Information on EC 4.1.1.64 - 2,2-dialkylglycine decarboxylase (pyruvate)

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.1.1.64
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
2,2-dialkylglycine decarboxylase (pyruvate)
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
2,2-dialkylglycine + pyruvate = dialkyl ketone + CO2 + L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
-
-
-
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transamination
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
2,2-dialkylglycine carboxy-lyase (amino-transferring; L-alanine-forming)
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. Acts on 2-amino-2-methylpropanoate (i.e. 2-methylalanine), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoate and 1-aminocyclopentanecarboxylate.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9032-17-1
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
IFO 4389
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IFO 4176
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IFO 4301, AHU 7165, IAM 2551
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IFO 4274, low activity
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
low activity
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mucor globosus
IFO 6745, low activity
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wheat blotch fungus
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-Amino-1-cyclohexane-carboxylate + pyruvate
L-Ala + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
1-Amino-1-cyclopentane-carboxylate + pyruvate
L-Ala + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,2-dialkylglycine + pyruvate
dialkyl ketone + CO2 + L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-Aminoisobutanoate + 2-oxobutanoate
Acetone + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Aminoisobutanoate + 2-oxoisopentanoate
Acetone + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Aminoisobutanoate + 2-oxopentanoate
Acetone + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Aminoisobutanoate + glyoxylate
Acetone + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Aminoisobutanoate + pyruvate
L-Ala + acetone + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2-aminoisobutyrate + pyruvate
L-Ala + acetone + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2-Oxobutanoate + DL-homocysteine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
weak activity
-
-
-
2-Oxobutanoate + DL-Ile
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Oxobutanoate + L-2-aminobutanoate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Oxobutanoate + L-Ala
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Oxobutanoate + L-citrulline
?
show the reaction diagram
-
weak activity
-
-
-
2-Oxobutanoate + L-Cys
?
show the reaction diagram
-
weak activity
-
-
-
2-Oxobutanoate + L-Leu
?
show the reaction diagram
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weak activity
-
-
-
2-Oxobutanoate + L-Met
?
show the reaction diagram
-
weak activity
-
-
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2-Oxobutanoate + L-norleucine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Oxobutanoate + L-norvaline
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
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2-Oxobutanoate + S-methyl-L-Cys
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Oxohexanoate + DL-Ile
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Oxohexanoate + L-Ala
?
show the reaction diagram
2-Oxopentanoate + DL-Ile
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-Oxopentanoate + L-Ala
?
show the reaction diagram
alpha-Aminomalonate + pyruvate
Gly + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
nonoxidative decarboxylation
-
-
alpha-Aminomalonate + pyruvate + O2
Ala + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
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Cycloleucine + pyruvate
L-Ala + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
D-Ala + pyruvate
L-Ala + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Gly + pyruvate
L-Ala + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Glyoxalate + DL-Ile
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
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Glyoxalate + L-Ala
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
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Isopropylamine + pyruvate
L-Ala + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
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Isovaline + pyruvate
L-Ala + butanone + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-Ala + 2-oxobutanoate
Pyruvate + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
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L-Ala + 2-oxoisopentanoate
Pyruvate + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-Ala + 2-oxopentanoate
Pyruvate + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-Ala + glyoxylate
Pyruvate + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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-
L-Ala + pyruvate
L-Ala + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
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L-Phenylglycine + pyruvate
L-Ala + ? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
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Pyruvate + 2-aminoisobutanoate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
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Pyruvate + DL-Ile
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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Pyruvate + Gly
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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Pyruvate + isopropylamine
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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Pyruvate + L-Ala
?
