HEK-293T cells reduces AC5 activity
-
phosphocreatine
-
-
PKC
-
inhibits AC6 activity
-
poly-phosphate 16
-
-
poly-phosphate 25
-
-
poly-phosphate 30
-
-
-
poly-phosphate 45
-
-
-
poly-phosphate 68
-
-
-
poly-phosphate 75
-
-
-
Polyvinyl sulfate
-
-
prostaglandin E1
-
-
putrescine
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
quinpirole
-
inhibits the enzyme via Gi protein
quinpirole
-
-
Ribonucleoside triphosphates
-
-
Ric8a
Q04400
i.e., resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 homolog A, AC5 interacts with Ric8a through directly interacting at its N-terminus, selectively suppresses AC5 activity, does not further suppress AC5s activity in the presence of somatostatin, effectively suppresses the forskolin-stimulated activity of AC5, but not that of AC6. Treating cells with pertussis toxin or expressing a dominant negative Galphai mutant abolishes the suppressive effect, markedly suppresses the activation of AC5 induced by isoprenaline of a Galphas coupled receptor in an isoform-specific manner, while the isoprenaline-evoked activity of AC6 is not affected
-
RNAi
-
AC5, AC6 and AC9 isoform-specific stealth RNAi, increases A2bR levels 12fold. AC5, AC6 and AC9 levels are inhibited by 60-80%. AC5 RNAi does not affect the levels of AC6 RNA and vice versa. cAMP production is inhibited in AC6 RNAi transfected cells but not in cells transfected with AC5 and AC9 RNAi, indicating that AC6 is associated with A2bR
-
S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine
-
nitric oxide donor, inhibits A2bR mediated increase in cAMP by 64%
siRNA
-
selectively reduces heterologous expression of AC6 without impact on the expression of AC2, reduces forskolin-activated AC6 activity, whereby diminishing forskolin-induced arborization
-
spermidine
-
-
spermine
-
-
SQ 22536
-
adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, blocks both generation of cAMP and the release of renin, completely blocks 5,5'-dimethyl-1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acidstimulated renin release and cAMP content
SQ 22536
O43306, O60266
i.e. 9-(tetrahydro-29-furyl)adenine, massive inhibition of cAMP formation with a combination of enzyme inhibitors 9-(tetrahydro-29-furyl)adenine and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine; i.e. 9-(tetrahydro-29-furyl)adenine, massive inhibition of cAMP formation with a combination of enzyme inhibitors 9-(tetrahydro-29-furyl)adenine and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine
SQ22536
-
decreases cAMP production despite the presence of UTP
SQ22536
-
a adenylate cyclase P-site inhibitor
SQ22536
-
the adenyly cyclase inhibitor increases senescent human diploid fibroblast proliferation by inhibition of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase via reduction of AMPKalpha phosphorylation at Thr172 by inhibiting the LKB signaling, molecular mechanism, overview
SQ22536
-
selective non-competitive inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase
sufentanil
-
a mu-opioid receptor agonist, inhibits the forskolin-activated enzyme, the combined treatment with sufentanil and nimodipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, increases mu-opioid-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and switched it to a predominantly PTX-resistant response, overview
Thrombin
-
thrombin transiently inhibits adenylyl cyclase 6
-
Tributyltin chloride
-
-
Trifluoperazine
-
-
Trifluoperazine
-
-
tyrphostin A25
-
IC50 0.119mM, IC50 forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase 1 mM, 37C, pH 7.5
tyrphostin A25
Q5UFR5
IC50 of about 36 microM
U50488H
-
kappa opioid receptor agonist
U69593
-
kappa opioid receptor agonist
uridine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
-
uridine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate
-
-
UTP
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
vitamin D
-
decreases parathyroid-induced stimulation of AC6 and induces a phosphorylation of AC6 in a PKC-dependent manner
WIN55212-2
-
-
xanthosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
-
xanthosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate
-
-
Yotiao
-
the A-kinase anchoring protein Yotiao or AKAP9 binds and regulates adenylyl cyclase in brain, it inhibits AC2 and AC3, but has no effect on AC1 or AC9, the N-terminus of isozyme AC2, AC2-NT, acts as a competitive inhibitor of Yotiao-AC2 interactions, recombinantly expressed Yotiao from HEK293 cells
-
Zn2+
O77079
0.007 mM, 50% inhibition
Mn2+
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
additional information
-
acute activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 leads to inhibition of isoenzymes ACI, AC III, AC VI and AC VIII
-
additional information
-
inhibition studies of the purified catalytic subunits in the presence of forskolin
-
additional information
-
NaCl, KCl not inhibitory
-
additional information
-
not inhibitory: estrone and estrogen
-
additional information
-
2-amino-7-(furanyl)-7,8-dihydro-5(6H)-quinazolinone does not inhibit ACG and has only a partial inhibitory effect on ACA and ACB
-
additional information
-
inhibition of NO, superoxide and or prostaglandin formation does not affect vasopressin-stimulated cAMP accumulation
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 17beta-estradiol
-
additional information
-
full-length enzyme contains a large autoinhibitory C-terminal
-
additional information
-
sensitization of cAMP response is attenuated by PKC and Raf1 inhibitors
-
additional information
-
Galpha0 is not sufficient to inhibit AC5 or AC6, inhibition requires an intact cell membrane or additional protein interactions that are absent in a reconstituted in vitro system
-
additional information
P71914
at 1 mM, D-galactose, D-mannose, L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, D-glucose, D-fructose, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, DL-threonine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, L-asparagine, L-histidine, L-aspartic acid, D-alanine, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-leucine, glycine, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, NADH, glyoxylic acid, alpha-ketoglutarate, pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate do not significantly affect activity of the holoenzyme
-
additional information
O06362, O06572, O07732, O53213, O53720, P71914, P94982, P9WM05, P9WMU7, P9WMV1, P9WQ29, P9WQ31, P9WQ33, P9WQ35, Q11028
HAMP domain of Rv1319c inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity; no inhibition of Rv1625c by P-site ATP analogues; the first ca. 200 amino acid region of Rv1264 holoenzyme is auto-inhibitory
-
additional information
-
antibodies against ACT fail to block Bordetella pertussis attachment to human A549 cells
-
additional information
-
G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 by sequestering Gbetagamma subunits in vivo decreases isoproterenol-elicited increase in cAMP accumulation in cells expressing ACVI. Pertussis toxin treatment does not alter the ability of G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 to attenuate isoproterenol-stimulated ACVI activity
-
additional information
-
addition of one or two residues results in a slightly more inhibited phenotype. Addition of three residues results in only subtle changes, probably because the insertion of three residues is compatible with an extra-helical turn. In contrast, insertion of nine amino acids almost abolishes pH sensitivity
-
additional information
-
selective PKC inhibitor, abolishes cAMP accumulation by AC2
-
additional information
-
PAM, a protein associated with Myc, inhibits AC1 activity in the picomolar to nanomolar range, is ineffective in regulating stimulated AC2 activity
-
additional information
-
PleD is subject to tight feedback inhibition by the product c-diGMP
-
additional information
-
oxidative stress decreases the enzyme stimulation through GTPgammaS, GSalpha proteins, and hormones, overview
-
additional information
P00936
inhibition of mutant catalytic domains by 2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-modified nucleotides is reduced compared to the wild-type catalytic domain Cya2-446, overview
-
additional information
-
structure-activity relationship
-
additional information
-
Epstein Barr virus infection prevents activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway, overview
-
additional information
-
foscarnet, a diphosphate analogue, is able to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity in uninfected rat cardiac myocytes, but does not inhibit recombinant AC activity in murine isozyme ACVI virus-infected myocytes
