Information on EC 4.2.2.3 - mannuronate-specific alginate lyase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.2.2.3
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
mannuronate-specific alginate lyase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Eliminative cleavage of alginate to give oligosaccharides with 4-deoxy-alpha-L-erythro-hex-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends and beta-D-mannuronate at their reducing end.
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
elimination
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-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
alginate degradation
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Fructose and mannose metabolism
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
alginate beta-D-mannuronate-uronate lyase
The enzyme catalyses the degradation of alginate by a beta-elimination reaction. It cleaves the (1->4) bond between beta-D-mannuronate and either alpha-L-guluronate or beta-D-mannuronate, generating oligosaccharides with 4-deoxy-alpha-L-erythro-hex-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends and beta-D-mannuronate at the reducing end. Depending on the composition of the substrate, the enzyme produces oligosaccharides ranging from two to four residues, with preference for shorter products. cf. EC 4.2.2.11, guluronate-specific alginate lyase.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
86922-62-5
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9024-15-1
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Agarivorans sp.
strain C58
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alginovibrio aquatilis
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 272, bifunctional enzyme
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
extracellular isozyme; strain H-4, several isozymes with homo- or heterogenous substrate specificities
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from brown alga Dictyota dichotoma; isolated from brown seaweed
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 4A1M
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Azotobacter phage A22
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Azotobacter phage A31
-
-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine mussel
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Solander
-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dollabella auricola
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fucus spp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
california red abalone
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ishige sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from rotten seaweed
AB489222
GenBank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from rotten seaweed
AB489222
GenBank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene alyA; polysaccharide lyase family 7 lyase
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
brown algae
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Marinovum algicola
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Marinovum algicola ATCC 51442
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
brown algae
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine mussel
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 433367, marine bacterium
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Photobacterium sp. ATCC 43367 Alg-A
Alg-A
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AR06
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AR06
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bifunctional enzyme, actitivies against poly(beta-D-mannuronate), EC 4.2.2.3, and poly(alpha-L-guluronate), EC 4.2.2.11; from marine rotten kelp from a kelp culture field at the seashore of Yantai, China
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AlgL
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CF1/M1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain FRDI
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain XO17, constitutive enzyme expression, recombinant enzyme
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; isolated from brown seaweed in the Yellow Sea of China
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain N7151-6
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
OS-ALG-9
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain QD03
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; isolated from fermented brown seaweed with salted and fermented anchovy, sea mustard, Undaria pinnatifida
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Stenotrophomas maltophilia
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Stenotrophomas maltophilia KJ-2
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A5, isolated from banana rhizosphere
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alg-A
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alg-A
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
brown algae
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 17749
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain QY101
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YWA
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
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strains lacking alyA3 germinate poorly compared to wild type cells
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
4-deoxy-l-erythro-hex-4-ene-pyranosyluronate-(mannuronate)2-mannuronic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
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bound in the active cleft at subsites -3 to +1, the glycosidic linkage is cleaved existed between subsites -1 and +1
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?
acetyl-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
Azotobacter phage A22
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?
acetylated poly-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
endolytic activity
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?
alginate
?
show the reaction diagram
alginate
algino-monosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
ATU3025 acts on alginate polysaccharides and oligosaccharides exolytically and releases unsaturated monosaccharides from the substrate terminal
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?
alginate
algino-oligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
alginate
algino-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
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?
alginate
oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
alginate
oligosaccharides of 4-7 monomers
show the reaction diagram
substrate from brown algae Macrocystis pyrifera rich in polymannuronate and polyguluronate, cleavage sequences are G-/-MM and/or G-/-GM
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?
alginate
oligouronides
show the reaction diagram
alginate
unsaturated disaccharides + unsaturated trisaccharides
show the reaction diagram
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main products
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?
alginate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
alpha-L-mannuronyl linkage in alginate
?
show the reaction diagram
beta-D-mannuronyl linkage in alginate
?
show the reaction diagram
deacetylated polymannuronic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
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?
disaccharides of alginate
monosacchrides
show the reaction diagram
G-alginate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
purified alpha-L-guluronic acid blocks containing more than 90% alpha-L-guluronic acid
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-
?
hepta-alpha1,4-L-guluronic acid
L-guluronic acid
show the reaction diagram
hepta-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
D-mannuronic acid
show the reaction diagram
hexa-alpha1,4-L-guluronic acid
L-guluronic acid
show the reaction diagram
hexa-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
D-mannuronic acid
show the reaction diagram
M-alginate
?
show the reaction diagram
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pure 1-4-linked beta-D-mannuronic acid
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?