show the reaction diagram
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2,2-dialkylglycine + pyruvate
dialkyl ketone + CO2 + L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ba2+
-
gives 10fold lower activity compared to monovalent alkali cations of similar ionic radius, increases association of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and decreases dissociation rate constant of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Ca2+
-
gives 10fold lower activity compared to monovalent alkali cations of similar ionic radius
Cs+
-
activates to a lesser extent than K+
Li+
-
activates to a lesser extent than K+
Mg2+
-
gives 10fold lower activity compared to monovalent alkali cations of similar ionic radius
Na+
-
activates to a lesser extent than K+, increases association of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and decreases dissociation rate constant of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Tl+
-
activates to a lesser extent than K+
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(R)-1-amino-1-methylpropanephosphonate
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-
(R)-1-amino-1-phenylethanephosphonate
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(R)-1-aminoethanephosphonate
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(S)-1-aminoethanephosphonate
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1-amino-1-cyclopropane carboxylate
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i.e. ACC
1-aminocyclopentanephosphonate
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1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate
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3,3,3-Trifluoro-2-aminoisobutanoate
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irreversible, the inhibitor undergoes catalytic decarboxylation during the inactivation process and binds at the enzyme's active site
5'-phosphopyridoxyl-2-methylalanine
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i.e. PPL-MeAla
D-cycloserine
Gly
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competitive against 2-aminoisobutanoate
HgCl2
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hydroxylamine
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iodoacetamide
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L-Cycloserine
phenylhydrazine
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phosphono-2-methylalanine
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pyruvate
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additional information
-
not inhibitory: pyruvate
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.12 - 66
2-aminoisobutanoate
2.2
2-aminoisobutyrate
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pH 7.5
33
L-Ala
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-
0.015 - 2
pyruvate
additional information
additional information
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-
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TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2.3
1-amino-1-cyclohexanecarboxylate
Burkholderia cepacia
-
with pyruvate as cosubstrate, decarboxylation
0.98
1-amino-1-cyclopentanecarboxylate
Burkholderia cepacia
-
with pyruvate as cosubstrate, decarboxylation
0.05 - 25
2-aminoisobutanoate
0.025
alpha-aminomalonate
Burkholderia cepacia
-
with pyruvate as cosubstrate, oxidative decarboxylation
0.2
D-Ala
Burkholderia cepacia
-
with pyruvate as cosubstrate, decarboxylation
0.0012
Gly
Burkholderia cepacia
-
with pyruvate as cosubstrate, decarboxylation
0.033
L-Ala
Burkholderia cepacia
-
with pyruvate as cosubstrate, decarboxylation
0.12
pyruvate
Burkholderia cepacia
-
pH 7.8, mutant enzyme Q52A
additional information
additional information
Burkholderia cepacia
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-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4.9
(R)-1-amino-1-methylpropanephosphonate
-
pH 7.8, homologous to L-isovaline
13
(R)-1-amino-1-phenylethanephosphonate
-
pH 7.8, homologous to L-phenylglycine
19
(R)-1-aminoethanephosphonate
-
pH 7.8, homologous to L-alanine
1.1
(S)-1-aminoethanephosphonate
-
pH 7.8, homologous to D-alanine
6
1-aminocyclopentanephosphonate
-
pH 7.8, homologous to aminocyclopropane carboxylate
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6 - 10
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pH 6.0: about 30% of maximal activity, pH 10.0: about 70% of maximal activity
additional information
-
pH-dependence of transamination half-reaction
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
42000
-
4 * 42000, SDS-PAGE
47000
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4 * 47000, ultracentrifugal analysis in presence of 8 M urea or 7 M guanidine HCl
166000
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gel filtration
188000
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equilibrium sedimentation
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
tetramer
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
crystal structure at 2.8 A resolution of tzhe enzyme with Li+ or Rb+ bound; crystal structures at 2.8 A resolution with Li+ and Rb+ bound at the binding site for alkali metal ions which is close to the active site, i.e. site 1
-
hanging drop vapor diffusion method, crystal structure of Q52A mutant and wild-type enzyme in complex with pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate
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in complex with different aminophosphonate inhibitors
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in complex with four inhibitors
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
60
-
30 min, completely stable
70
-
30 min, 85% loss of activity
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant enzyme
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Q52A
-
85fold decrease in turnover number for decarboxylation half-reaction with 2-aminoisobutyrate and pyruvate, greatly reduced rate of transamination half-reaction and impaired pyridoxamine phosphate binding
Q52E
-
10000fold decrease in turnover number for decarboxylation half-reaction with 2-aminoisobutyrate and pyruvate, transamination rate is nearly identical to wild-type value
Q52I
-
100000fold decrease in turnover number for decarboxylation half-reaction with 2-aminoisobutyrate and pyruvate, greatly reduced rate of transamination half-reaction and impaired pyridoxamine phosphate binding
additional information
Show AA Sequence (134 entries)
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