-
additional information
Q9Z286
soluble adenylyl cyclase inhibitors reduce not only basal Isc, but also Isc stimulated by two distinct agonists, forskolin and aldosterone, suggesting that soluble adenylyl cyclase activity may be regulating electrogenic Na+ transport at a site common to all pathways, soluble adenylyl cyclase inhibition blocks ATPase activity without affecting surface expression of the Na+ pump
-
additional information
O32393
structure-based development of adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, compounds exploiting the catechol estrogen binding site can produce potent, isoform discriminating adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, inhibitory potency of compounds, overview
-
additional information
Q96PN6
structure-based development of adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, compounds exploiting the catechol estrogen binding site can produce potent, isoform discriminating adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, inhibitory potency of compounds, overview
-
additional information
-
structure-based development of adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, compounds exploiting the catechol estrogen binding site can produce potent, isoform discriminating adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, overview
-
additional information
-
cyclic AMP levels in photoreceptor cells are highest in darkness and reduced by light exposure, dopamine D4 receptor activation promotes light adaptation and suppresses the light-sensitive pool of cyclic AMP in photoreceptor cells
-
additional information
-
netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue
-
additional information
Q9Z286
netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue
-
additional information
P97490
isozyme AC8 is neither stimulated by Gs nor inhibited by Gi
-
additional information
-
the soluble isozyme contains a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain that reduces Vmax without affecting the substrate affinity
-
additional information
-
lipopolysaacharides differentially affect the soluble and transmembrane isozymes in nuclei and chloroplasts
-
additional information
-
maximal inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase by buprenorphine and nalbuphine is increased in cells expressing regulator of G protein signaling RGS-insensitive Galphao CIGS, Galphai2 CIGS, or Galphai3 CIGS compared with their GalphaCI counterparts, but the RGS-insensitive mutation has little or no effect on the maximal inhibition by DAMGO and morphine
-
additional information
-
inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, especially of isozyme ACVII, is involved in somatostatin anti-angiogenic actions
-
additional information
-
valproate does not affect any forskolin- or D1 receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase
-
additional information
-
class I AC is unaffected by up to 0.03 mM poly-phosphate 75
-
additional information
-
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-nucleotides (TNP-nucleotides) inhibit isoform ACI in the order of potency TNP-UTP=TNP-ATP>TNP-GTP=TNP-CTP>TNP-ADP>TNP-GDP>>>TNP-AMP. Specifically, the order of potency for isoform ACII is TNP-UTP >TNP-ATP=TNP-CTP >TNP-GTP >>TNP-ADP>TNP-GDP > TNP-AMP. Specifically, TNP-nucleotides inhibit isoform ACV in the order of potency: TNP-ATP>TNP-UTP>TNP-GTP=TNP-CTP>>TNP-ADP>TNP-GDP>TNP-AMP
-
additional information
-
tyramine receptor activation with tyramine reduces adenylyl cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by methylanthraniloyl-IMP and anthraniloyl-IMP
-
additional information
-
monovalent ions exhibit dose-dependent inhibition from 30 to 200 mM
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,2,3-propanetriol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 10% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,2,3-propanetriol, isoform AC7 shows about 18% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,2,3-propanetriol, isoform AC9 shows about 15% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,2,3-propanetriol
1,2-Butanediol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 37% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,2-butanediol, isoform AC7 shows about 38% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,2-butanediol, isoform AC9 shows about 32% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,2-butanediol
1,3-butanediol
-
isoforms AC6 and AC7 show about 22% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,3-butanediol, isoform AC9 shows about 17% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,3-butanediol
1,3-Propanediol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 17% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,3-propanediol, isoform AC7 shows about 20% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,3-propanediol, isoform AC9 shows about 17% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,3-propanediol
1,4-Butanediol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 30% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,4-butanediol, isoform AC7 shows about 25% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,4-butanediol, isoform AC9 shows about 40% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1,4-butanediol
1,6-anhydro-Mur-L-Ala-D-Glu
-
-
-
1-butanol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 85% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1-butanol, isoform AC7 shows about 110% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1-butanol, isoform AC9 shows about 105% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1-butanol
1-propanol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 31% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1-propanol, isoform AC7 shows about 50% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1-propanol, isoform AC9 shows about 44% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 1-propanol
2,3-Butanediol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 30% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 2,3-butanediol, isoform AC7 shows about 35% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 2,3-butanediol, isoform AC9 shows about 41% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 2,3-butanediol
2-butanol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 60% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 2-butanol, isoform AC7 shows about 70% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 2-butanol, isoform AC9 shows about 60% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 2-butanol
2-propanol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 20% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 2-propanol, isoform AC7 shows about 35% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 2-propanol, isoform AC9 shows about 40% stimulation of activity with 100 mM 2-propanol
5'-guanylimidodiphosphate
-
activation
5'-guanylimidodiphosphate
-
activation
5,5'-dimethyl-1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid
-
decreases intracellular calcium, stimulates adenylyl cyclase, increases intracellular cAMP content by 125% and basal renin by 182%
5,5'-dimethyl-1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid
-
cytosolic calcium chelator, reduces isolated juxtaglomerular intracellular calcium, allowing an increased activity of the calcium-inhibitable isoform adenylyl cyclase-V, stimulates both cAMP and renin release
5-CT
-
h5-HT6/rAC2 cell line highly responsive
5-HT
-
h5-HT6/rAC2 cell line highly responsive
5-hydroxytryptamine
-
stimulation of enzyme activity up to 2.5fold
A-77636
-
a dopamine receptor agonist, the activation by can be reversed by D1-receptor antagonists SCH23390, SKF83566, and butaclamol
A23187
-
activates isozymes AC-I and AC-III
A2B adenosine receptor
-
activates the enzyme and regulates its activity and the cAMP signaling pathway in mast and microvascular cell, role of the C-terminus of the A2B receptor in stimulation of adenylate cyclase, which is important for A2B receptor coupling to Gs-adenylate cyclase, overview
-
A2bR
-
cAMP production induced only in cells transfected with A2bR
-
A2bR
-
-
-
acetazolamide
-
when apical membrane insertion of the vacuolar proton pumping ATPase is stimulated by treatment with acetazolamide, sAC is also concentrated in the apical membrane of A-intercalated cells
adrenaline
-
stimulates adenylate cyclase activity
alamethicin
-
activation
alpha subunit of the guanine-nucleotide binding regulatory protein