MG-alginate
?
show the reaction diagram
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alginate epimerized by AlgE4 and containing 47% alpha-L-guluronic acid with no alpha-L-guluronic acid blocks, 100% activity
isoforms AlyA1, AlyA2, and AlyA3 produce mainly DELTAG and DELTAGMG as their end products, isoform AlyA3 produces as many trimers as it does dimers and tetramers
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?
nona-alpha1,4-L-guluronic acid
L-guluronic acid
show the reaction diagram
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?
nona-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
D-mannuronic acid
show the reaction diagram
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?
octa-alpha1,4-L-guluronic acid
L-guluronic acid
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
octa-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
D-mannuronic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
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?
oligomannuronate
?
show the reaction diagram
penta-alpha1,4-L-guluronic acid
L-guluronic acid
show the reaction diagram
penta-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
D-mannuronic acid
show the reaction diagram
poly alpha-L-guluronate
oligo-alpha-1,4-L-guluronate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
poly beta-D-mannuronate
oligo-beta-1,4-D-mannuronate
show the reaction diagram
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?
poly(beta-(1->4)-D-mannuronate)
?
show the reaction diagram
poly(beta-(1->4)-D-mannuronate)
an unsaturated mannuronate disaccharide
show the reaction diagram
530% of the activity with alginate
enzyme acts as an exolytic lyase, releasing unsaturated disaccharide directly from the poly(M)-rich substrate. It splits the second glycosyl linkage from the reducing terminus of the trisaccharide, the resulting disaccharide is not further degraded
-
?
poly(beta-(1->4)-D-mannuronic acid)
?
show the reaction diagram
poly(beta-(1->4)-D-mannuronic acid/alpha-(1->4)-L-guluronic acid)
?
show the reaction diagram
poly(beta-(1->4)-D-mannuronic acid/alpha-L-guluronic acid)
?
show the reaction diagram
poly(beta-D-mannuronate)
?
show the reaction diagram
poly(beta-D-manuronate)
?
show the reaction diagram
poly-acetyl-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
poly-alpha-L-guluronate
?
show the reaction diagram
14.9% of the activity with poly-beta-D-mannuronate
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?
poly-alpha-L-guluronic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
poly-alpha1,4-L-guluronic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
poly-alpha1,4-L-guluronic acid
alpha-D-glucuronate
show the reaction diagram
poly-alpha1,4-L-guluronic acid
alpha-L-guluronate
show the reaction diagram
poly-beta-1,4-D-mannuronate
4-deoxy-L-erythro-hex-4-enepyranosyluronate-mannuronate-mannuronic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
poly-beta-D-mannuronate
?
show the reaction diagram
poly-beta-D-mannuronate
oligomannuronate
show the reaction diagram
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i.e. alginate, cleavage site structure
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?
poly-beta1,4-D-mannuronate
beta-D-mannuronate
show the reaction diagram
poly-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
poly-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
beta-D-mannuronate
show the reaction diagram
polyguluronan
?
show the reaction diagram
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70% of the activity with polymannuronan
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?
polymannuronan
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
polymannuronate
4,5-unsaturated oligomannuronic acids
show the reaction diagram
polymannuronide
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
sodium alginate
?
show the reaction diagram
tetra-alpha1,4-L-guluronic acid
L-guluronic acid
show the reaction diagram
tetra-beta1,4-D-mannuronic acid
D-mannuronic acid
show the reaction diagram
trisaccharides of alginate
monosacchrides
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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