Information on EC 4.2.1.31 - maleate hydratase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.2.1.31
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
maleate hydratase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(R)-malate = maleate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
addition
-
-
-
-
addition of H2O
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Butanoate metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(R)-malate hydro-lyase (maleate-forming)
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37290-71-4
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MCI2612
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MCI2612
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hansenula sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Schizosaccharomyces sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
corn
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2,3-dimethylmaleate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
0.8% of turnover of maleate, equlibrium constant: 11.2
-
-
-
bromomaleate
(-)-erythro((2S, 3S)-3-)-bromomalate
show the reaction diagram
chloromaleate
(-)-erythro((2S, 3S)-3-)-chloromalate
show the reaction diagram
citraconate
D-citramalate
show the reaction diagram
DL-malate
maleate
show the reaction diagram
-
16-25% of turnover in opposite direction
-
-
maleate
(R)-malate
show the reaction diagram
maleate
?
show the reaction diagram
maleic acid + H2O
(R)-malic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
maleate counterion greatly affects enzyme activity and solute substrate concentration, Ca2+ at 750 mM optimal, followed by Mg2+
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-
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
maleate
?
show the reaction diagram
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Co2+
-
can replace Fe2+
Mn2+
-
49% activation at 2 mM
Ni2+
-
can replace Fe2+
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2R,3S)-tartaric acid
-
Ki: 3.15 mM
2,2'-dipyridyl
-
-
2,2-dimethylsuccinate
-
Ki: 0.025 mM
acetylenedicarboxylate
-
Ki: 4.55 mM
Ba2+
-
36% inhibition at 100 mM, formation of substrate/product precipitate
Ca2+
-
20% inhibition at 250 mM
CdCl2
-
24% inhibition at 2 mM
CuSO4
D-citramalate
-
Ki: 0.083 mM
D-malate
divalent anions
-
-
-
EDTA
-
80% inhibition at 1 mM
Fe2(SO4)3
HgCl2
iodoacetamide
K-acetate
-
weak
Maleate
-
important for commercial use, liquid/crystal two phase systems developed to minimize effect
Mg2+
-
16% inhibition at 250 mM
Na-acetate
-
weak
NH4+-acetate
-
weak
nitrilo-triacetic acid
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
o-phenanthroline
oxaloacetic acid
-
Ki: 8.22 mM
p-chloromercuribenzoate
phosphate
-
92% inhibition at 100 mM
Rb-acetate
-
weak
RuCl3
-
up to 100% inhibition at 0.25 mM, dependent on sequence of addition
ZnSO4
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
No requirement
-
-
-
additional information
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3.27
2-bromomaleate
-
-
2.74
2-chloromaleate
-
-
0.2 - 4.55
citraconate
0.35 - 3.85
Maleate
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3.15
(2R,3S)-tartaric acid
-
-
0.025
2,2-dimethylsuccinate
-
-
4.55
acetylenedicarboxylate
-
-
0.083
D-citramalate
-
-
8.22
oxaloacetic acid
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.4
-
enzyme assay at
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7 - 8.5
-
-
7.4 - 8.6
-
enzyme assays between
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
22
-
enzyme assay at
38
-
enzyme assay at
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (strain ATCC 43067 / DSM 2661 / JAL-1 / JCM 10045 / NBRC 100440)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
24000
-
alpha1 beta1, 1 * 57000 + 1 * 24000, SDS-PAGE
28000
-
alpha1 beta1, 1 * 58000 + 1 * 28000, SDS-PAGE
57000
-
alpha1 beta1, 1 * 57000 + 1 * 24000, SDS-PAGE
58000
-
alpha1 beta1, 1 * 58000 + 1 * 28000, SDS-PAGE
68540
-
amino acid composition
69500
-
1 * 69500, SDS-PAGE
89000
-
gel filtration
90000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
monomer
-
1 * 69500, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
amino acid composition
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6
-
rapidly inactivated below
5649
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
40
-
20% inactivation after 30 min
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DL-malate stabilizes
-
very unstable, Na2S stabilizes, only 15% loss of activity under anaerobic conditions
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
medicine
-
possibly involved in regulation of renal activity
synthesis