-
activation
-
alpha subunit of the guanine-nucleotide binding regulatory protein
-
activation
-
alpha subunit of the guanine-nucleotide binding regulatory protein
-
activation
-
arachidonic acid
P71914
strong activation at 0.1 mM
atropin C
-
activation
-
bacterial peptidoglycan
-
direct activation of Cyr1p
-
bicarbonate
-
-
bicarbonate
-
50 mM stimulate sAC activity 2fold
bicarbonate
-
stimulates 2.5fold
bicarbonate
Q7A2D9, Q8YMH0, Q8YVS0
activates CyaB1 2.5fold
bicarbonate
O06362, O06572, O07732, O53213, O53720, P71914, P94982, P9WM05, P9WMU7, P9WMV1, P9WQ29, P9WQ31, P9WQ33, P9WQ35, Q11028
stimulates purified Rv1319c catalytic domain
bicarbonate
-
activates sAC in vivo and in vitro in a pH-dependent manner
bicarbonate
-
-
bicarbonate
-
1.36fold stimualtion of activity at 40 mM
bicarbonate
-
1.63fold stimualtion of activity at 40 mM
BIM-1
-
specific protein-kinase C inhibitor, significantly increases cumulus cell cAMP concentrations
Bovine serum albumin
-
stimulation
-
Ca2+
Q1MU16
-
Calmodulin
-
strong activation
Calmodulin
O43306, O60266, O95622, P40145, P51828, Q08462, Q08828, Q96PN6
-
Calmodulin
-
no detectable stimulation of enzyme activity
Calmodulin
P19754
a second isoform- and regulator-specific contact site in C2 is necessary to render enzyme activity susceptible to calmodulin modulation. In addition to the PFAHL-motif in C1b of ACII, calmodulin requires not only the Ca2+-independent AC28-region in C1b but also a Ca2+-dependent domain in C2a of ACI with the VLG-loop to stimulate this adenylyl cyclase isoform
Calmodulin
-
-
Calmodulin
-
stimulates AC1 and AC8 in a Ca2+-dependent manner
Calmodulin
-
stimulates AC8 in a Ca2+-dependent manner
Calmodulin
-
Ca2+/calmodulin enhance cAMP production through AC9
Calmodulin
-
requirement for dual regulation of the AC by both Gs activation and Ca2+/calmodulin in a time-dependent manner
Calmodulin
-
-
Calmodulin
-
stimulates AC8
Calmodulin
-
required for activity
Calmodulin
-
Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated isozyme AC1; Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated isozyme AC8
Calmodulin
P0DKX7
activates, the N-terminal portion of CaM binds to the beta-hairpin region in the CA domain of CyaA, interaction mode, structure analysis of the calmodulin-CyaA complex and interface, and mechanism of catalytic activation, detailed overview. The N-terminus of CaM is linked to the C-terminus of CaM by a flexible linker with a defined degree of freedom. The potency of CaM D50C mutant to activate CyaA is enhanced about 10fold, mutants T26C or T41C
Calmodulin
-
activates
Calmodulin
O88444, P97490
activates isozyme AC1; activates isozyme AC8
Calmodulin
P97490
AC1 activity is regulated by both Ca2+/calmodulin and G proteins; isozyme AC8 is a pure Ca2+/calmodulin sensor
Calmodulin
-
stimulates the soluble isozyme
Calmodulin
-
stimulates AC8 which shows a dis-inhibitory activation mechanism, Ca2+ stimulates transmembrane isozymes AC1 and AC8 via calmodulin, and inhibits AC5 and AC6 directly
Calmodulin
P40146
Ca2+ stimulates transmembrane isozyme AC8 via calmodulin
Calmodulin
-
co-application of 200 nM Ca2+ and calmodulin enhances the rate of cAMP synthesis by a factor of about 2.5
Calmodulin
-
maximal activity at 0.001 mM
cAMP
P94181
activation of recombinant cyaB1 via N-terminal GAF domains
cAMP
-
the stimulatory effect of cAMP on adenylyl cyclase activity is enhanced in the presence of 0.005 mM Ca2+ and decreased in the presence of 0.1 mM Ca2+
CAP
-
for full activation of the AC in vivo RAS2-GTP, CAP and Gpa2 modulate the enzyme synergistically
Carbachol
-
carbachol-induced capacitative Ca2+ entry clearly stimulates AC8-mediated cAMP production at the single-cell level
catecholamine
-
activation
catecholamine
-
activation
cholera toxin
-
-
-
clonidine
-
slight stimulatory effect on cAMP concentrations
CO2
-
stimulates 2fold at 20 mM at pH 7.5
CO2
-
induces acidification of cells, accompanied by a rise in intracellular HCO3-
CO2
-
synergistic effects of synthetic muramyl dipeptides and CO2
crude extract of cytosolic proteins from CHO cells
-
at least 500fold increased adenylate cyclase activity
-
D-(-)-2,3-butanediol
-
isoforms AC6 and AC7show about 30% stimulation of activity with 100 mM D-(-)-2,3-butanediol, isoform AC9 shows about 10% stimulation of activity with 100 mM D-(-)-2,3-butanediol
D-glucose
-
the stimulatory effect of D-glucose does not change in the presence of Ca2+ and calmodulin antagonists chloropromazine, N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride, and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride
D1A dopamine receptor
-
-
-
dihydrexidine
-
a dopamine receptor agonist, the activation by can be reversed by D1-receptor antagonists SCH23390, SKF83566, and butaclamol
dopamine
-
activation
dopamine
-
a dopamine receptor agonist, the activation by can be reversed by D1-receptor antagonists SCH23390, SKF83566, and butaclamol
dopamine
-
140% activation at 0.1 mM, activation in hippocampus and striatum, the stimulation is partially inhibited, up to 48%, by oxotremorine, inhibition of stimulation is blocked by muscarinic toxin MT3, purified from Dendroaspis angusticeps snake venom, overview
dopamine
-
about 2fold activation by 0.1 mM
EGF
-
the stimulatory effect of EGF on adenylyl cyclase activity is enhanced in the presence of 0.005 mM Ca2+ and decreased in the presence of 0.1 mM Ca2+
-
EGTA
-
significantly increases cumulus cell cAMP concentrations
Epidermal growth factor
-
increases cAMP accumulation in a GTP-dependent manner, enhances AC5 activity via phosphorylation of Galphas on one or more tyrosine residues
Epidermal growth factor
-
stimulates AC5, which is required for activation of a KCa1.1 channel in vascular smooth muscle and the subsequent upregulation of genes critical for cell proliferation
epinephrin
-
activation
epinephrine
-
about 2fold activation by 0.1 mM
epinephrine
-
significantly activates cortical adenylyl cyclase
ethanol
P51828
AC7 is the most ethanol responsive isoform, N-terminal 28-amino-acid region of the C1a domain and the C-terminal region of the AC molecule are important for the enhancement of AC activity by ethanol
ethanol
P21932, P26769
AC2 is less responsive to ethanol than rat AC3 or human AC7, N-terminal 28-amino-acid region of the C1a domain and the C-terminal region of the AC molecule are important for the enhancement of AC activity by ethanol; AC3 is far less responsive, AC2 is less responsive to ethanol than human AC7, N-terminal 28-amino-acid region of the C1a domain and the C-terminal region of the adenylate cyclase molecule are important for the enhancement of adenylate cyclase activity by ethanol
ethanol
-
potentiates AC7 activity through a PKC-delta-mediated phosphorylation
ethanol
-
stimulates isoform AC6, AC7 and AC9 activity
forskolin
-
activation
forskolin
-
activation
forskolin
-
activation
forskolin
-
activation
forskolin
-
activation
forskolin
-
activation
forskolin
-
activation
forskolin
-
activation
forskolin
-
slight activation, recombinant CyaB1-maltose binding protein fusion
forskolin
-
scarcely enhanced enzyme activity
forskolin
-
scarcely stimulated enzyme activity
forskolin
-
stimulates tmAC activity 1.6fold
forskolin
P19754
-
forskolin
synthetic construct
-
increases cAMP in both the plasma membrane and cytosolic compartments, induces inter-endothelial cell gaps in cells expressing the soluble adenylate cyclase, when the soluble chimaera is relocalized to the plasma membrane, the forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity does not induce gaps
forskolin
-
forskolin-stimulated cAMP production is significantly increased to levels that do not differ between isoforms following the expression of AC1, AC2, AC5, or AC6
forskolin
-
stimulates an 11fold increase in cAMP
forskolin
-
stimulates the activity of soluble forms of ACV comprising their C1 and C2 domains, but Gbeta1gamma2 does not alter the ability of the agonist to regulate adenylate cyclase activity
forskolin
-
stimulates Gbetagamma subunits whereby enhancing the activity of enzymes
forskolin
Q1MU16
-
forskolin
-
actions of Ca2+ chelator BAPTA are overcome by exposure to 0.001 mM forskolin, a direct stimulator of AC1, to restore cAMP levels
forskolin
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
forskolin
-
increases substantially cAMP concentrations
forskolin
-
strong activation
forskolin
O88444, P97490
;
forskolin
-
structure-activity relationship
forskolin
-
forskolin activation is elevated by nicotine treatment in adolescence, especially in males
forskolin
-
