Information on EC 4.2.3.25 - S-linalool synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Spermatophyta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.2.3.25
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
S-linalool synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
geranyl diphosphate + H2O = (3S)-linalool + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of phosphate bond
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
(3S)-linalool biosynthesis
-
-
Biosynthesis of antibiotics
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
Monoterpenoid biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
geranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [(3S)-linalool-forming]
Requires Mn2+ or Mg2+ for activity. Neither (S)- nor (R)-linalyl diphosphate can act as substrate for the enzyme from the flower Clarkia breweri [1]. Unlike many other monoterpene synthases, only a single product, (3S)-linalool, is formed.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
160477-81-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cereus peruvianus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fragaria sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Petunia hybrida
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Muscat de Frontignan
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(S)-linalyl diphosphate + H2O
(3S)-linalool + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity, 15% of the maximal activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
?
farnesyl diphosphate
nerolidol + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + H2O
(3S)-linalool + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
geranyl diphosphate + H2O
3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Fragaria sp.
-
-
linalool is a C10 monoterpene volatile present in the floral fragrance of diverse plant families
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + H2O
S-linalool + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
isoprenoid pathway
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
geranyl diphosphate + H2O
(3S)-linalool + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
geranyl diphosphate + H2O
3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Fragaria sp.
-
-
linalool is a C10 monoterpene volatile present in the floral fragrance of diverse plant families
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + H2O
S-linalool + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
isoprenoid pathway
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
Clarkia concinna is a non-scented species but does express linalool synthase at a low level
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
SDS
-
leads to complete loss of activity at about 0.1%
additional information
-
no effects by 0.1% w/v Triton X-100
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
insect herbivory
Fragaria sp.
-
-
-
methyl jasmonate
Fragaria sp.
-
induction of expression under the control of a wound-inducible promoter in Arapidopsis thaliana
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0009 - 0.018
geranyl diphosphate
0.06 - 0.891
Mg2+
0.0056 - 0.045
Mn2+
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.014 - 0.044
geranyl diphosphate
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5.6 - 21
geranyl diphosphate
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.0000067
-
protein represents approximately 10% of the total cellular protein
0.0004
-
purified enzyme
0.013
in the presence of Mg2+, 22% activity in the presence of Mn2+
0.039
in the presence of Mg2+, 50% activity in the presence of Mn2+
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.6
Cereus peruvianus
-
small scale assay at
6.9
Cereus peruvianus
-
large scale assay at
7
-
activity assay
7.2
-
assay at, recombinant enzyme
7.4
-
broad optimum
7.8
-
assay at
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.4 - 8.4
-
80% of maximal activity within this range
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
20
-
assay at
34
Cereus peruvianus
-
large scale assay at
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
expression in flower buds, not in open flowers
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activity occurs during ripening
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression in days 1-3 of open flowers
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression mainly in epidermis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high enzyme activity, linalool is mostly converted to linalool oxide
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
very low expression level of LIS1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
53000
Cereus peruvianus
-
gel filtration
54000
-
determined by SDS-PAGE
59200
-
predicted molecular mass
73000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
monomer
-
1 * 79000, SDS-PAGE
additional information
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DTT is required for enzyme stability, in absence of DTT the purified enzyme loses 95% of its activity within 2 h at 4C
-
hexane and pentane stabilize the enzyme
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
native enzyme 26fold from stigmata of freshly opened flowers by anion exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography to over 95% purity
-
Ni2+ affinity chromatography, gel filtration
partially from fruits by anion exchange chromatography
Cereus peruvianus
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
cDNA from strawberry with plastid targeting and a synthetic intron is placed under the control of the wound inducible proteinase inhibitor 2 (PI2) promoter from potato. The construct is transformed to Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia 0
Fragaria sp.
-
cloning in a binary vector for introduction into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404
-
Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha is used as the strain for cloning experiments and plasmid amplification. Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain T73-4 is used for functional expression of plasmids bearing the expression cassette.
-
functional expression in transgenic Petunia hybrida plants
-
gene LIS2, partial genomic library construction, DNA sequence determination and analysis, promoter sequence analysis, gene structure
-
His-tagged version expressed in Escherichia coli
His-tagged version expressed in Escherichia coli; His-tagged version expressed in Escherichia coli
into the pNZ8150 vector for expression in Lactococcus lactis
-
partial genomic library construction, DNA sequence determination and analysis, gene structure
-
partial genomic library construction, DNA sequence determination and analysis, promoter sequence analysis, gene structure
-
partial protein sequencing and cDNA library construction, DNA and amino acid determination and analysis
-
transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, His-tagged version expressed in Escherichia coli
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
Fragaria sp.
-
putative relevance for the engineering of indirect plant defence
biotechnology
nutrition
-
the enzyme can be used to modify the flavor/nuritional value of vegetables, e.g. tomato fruits, by enzyme expression in transgenic plants