Information on EC 4.2.3.48 - (3S,6E)-nerolidol synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Magnoliophyta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.2.3.48
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
(3S,6E)-nerolidol synthase
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + H2O = (3S,6E)-nerolidol + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
(3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene biosynthesis
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Sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [(3S,6E)-nerolidol-forming]
The enzyme catalyses a step in the formation of (3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene, a key signal molecule in induced plant defense mediated by the attraction of enemies of herbivores [2]. Nerolidol is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene found in the essential oils of many types of plants.
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type cv. Jemalong
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Delprim
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
introduction of the mitochondrial nerolidol synthase gene to Arabidopsis thaliana mediates de novo emission of (E)-nerolidol and linalool. Co-expression of the nerolidol synthase FPS1 and cytosolic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase 1 increases the number of emitting transgenic plants (incidence rate) and the emission rate of both volatiles. No association between the emission rate of transgenic volatiles and their growth inhibitory effect can be established.(E)-Nerolidol is to a large extent metabolized to non-volatile conjugates
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + H2O
(3S,6E)-nerolidol + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
geranyl diphosphate + H2O
(S)-linalool + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
58% of the velocity with (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
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-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + H2O
geranyl linalool + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
10% of the velocity with (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
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-
?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + H2O
(3S,6E)-nerolidol + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Co2+
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nerolidol synthase is completely inactive in the absence of added divalent metal ion. Mg2+ is most effective. Co2+ shows 11% of the activity compared to Mg2+
Cu2+
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nerolidol synthase is completely inactive in the absence of added divalent metal ion. Mg2+ is most effective. Cu2+ shows 12% of the activity compared to Mg2+
Ni2+
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nerolidol synthase is completely inactive in the absence of added divalent metal ion. Mg2+ is most effective. Ni2+ shows 17% of the activity compared to Mg2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
EDTA
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1 mM, activity is fully restored by the addition of Mg2+ to a saturating concentration of 1 mM. Mn2+ is about half as effective as Mg2+ at 1 mM
Mn2+
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activates at 1 mM, inhibits at higher concentrations
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0008 - 0.0081
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
0.0019
geranyl diphosphate
pH 7.5, 22°C, presence of Mg2+
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.24
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
Actinidia chinensis
H9M5U5
pH 7.5, 22°C, presence of Mg2+
0.03 - 0.13
geranyl diphosphate
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
300
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
Actinidia chinensis
H9M5U5
pH 7.5, 22°C, presence of Mg2+
81
69
geranyl diphosphate
Actinidia chinensis
H9M5U5
pH 7.5, 22°C, presence of Mg2+
175
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.8
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pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.4 - 7.2
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50% of maximal activity at pH 6.4 and pH 7.2
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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FaNES1 is strongly expressed in cultivated strawberry (octaploid) varieties but hardly expressed at all in wild strawberry species. Increase in FaNES1 transcript levels during fruit ripening
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
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no expression detected in leaf tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
50000
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gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
x * 65400, calculated
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-80°C, stable for 1 week
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli; expression in Escherichia coli
expression in Lactococcus lactis and actively expressed using the nisin-induced expression system
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recombinant FaNES1 enzyme produced in Escherichia coli cells is capable of generating both linalool and nerolidol when supplied with geranyl diphosphate or farnesyl diphosphate, respectively
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subcloned into the pHis8–3 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
increase in FaNES1 transcript levels during fruit ripening
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induced by Lymantria dispar feeding; induced by Lymantria dispar feeding, up to 136fold increase in transcript abundance
MtTPS3 activity is induced by jasmonic acid ((E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene) and by jasmonic acid + (E)-nerolidol. Feeding Beet armyworm raises the expression level of MtTPS3 in wild-type and skl plants in the same way, but levels of (E)-nerolidol and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene formation are higher in wild-type plants, suggesting that ethylene might have a post-transcriptional impact on the MtTPS3 protein
peak expression of enzyme correlates with peak (E)-nerolidol, but not linalool accumulation in flowers
slightly active in uninfested lima bean leaves, and strongly induced by feeding of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on both plant species, but not by mechanical wounding
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the enzyme is inactive in uninfested cucumber leaves, and strongly induced by feeding of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on both plant species, but not by mechanical wounding
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APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
introduction of the mitochondrial nerolidol synthase gene to Arabidopsis thaliana mediates de novo emission of (E)-nerolidol and linalool. Co-expression of the nerolidol synthase FPS1 and cytosolic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase 1 increases the number of emitting transgenic plants (incidence rate) and the emission rate of both volatiles. No association between the emission rate of transgenic volatiles and their growth inhibitory effect can be established.(E)-Nerolidol is to a large extent metabolized to non-volatile conjugates