forskolin-sensitive isozymes
forskolin
-
activates isozymes AC-I to AC-VIII, but not AC-IX, which contains no forskolin binding site
forskolin
-
decreased forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in suicide subjects
forskolin
-
increases the number of active synapses
forskolin
-
activation in a Mg2+-dependent manner
forskolin
-
activates the transmembrane isozyme
forskolin
-
-
forskolin
-
direct adenylate cyclase agonist, causes smaller increases in contraction and Ca2+ transient amplitudes in aged compared to younger ventricular myocytes
forskolin
-
leads to cAMP accumulation in C6 glioma cells expressing the mu-opioid-receptor
forskolin
-
activation in hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala. The stimulation is inhibited in vivo by oxotremorine, which is not affected by scopolamine. M4 is the main subtype responsible for muscarinic inhibition of forskolin-stimulated enzyme, overview
forskolin
-
activates the enzyme, the mu-opioid selective agonists sufentanil and DAMGO inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity through a mechanism involving pertussis toxin sensitive Gai/o subunits, overview
forskolin
-
binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview. Isozyme group IV contains forskolin-insensitive isozyme AC9, mode of regulation, overview
forskolin
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview. Isozyme group IV contains forskolin-insensitive isozyme AC9, mode of regulation, overview; binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview. Isozyme group IV contains forskolin-insensitive isozyme AC9, mode of regulation, overview
forskolin
-
free G protein Gsalpha subunits enhance adenylate cyclase responses to forskolin
forskolin
-
activated by 0.001 mM forskolin, coapplication of geldanamycin (0.1-10 nM) effectively suppresses the increase in forskolin-activated adenylate cyclase activation by 56%
forskolin
-
forskolin increases basal AC activity in Sf9 cell membranes expressing isoforms AC1 and AC2 by about 2-5fold, forskolin activates ACs in the order of potency AC1>AC5>mouse heart AC >AC2
forskolin
-
-
forskolin
-
significantly activates cortical adenylyl cyclase
G protein subunit
-
requirement for dual regulation of the AC by both Gs activation and Ca2+/calmodulin in a time-dependent manner
-
G-protein
O43306, O60266, O95622, P40145, P51828, Q08462, Q08828, Q96PN6
activation by betagamma subunits; betagamma subunit; betagamma subunits
-
G-protein
-
-
-
G-protein alpha-subunit
-
-
-
G-protein coupled receptor
-
-
-
Galphas
P19754
-
-
Galphas
-
stimulates the activity of soluble forms of ACV comprising their C1 and C2 domains, but Gbeta1gamma2 does not alter the ability of the agonist to regulate adenylate cyclase activity
-
Galphas
-
stimulates Gbetagamma subunits whereby enhancing the activity of enzymes
-
Galphas
-
-
-
Galphas
-
catalytic heterodimer VC1-IIC2
-
Galphas
-
stimulates the VC1-IIC2 heterodimer
-
GALPHAS protein
-
250fold stimulation isoform V, 500fold stimulation isoform VI
-
Gbeta1gamma2
-
increases the activation of ACV and ACVI by forskolin or Galphas. Gbetagamma subunits derived from sources other than Gi participate in mediating the full activation of ACVI by the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol
-
Gbetagamma
P19754
a second isoform- and regulator-specific contact site in C2 is necessary to render enzyme activity susceptible to Gbetagamma modulation. In addition to the PFAHL-motif in C1b of ACII, Gbetagamma contacts the KF-loop in C2
-
Gbetagamma
-
Gbetagamma conditionally stimulates ACVI, but does not stimulate ACV
-
Gbetagamma
-
conditionally stimulates ACV and ACVI
-
Gbetagamma
-
stimulates AC2
-
Glucagon
-
activation
Glucagon
-
0.04 mM glucagon significantly activates cortical and medulla adenylyl cyclase
glucagon-like peptide-1
-
stimulates the enzyme via activation of the specific G protein-coupled receptor GLP-1
-
Gpa2
-
for full activation of the AC in vivo RAS2-GTP, CAP and Gpa2 modulate the enzyme synergistically
-
Gsalpha
Q1MU16
signal transduction from beta-adrenergic receptors via trimeric Gs proteins to their downstream targets, e.g. ACs
-
Gsalpha
-
AC5 undergoes a cooperative activation by Gsalpha
-
GSalpha proteins
-
mediate stimulation of the adenylyl cyclase in case of hyperglycemia
-
GTP
-
activation
GTP
-
activation
GTP
-
activation
GTP
-
activation
GTP
-
activation
GTP
-
activation
GTP-gamma-S
-
activation
GTPgammaS
-
up to 14fold stimulation
GTPgammaS
-
stimulates the enzyme in hyperglycemic and control vascular smooth muscle cells
GTPgammaS
-
a nonhydrolysable GTP analogue, increases AC activity
GTPgammaS
-
-
GTPgammaS
-
in the presence of Mg2+, GTPgammaS increases adenylyl cyclase activity 4fold, with an EC50 value of 80 nM
GTPgammaS
-
stimulation of activity occurs at 0.005 mM
guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)tri-phosphate
-
up to 4fold stimulation
guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
activation
guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
activation
guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
activation
guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
activation
guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
activation
guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate
-
activation
guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate
-
stimulation of enzyme activity up to 3.5fold
guanosine diphosphate methylene phosphate
-
activation
H89
-
specific inhibitor of protein-kinase A, significantly increases cumulus cell cAMP concentrations at 0.0001 and 0.03 mM
HCO3-
-
50 mM, 5-20fold activation in the presence of Mg2+, 3fold activation in the presence of Mn2+
HCO3-
-
-
HCO3-
-
sAC stimulation increases more than 2fold between pH 7 and 8
HCO3-
-
mediates cAMP production
HCO3-
-
the enzyme is directly activated by bicarbonate
IBMX
-
increases basal renin release
Insulin
-
the stimulatory effect of insulin on adenylyl cyclase is decreased to 28% in the presence of 0.1 mM Ca2+
-
ionomycin
-
increases intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, significantly increases cumulus cell cAMP concentrations
isoprenaline
Q04400
-
isoprenaline
-
-
isoproterenol
-
stimulates AC6 resulting in a significant increase in the arborization process
isoproterenol
-
isoproterenol-stimulated AC activity is potentiated by bile salts activation of PKCalpha and delta
isoproterenol
P51829
stimulates
isoproterenol
O43306, O60266
;
isoproterenol
-
-
isoproterenol
-
in the presence of GTP (0.01 mM), isoproterenol increases adenylyl cyclase activity approximately 2fold, with an EC50 value of 12 nM
isoproterenol
-
significantly activates cortical adenylyl cyclase
L-(+)-2,3-butanediol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 55% stimulation of activity with 100 mM L-(+)-2,3-butanediol, isoform AC9 shows about 45% stimulation of activity with 100 mM L-(+)-2,3-butanediol
light
-
the enzyme is light-activated
-
linoleic acid
P71914
strong activation at 0.1 mM
linolenic acid
P71914
strong activation at 0.1 mM
lisuride
-
h5-HT6/rAC2 cell line highly responsive
Mur-L-Ala-D-Glu
-
-
-
MurNAc-L-Ala-D-Glu
-
-
-
NaCl
O06362, O06572, O07732, O53213, O53720, P71914, P94982, P9WM05, P9WMU7, P9WMV1, P9WQ29, P9WQ31, P9WQ33, P9WQ35, Q11028
Rv1647 is slightly activated at 500 mM
NaF
-
activation
NaF
-
activation
NaF
-
activation
NaF
-
activation
NaF
-
activation
NaF
-
stimulates tmAC activity 2.9fold
NaF
-
activates the transmembrane isozyme, but not the soluble isozyme
NaHCO3
-
10 mM, 30fold activation, half-maximal activation at 11 mM
Nicotine
-
nicotine treatment in adulthood produces an immediate increase in adenylate cyclase activity in males that disappears upon withdrawal, nicotine increases the activating effect of forskolin, especially in males, overview
NKH 477
-
application of NKH 477, a water-soluble forskolin analog, stimulates membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase
NKH477
-
a water soluble forskolin analogue that directly stimulates AC
NKH477
-
half-maximal activation with NKH477 is in the low micromolar range with 0.0102 mM for isoform AC3 and 0.0036-0.0081 mM for native enzyme
NKH477
I4EC00, I4EC01
;
norepinephrine
Q1MU16
activates endogenously expressed b-adrenergic receptors, signal transduction from beta-adrenergic receptors via trimeric Gs proteins to their downstream targets, e.g. ACs
norepinephrine
-
about 2fold activation by 0.1 mM
norepinephrine
-
significantly activates cortical adenylyl cyclase
norepinephrine
I4EC00, I4EC01
;
oleic acid
P71914
strong activation at 0.1 mM
