Information on EC 4.2.3.47 - beta-farnesene synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.2.3.47
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
beta-farnesene synthase
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = (E)-beta-farnesene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
farnesene biosynthesis
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Sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [(E)-beta-farnesene-forming]
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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GenBank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform TPS5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A3(2)
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A3(2)
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
(E)-beta-farnesene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
(2Z,6E)-2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate
(E)-beta-2-fluorofarnesene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
(3RS)-trans-nerolidyl diphosphate
(E)-beta-farnesene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
farnesyl diphosphate
(E)-beta-farnesene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
(E)-beta-farnesene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
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strict requirement for a divalent cation cofactor, highest activity being observed in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+. Mn2+ shows relatively high activity at lower concentration, reaching 50% of the maximum synthase activity observed with Mg2+ as cofactor
Co2+
the enzyme exhibits substantial activity in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+ or Co2+. Maximal activity with Mg2+ below 0.01 mM
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2E,6E)-2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate
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competitive
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15-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate
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15-trifluorofarnesyl diphosphate
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Cu2+
no activity when Zn2+, Ni2+ or Cu2+ is used as divalent metal ion
epi-isozizaene
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about 3-fold decreases in kcat for both farnesene synthase activity and P450 monooxygenase activity when the two substrates are present at the same time
Mn2+
above 0.02 mM
Ni2+
no activity when Zn2+, Ni2+ or Cu2+ is used as divalent metal ion
Zn2+
no activity when Zn2+, Ni2+ or Cu2+ is used as divalent metal ion
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0021 - 0.018
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
0.016
(2Z,6E)-2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate
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pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
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0.025
(3RS)-trans-nerolidyl diphosphate
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pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
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TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0095 - 0.028
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
0.02
(2Z,6E)-2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate
Mentha x piperita
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pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
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0.023
(3RS)-trans-nerolidyl diphosphate
Mentha x piperita
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pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
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kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4.5
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
Artemisia annua
Q9FXY7
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81
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0013
(2E,6E)-2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate
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pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
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0.0023
15-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate
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pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
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0.0016
15-trifluorofarnesyl diphosphate
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pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
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pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5
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maximum between pH 5.5 and 6.5 (farnesene synthase activity)
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4 - 7
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pH 4.0: about 25% of maximal activity, pH 7.0: about 40% of maximal activity
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.03
calculated from sequence
5.2
calculated; calculated
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
62000
x * 62000, SDS-PAGE
63800
x * 63800, calculated from sequence
66900
x * 66900, calculated from sequence
67800
x * 67800, calculated
68000
x * 68000, calculated
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5 - 9
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partially denatured below pH 6.5 and above pH 9.0. At pH 5.5, all of the P450 form of CYP170A1 is converted to the P420 form, which is consistent with the absence of residual monooxygenase activity at this pH. Monooxygenase activity declines at the lower pH, which favors sesquiterpene synthase activity
698959
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli
expressed in Escherichia coli; expressed in Escherichia coli; expressed in Escherichia coli
expression in Arabidopsis thaliana
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expression in Escherichia coli
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
induced by herbivory
induced by herbivory; induced by herbivory; induced by herbivory
the gene is expressed in response to herbivore attack and is regulated at the transcript level
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transcript of TPS5 does not show any significant increase with Diprion pini or Neodiprion sertifer oviposition
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
L405V
products are 1.9% 7-epi-sesquithujene, 8.1% (E)-alpha-bergamotene, 8.9% sesquiabinene A, 23.9% (E)-beta-farnesene, 0% gamma-curcumene, 9.7% zingiberene, 12.0% beta-bisabolene, 26.6% beta-sesquiphellandrene, 8.9% (E)-gamma-bisabolene
L405V/Y373S
products are 1.2% 7-epi-sesquithujene, 23.6% (E)-alpha-bergamotene, 17.7% sesquiabinene A, 53.0% (E)-beta-farnesene, 0% gamma-curcumene, 0.6% zingiberene, 1.3% beta-bisabolene, 2.6% beta-sesquiphellandrene, 0% (E)-gamma-bisabolene
Y373S
products are 7.6% 7-epi-sesquithujene, 24.8% (E)-alpha-bergamotene, 18.2% sesquiabinene A, 38.5% (E)-beta-farnesene, 0% gamma-curcumene, 4.7% zingiberene, 2.5% beta-bisabolene, 3.7% beta-sesquiphellandrene, 0% (E)-gamma-bisabolene
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
overexpression of isoforms of betaFS1 or betaFS2 in tobacco plants results in the emission of (E)-beta-farnesene ranging from 1.55 to 4.65 ng/day/g fresh tissues. The transgenic tobacco plants are able to repel peach aphids (Myzus persicae), but not as strongly as expected. Transgenic lines exhibit strong and statistically significant attraction to lacewings (Chrysopa septempunctata) thus minimizing aphid infestation; overexpression of isoforms of betaFS1 or betaFS2 in tobacco plants results in the emission of (E)-beta-farnesene ranging from 1.55 to 4.65 ng/day/g fresh tissues. The transgenic tobacco plants are able to repel peach aphids (Myzus persicae), but not as strongly as expected. Transgenic lines exhibit strong and statistically significant attraction to lacewings (Chrysopa septempunctata) thus minimizing aphid infestation