palmitic acid
P71914
stimulates 3fold
pertussis toxin
-
-
-
pertussis toxin
-
catalyses ADP-ribosylation of a cysteine residue on GalphaI, causing the G-protein complex to become uncoupled from the receptor, significantly increases cAMP concentrations
-
phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
-
PKC-selective activator, stimulates AC2
pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide
-
-
-
pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide
-
i.e. PACAP, a neurotrophic and neuromodulatory peptide, differentially modulates AMPA receptor-mediated current in CA1 pyramidal neurons by activation of PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, both involving the cAMP/PKA pathway, mechanism and regulation, overview. It also enhances NMDA receptor-mediated currents
-
pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide
-
-
-
PKC
-
-
-
PMA
-
potentiates drug-stimulated cAMP accumulation
polidocanol
P71914
-
prostaglandin E1
-
-
protein kinase A
-
stimulates cAMP in the brain, the activation is increased in brains of patients with bipolar mood disorders, overview
-
Protein kinase C
O43306, O60266, O95622, P40145, P51828, Q08462, Q08828, Q96PN6
phosphorylation
-
pyruvate
-
activation
Ras2
-
in its GTP-bound form is essential for activation in vivo and functions as a direct stimulator of adenylate cyclase activity in vitro
-
Ras2
-
for full activation of the AC in vivo RAS2-GTP, CAP and Gpa2 modulate the enzyme synergistically
-
relaxin
-
AC5 activity is potentiated by PKCzeta after exposure to relaxin
-
serotonin
-
significant stimulation of enzyme activity
serotonin
-
AC2 stimulation followed by cAMP accumulation, no effect on AC5. AC2 co-transfected with Gs protein shows a synergistic effect on both baseline and agonist-stimulated cAMP accumulation. In the combined presence of Golf and AC2, the level of cAMP accumulation is enhanced in the agonist-stimulated cell line to levels equaling those of the AC2-expressing cell line only, with no effect on baseline activity. Similarly, when AC5 is co-expressed with Gs a synergistic effect with this pairing on both baseline and agonist-stimulated cAMP accumulation versus control can be observed. Because baseline activity is so high with the AC5/Gs pairing, the difference between stimulated and non-stimulated treatments is not significant. The AC5/Golf pairing fails to show any enhancement in cAMP accumulation upon serotonin stimulation, and no effect on baseline activity
serotonin
-
the stimulatory effect of serotonin on adenylyl cyclase activity (253%) is enhanced in the presence of 0.005 mM Ca2+
SKF-82958
-
a D1 dopaminergic receptor agonist
SKF-82958
-
-
Sodium fluoride
-
-
sphingosine 1-phosphate
P51829
stimulates
staurosporine
-
non-specific protein-kinase C inhibitor, significantly increases cumulus cell cAMP concentrations
stimulating G protein
-
Galphai subunits contribute to the reduction of adenylyl cyclase activity after either forskolin or GalphaS activation
-
stimulating G protein
-
-
-
stimulating G protein
-
GalphaS proteins, the activation of the chimeric mutant dimer of AC2/AC5 is highly increased compared to the single isozymes, overview; GalphaS proteins, the activation of the chimeric mutant dimer of AC2/AC5 is highly increased compared to the single isozymes, overview
-
stimulating G protein
O43306
GalphaS, and Gbeta1 and Ggamma2 subunits, G-protein-coupled receptors couple Galphas and activate isozyme ACVI
-
stimulating G protein
-
activating Gsalpha migrates from lipid rafts to nonraft membrane domains in prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in response to chronic, but not acute, treatment with tricyclic or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, resulting in a more facile association with adenylyl cyclase and increased of cAMP formation. The alteration in membrane localization is unique to Gsalpha, another caveolae and lipid raft resident G-protein, Gqalpha is unaltered
-
stimulating G protein
P97490
AC1 activity is regulated by both Ca2+/calmodulin and G proteins
-
stimulating G protein
-
both alpha and betagamma subunits, activated by GTP binding, can modulate activity of effectors in transduction signaling, including adenylyl cyclase. In depressed patients, the expression of stimulatory G protein is increased and of inhibitory G protein is decreased, which suggests greater stimulation of the cAMP pathway
-
stimulating G protein
-
i.e. s-Gs, comprising G protein subunits beta and gamma, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview, isozyme group II consists of Gbetagamma-stimulated AC 2, 4 and 7, G proteins interact with AC mainly through their switch II alpha-helices, which are conformational sensors for the alpha-activation state, mode of regulation, overview
-
stimulating G protein
P51829, Q01341, Q8VHH7
i.e. s-Gs, comprising G protein subunits beta and gamma, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview, isozyme group II consists of Gbetagamma-stimulated AC 2, 4 and 7, G proteins interact with adenylate cyclase mainly through their switch II alpha-helices, which are conformational sensors for the alpha-activation state, mode of regulation, overview; i.e. s-Gs, comprising G protein subunits beta and gamma, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview, isozyme group II consists of Gbetagamma-stimulated AC 2, 4 and 7, G proteins interact with adenylate cyclase mainly through their switch II alpha-helices, which are conformational sensors for the alpha-activation state, mode of regulation, overview; i.e. s-Gs, comprising G protein subunits beta and gamma, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview, isozyme group II consists of Gbetagamma-stimulated AC 2, 4 and 7, G proteins interact with adenylate cyclase mainly through their switch II alpha-helices, which are conformational sensors for the alpha-activation state, mode of regulation, overview; i.e. s-Gs, comprising G protein subunits beta and gamma, binds to the cytoplasmic domains, structure overview, isozyme group II consists of Gbetagamma-stimulated AC 2, 4 and 7, G proteins interact with adenylate cyclase mainly through their switch II alpha-helices, which are conformational sensors for the alpha-activation state, mode of regulation, overview
-
sumatriptan
-
h5-HT6/rAC2 cell line highly responsive
synthetic muramyl dipeptides
-
subunits of bacterial peptidoglycan, strong activation of the enzyme and of hyphal growth, NMR analysis, overview. The LRR domain of Cyr1p is required as bindin gsite for Candida albicans response to the peptides, overview. Synergistic effects of synthetic muramyl dipeptides and CO2
-
thapsigargin
-
thapsigargin-induced capacitative Ca2+ entry clearly stimulates AC8-mediated cAMP production at the single-cell level
thapsigargin
-
increases intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, significantly increases cumulus cell cAMP concentrations
Triton X-100
P71914
-
Vasoactive intestinal peptide
-
activation
Vasopressin
-
causes halfmaximal stimulation of cAMP accumulation
Vasopressin
-
-
[8-arginine]vasopressin
-
0.01 mM [8-arginine]vasopressin significantly activates cortical and medulla adenylyl cyclase
-
meso-2,3-butanediol
-
isoform AC6 shows about 15% stimulation of activity with 100 mM meso-2,3-butanediol, isoform AC7 shows about 28% stimulation of activity with 100 mM meso-2,3-butanediol, isoform AC9 shows about 10% stimulation of activity with 100 mM meso-2,3-butanediol
additional information
-
isoenzyme AC9 is not activated by forskolin
-
additional information
-
not activated by cAMP
-
additional information
-
acute activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 leads to stimulation of isoenzymes AC II, AC IV and AC VII
-
additional information
O43306, O60266, O95622, P40145, P51828, Q08462, Q08828, Q96PN6
insensitive to either Ca2+ or betagamma subunits of G-proteins
-
additional information
-
completely insensitiv to forskolin and GTPgammaS
-
additional information
-
adenylyl cyclase isoenzyme IX is not activated by forskolin
-
additional information
Q5UFR5
not stimulated by calcium, bicarbonate and forskolin
-
additional information
-
not activated by HCO3-
-
additional information
-
2-4fold enhancement of adenylate cyclase activity by the histidine kinase-receiver system, histidine kinase domain autophosphorylates on His572, subsequently the phosphate is transferred to the second receiver domain Asp895, which is adjacent to the CHD domain
-
additional information
-
cytosolic regulator of AC essential for activation of ACA, ACG is activated by high osmolarity
-
additional information
-
blue-light irradiation activates the AC 80fold
-
additional information
Q7A2D9, Q8YMH0, Q8YVS0
GAF domains bind cAMP and thereby increase the adenylate cyclase activity 27fold, thus functioning as an autoactivating switch and creating a feed-forward stimulatory mechanism; GAF domains bind cAMP and thereby increase the adenylate cyclase activity 27fold, thus functioning as an autoactivating switch and creating a feed-forward stimulatory mechanism; GAF domains bind cAMP and thereby increase the adenylate cyclase activity 27fold, thus functioning as an autoactivating switch and creating a feed-forward stimulatory mechanism
-
additional information
-
two signals activate the single, class IIId AC in vivo, a shift from carbohydrate-free to glucose-containing medium and an intracellular acidification upon carbon starvation
-
additional information
-
Ras-GTP and mediates activation of the AC
-
additional information
-
delta-opoid receptor activation sensitizes subsequent stimulation of AC6 signaling and enhances AC6 phosphorylation
-
additional information
P71914
unsaturated fatty acids strongly stimulate Rv2212 activity by increasing substrate affinity, greatly enhance the pH sensitivity, thus converting Rv2212 to a pH sensor adenylyl cyclasemore. At 1 mM, D-galactose, D-mannose, L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, D-glucose, D-fructose, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, DL-threonine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, L-asparagine, L-histidine, L-aspartic acid, D-alanine, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-leucine, glycine, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, NADH, glyoxylic acid, alpha-ketoglutarate, pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate do not significantly affect activity of the holoenzyme
-
additional information
O06362, O06572, O07732, O53213, O53720, P71914, P94982, P9WM05, P9WMU7, P9WMV1, P9WQ29, P9WQ31, P9WQ33, P9WQ35, Q11028
activity of Rv1264 is be regulated by pH; HAMP domain of Rv3645 activates adenylyl cyclase activity
-
additional information
-
prior activation of AC8 is not strictly necessary to observe Ca2+-driven cAMP dynamics. Nevertheless, amplitude of the transients is enhanced when AC8 is stimulated
-
additional information
-
regulatory domain of Rv1264 regulates AC activity in a pH-dependent manner, activated at acidic pH due to pH-dependent structural transitions of the Rv1264 dimer, strongly activated by the addition of fatty acids, oleic acid may serve as a hinge
-
additional information
Q1MU16
neither ionomycin nor thapsigargin activate
-
additional information
-
cholera toxin, KN-62, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and BAPTA-am or a combination of 3 mM EGTA plus BAPTA-am have no effect on cAMP concentrations
-
additional information
-
phosphorylation of a C-terminally located threonine residue increases activity of AC2 in intact HEK-293 cells
-
additional information
-
prolonged depolorization of cells, in the absence of Ca2+ leads to an increase in cAMP accumulation
-
additional information
-
is activated by different host cell factors and is inactive until injected into the host cell
-
additional information
-
Rv1264 is a pH-regulated enzyme
-
additional information
-
is activated by different host cell factors and is inactive until injected into the host cell
-
additional information
-
the upstream regulator of Cyr1p, RAS1, is required for optimal response of the organism to synthetic muramyl dipeptides
-
additional information
-
superactivation method for the isozymes, overview
-
additional information
P51829
no stimulation by sphingosine 1-phosphate in HEK 293 cells but synergistic effect on isoproterenol activation, overview
-
additional information
-
netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue
-
additional information
Q9Z286
netrin-1 does not alter cAMP levels in axons attracted by this cue
-
additional information
P97490
isozyme AC8 is neither stimulated by Gs nor inhibited by Gi
-
additional information
-
measurement of dopamine receptor agonist activation in a competitive assay with antagonists, e.g. SCH23390, overview
-
additional information
-
the transmembrane isozyme is induced by light, overview
-
additional information
-
no activation of the soluble isozyme by GTP, guanosine 5'(betagamma-imido)-triphosphate, forskolin, fluorde, and cholera toxin. The transmembrane isozyme is induced by light, overview
-
additional information
-
the transmembrane isozyme is induced by light, overview
-
additional information
-
the soluble isozyme is insensitive to the regulation by forskolin and G proteins, but seems to be activated by a proteolytic mechanism
-
additional information
-
the transmembrane isozyme is induced by light, overview, lipopolysaacharides differentially affect the soluble and transmembrane isozymes in nuclei and chloroplasts
-
additional information
-
in hypoxia isozyme ACVII expression is enhanced in wild-type retinas and it is further increased in sst2-lacking retinas, whereas in sst2 overexpressing retinas the increase of ACVII is lower than in wild-type retinas, overview
-
additional information
-
chronic treatment with mu-opioid agonists leads to upregulation of the of the cAMP-signalling pathway
-
additional information
-
binding of agonists to receptors leads to the activation of G proteins, which in turn activate adenylyl cyclase, overview
-
additional information
-
no activation of the soluble isozyme by the transmembrane isozyme-specific activator forskolin
-
additional information
-
no activation by histamine, glucagon, neuropeptide Y, and serotonin
-
additional information
-
isoforms AC6, AC7 and AC9 are not significantly stimulated by 1,2,4-butanetriol and 1,2,3,4-butanetetraol
-
additional information
-
not activated by histamine and 5-HT
-
additional information
-
not activated by forsoklin
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.33
adenylimidodiphosphate
-
-
0.0005
ATP
-
-
0.001
ATP
-
transmebrane isozyme
0.0022
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 27C
0.0022
ATP
-
native Cya1, pH 7.5, 27C
0.0027
ATP
-
truncated Cya1, pH 7.5, 27C
0.004
ATP
P94181
37C, pH 7.5, recombinant cyaB1 AC, in the presence of 2 mM Mn2+ and 0.1 mM cAMP
0.005
ATP
-
mutant enzyme C83A, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.0067
ATP
-
recombinant CyaB1-maltose binding protein fusion
0.011
ATP
P94181
37C, pH 7.5, recombinant cyaB1 AC, in the presence of 2 mM Mn2+
0.011
ATP
-
wild type isoform V, 30C
0.011
ATP
-
mutant enzyme R63A, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.0114
ATP
-
in the presence of Cl-
0.013
ATP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.014
ATP
-
mutant enzyme D55K, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.015
ATP
-
mutant enzyme E12Q, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.0162
ATP
-
in the presence of HCO3-
0.02
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.021
ATP
-
wild type isoform VI, 30C
0.024
ATP
P94181
37C, pH 7.5, recombinant cyaB1 AC, in the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and 0.1 mM cAMP
0.026
ATP
-
mutant isoform V N1090D, 30C
0.027
ATP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.03
ATP
-
mutant enzyme F5A, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.0327
ATP
-
truncated Cya1, pH 7.5, 27C, 50 mM NaHCO3
0.0339
ATP
-
native Cya1, pH 7.5, 27C, 50 mM NaHCO3
0.035
ATP
-
mutant enzyme L72A, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C; mutant enzyme M140A, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.038
ATP
P94181
37C, pH 7.5, recombinant cyaB1 AC, in the presence of 10 mM Mg2+
0.039 - 0.051
ATP
-
normal and rous sarcoma transformed
0.045
ATP
-
in the presence of Mn2+
0.046
ATP
-
mutant enzyme K76A, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.048
ATP
-
mutant isoform VI F1078S, 30C
0.05
ATP
P9WQ35
recombinant adenylyl cclase, in the presence of Mn2+
0.05
ATP
-
mutant enzyme R113A, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.06
ATP
-
mutant enzyme E136A, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.0667
ATP
-
pH 8.5, 40C
0.07
ATP
-
-
0.08
ATP
-
-
0.086
ATP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.09
ATP
-
mutant enzyme K14A, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.094
ATP
-
after activation of soluble AC with the stimulatory G protein alpha protein and GTP-gamma-S in the presence of Mn2+
0.1
ATP
-
Sf9, Mn2+, pH 7.4, 37C, 100 microM forskolin, 10 mM NaF, 10 microM AlCl3
0.1
ATP
-
membrane-bound ACs
0.1
ATP
-
mutant enzyme E10Q, in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.11
ATP
-
-
0.12
ATP
Q8I7A1
recombinant AC expressed from synthetic AC gene PfAC526-884
0.13
ATP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.14
ATP
-
wild type, pH 8.0, 25C
0.15
ATP
-
S49 cyc-, pH 7.4, 37C, Mn2+, 100 microM forskolin
0.153
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant Y394A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.16
ATP
-
mutant enzyme E136A, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.165
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant W374A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.168
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant W249A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.17
ATP
-
mutant H351N, pH 8.0, 25C
0.19
ATP
-
mutant H351F, pH 8.0, 25C
0.2
ATP
Nocardia erythropolis
-
-
0.201
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant K136A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.21
ATP
-
mutant enzyme K14A, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C; wild type enzyme, at pH 7.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.216
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant E242A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.24
ATP
-
mutant enzyme E10Q, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.259
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant K253A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.27
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain, 10 mM Mg2+
0.275
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant E185A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.284
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant K260A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.3 - 0.4
ATP
-
-
0.3
ATP
-
-
0.3
ATP
-
30C, pH 7.2, 2 microM free Ca2+
0.327
ATP
-
25C, plasma membrane isolated from glutamate/malate grown cells
0.33
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant S113A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.34
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 8.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.37
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 7.5, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.398
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant T189A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.4
ATP
O77079
recombinant TczAC
0.4
ATP
-
mutant VC1-A406P+IIC2-I1006V, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM MnCl, 0.1 mM forskolin; recombinant form VC1-IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM Mn2+
0.4
ATP
-
mutant enzyme K76A, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.427
ATP
-
25C, plasma membrane isolated from lactic acid grown cells
0.43
ATP
-
recombinant form VC1-IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM Mn2+, 0.1 mM forskolin, stimulatory G protein alpha subunits guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate; recombinant form VC1-IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM MnCl, 0.1 mM forskolin
0.43
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 8.5, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.44
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 9.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.45
ATP
-
-
0.46
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant R19A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.53
ATP
-
mutant VC1-A409P+IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM MnCl, 0.1 mM forskolin
0.533
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant S106A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.55
ATP
-
recombinant form VC1-IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM Mn2+, stimulatory G protein ALPHA subunits guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate
0.56
ATP
-
after activation of soluble AC with the stimulatory G protein alpha protein and GTP-gamma-S in the presence of Mg2+
0.56
ATP
-
recombinant form VC1-IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM Mg2+, 0.1 mM forskolin
0.57
ATP
-
mutant VC1+IIC2-I1006V, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM MnCl, 0.1 mM forskolin
0.6
ATP
-
recombinant cytosolic domain of type V adenylyl cyclase
0.6
ATP
-
recombinant C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of type II adenylyl cyclase
0.6
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 8.0 and 30C
0.609
ATP
-
in the presence of Mg2+
0.62
ATP
-
recombinant form VC1-IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM Mn2+, 0.1 mM forskolin
0.62
ATP
-
mutant enzyme C83A, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.68
ATP
-
recombinant form VC1-IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM Mg2+
0.682
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant K332A, 10 mM Mg2+
0.69
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 9.5, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.7
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 10.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.71
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 10.4, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.75
ATP
-
mutant enzyme R63A, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.76
ATP
-
recombinant form VC1-IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM Mg2+, stimulatory G protein alpha subunits guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate
0.77
ATP
-
5mM Mg2+
0.78
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.8
ATP
-
30C, pH 7.5
0.82
ATP
-
pH 7.4, 22C, 5mM Mg2+
0.85
ATP
-
recombinant form VC1-IIC2, 30C, pH 7.4, 10 mM Mg2+, 0.1 mM forskolin, stimulatory G protein alpha subunits guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate
0.87
ATP
-
mutant enzyme D55K, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
0.95
ATP
-
-
0.97
ATP
Q8KY20
recombinant cyaC
1
ATP
-
soluble isozyme
1.15
ATP
-
mutant enzyme E12Q, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
1.19
ATP
-
mutant enzyme M140A, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
1.2
ATP
-
sAC activity in cytosolic extracts in the presence of Mn2+
1.3
ATP
-
30C, pH 7.2, 0.1 microM free Ca2+
1.5
ATP
-
200 kDa form
1.5
ATP
-
mutant enzyme R338A/D360A, at pH 8.0 and 30C
1.89
ATP
-
mutant enzyme F5A, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
1.9
ATP
-
whole cells
2
ATP
-
47 kDa form
2.2
ATP
-
mutant enzyme N347A, at pH 8.0 and 30C
2.29
ATP
-
mutant enzyme L72A, in the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, at pH 8.5 and 37C
2.4
ATP
-
high molecular weight form
2.5
ATP
-
-
3
ATP
-
mutant enzyme R338A/D360A, at pH 8.0 and 30C
3.5
ATP
P9WQ35
recombinant adenylyl cclase, in the presence of Mg2+
4
ATP
-
-
4.7
ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, recombinant catalytic domain mutant S103A, 10 mM Mg2+
5
ATP
-
recombinant protein
13
deoxycAMP
-
-
1.9
diphosphate
-
-
1.38
GTP
-
wild type enzyme, pH 8.5, 37C
0.009
MgATP2-
-
in presence of almathicin
0.019
MgATP2-
-
in absence of amathicin
0.13
MgATP2-
-
-
2.2
MgATP2-
-
-
0.067
MnATP2-
-
-
0.086
MnATP2-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
Q5UFR5
apparent Km for MnATP 0.393 mM
-
additional information
additional information
-
Km value for Mn2+-ATP is higher in the presence of inorganic carbon than Cl-
-
additional information
additional information
P0DKX7
steady-state FRET experiments of wild-type and mutant enzyme and calmodulin, overview
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0003
ATP
-
in the presence of Cl-
0.00045
ATP
-
in the presence of HCO3-
0.0057
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 7.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.0349
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 7.5, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.0833 - 0.25
ATP
-
-
0.1002
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 8.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.2519
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 8.5, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.4943
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 9.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.7449
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 9.5, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.8368
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 10.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
0.889
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 10.4, in Tris buffer at 37C
1.33
ATP
-
-
8.8
ATP
-
after activation of soluble AC with the stimulatory G protein alpha protein and GTP-gamma-S in the presence of Mn2+
12
ATP
-
-
15.5
ATP
-
after activation of soluble AC with the stimulatory G protein alpha protein and GTP-gamma-S in the presence of Mg2+
650
ATP
-
mutant enzyme R338A/D360A, at pH 8.0 and 30C
2250
ATP
-
mutant enzyme N347A, at pH 8.0 and 30C
4600
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 8.0 and 30C
6000
ATP
-
mutant enzyme R338A/D360A, at pH 8.0 and 30C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00027
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 7.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
4
0.00094
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 7.5, in Tris buffer at 37C
4
0.00294
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 8.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
4
0.01079
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 9.5, in Tris buffer at 37C
4
0.01124
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 9.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
4
0.01195
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 10.0, in Tris buffer at 37C
4
0.01252
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 10.4, in Tris buffer at 37C
4
200
ATP
-
mutant enzyme R338A/D360A, at pH 8.0 and 30C
4
586
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 8.5, in Tris buffer at 37C
4
1000
ATP
-
mutant enzyme N347A, at pH 8.0 and 30C
4
4000
ATP
-
mutant enzyme R338A/D360A, at pH 8.0 and 30C
4
7600
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 8.0 and 30C
4
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.000011
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin and GTPgammaS-activated Galphas
0.000061
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.00011
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin
0.000125
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.001628
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.003558
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.05
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATP
P00936
pH 8.0, 37C, versus ATP, wild-type catalytic domain Cya2-446
0.00006
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATPgammaS
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000075
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATPgammaS
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000706
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATPgammaS
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000872
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ATPgammaS
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000051
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-CTP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000072
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-CTP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.003115
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-CTP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.004141
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-CTP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000013
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000014
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin and GTPgammaS-activated Galphas
0.000032
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.00013
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin
0.001087
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.001249
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000027
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTPgammaS
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000042
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTPgammaS
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000468
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTPgammaS
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000666
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-GTPgammaS
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000006
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000009
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000029
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.00003
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.00001
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITPgammaS
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000014
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITPgammaS
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000047
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITPgammaS
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.00005
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ITPgammaS
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000022
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-UTP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.000031
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-UTP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mn2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.001435
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-UTP
-
medulla adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.0015
2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-UTP
-
cortical adenylyl cyclase, in the presence of 7 mM Mg2+, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.0055
2',3'-bis[(2-(N-methylanthraniloyl)amino)ethyl-carbamoyl]-ATP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin
0.0067
2',3'-di[(2-(N-methylanthraniloyl)amino)ethyl-carbamoyl]-ATP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin and GTPgammaS-activated Galphas
0.00014
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ADP
-
isoform ACI, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.00037
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ADP
-
isoform ACV, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.0011
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ADP
-
isoform ACII, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.0013
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ADP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin and GTPgammaS-activated Galphas
0.002
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ADP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin
0.0048
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-AMP
-
isoform ACI, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C; isoform ACV, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.0074
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-AMP
-
isoform ACII, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.017
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-AMP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin and GTPgammaS-activated Galphas
0.021
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-AMP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin
0.0000037
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP
-
isoform ACV, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.000009
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP
-
isoform ACI, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.000081
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin and GTPgammaS-activated Galphas
0.000099
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP
-
isoform ACII, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.0001
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin
0.000024
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-CTP
-
isoform ACI, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.000031
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-CTP
-
isoform ACV, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.00011
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-CTP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin
0.00011
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-CTP
-
isoform ACII, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.00031
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-CTP
-
VC1-IIC2 in the presence of 0.1 mM forskolin and GTPgammaS-activated Galphas
0.00041
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-GDP
-
isoform ACI, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.0012
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-GDP
-
isoform ACV, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.0034
2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-GDP
-
isoform ACII, in 10 mM MnCl2, 100 mM KCl, 25 mM HEPES/NaOH, pH 7.4, at 30C
0.0081