Information on EC 4.1.1.61 - 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.1.1.61
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
4-hydroxybenzoate = phenol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Aminobenzoate degradation
-
-
Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
-
-
phenol degradation
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (phenol-forming)
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37290-53-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
ATCC 6051
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AR39
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AR39
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
in an anaerobic consortium with Methanospirillum hungatei, one phenol carboxylase activity and two 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase activities with distinct properties
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aerobacter aerogenes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain P240
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain P240
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
in an anaerobic consortium with Desulfovibrio sp., one phenol decarboxylase activity and two 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase activities with distinct properties
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain K172
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain K172
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium-like strain 6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoate
Pyrogallol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
3,4-dihydroxybenzoate
benzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate
Catechol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,5-Dihydroxybenzoate
1,3-Dihydroxybenzene + CO2
show the reaction diagram
3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate
1,3-Dimethoxy-2-hydroxybenzene + CO2
show the reaction diagram
3-Chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate
1-Chloro-2-hydroxybenzene + CO2
show the reaction diagram
3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate
2-methoxyphenol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
vanillate
guaiacol
-
?
4-Hydroxybenzoate
Phenol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Catechol + CO2
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
Phenol + CO2
4-Hydroxybenzoate
show the reaction diagram
Phenol + CO2
?
show the reaction diagram
Phenylphosphate + CO2
4-Hydroxybenzoate + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
Phenol + CO2
?
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 1.44fold stimulation of activity
CaCl2
-
2.5 mM, 99% stimulation of activity
CdCl2
-
2.5 mM, 51% stimulation of activity
Co2+
-
can replace to some extent for Mn2+ in the CO2:4-hydroxybenzoate isotope exchange reaction
MgSO4
-
2.5 mM, 125% stimulation of activity
MnCl2
-
2.5 mM, 112% stimulation of activity
ZnCl2
-
2.5 mM, 75% stimulation of activity
ZnSO4
-
2.5 mM, 100% stimulation of activity
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzoate
2,4,6-Trihydroxybenzoate
2,4-Dihydroxybenzoate
3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoate
3-Chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate
CuCl2
-
2.5 mM, 91% loss of activity
CuSO4
-
2.5 mM, 92% loss of activity
HgCl2
-
2.5 mM, 78% loss of activity
m-Hydroxybenzoylhydrazine dichloride
NH4+
-
decreases carboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate by about 20%
Rb+
-
decreases carboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate by about 20%
Sodium dithionite
Zn2+
-
destroys carboxylation activity towards 4-hydroxybenzoate and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate
additional information
-
not significantly affected by phenylhydrazine or hydroxylamine
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.2 - 6.8
3,4-dihydroxybenzoate
0.004 - 5.4
4-hydroxybenzoate
1 - 1.5
CO2
0.125 - 14.8
Phenol
0.2
Phenylphosphate
-
CO2:4-hydroxybenzoate isotope exchange reaction
additional information
additional information
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
18.3
3,4-dihydroxybenzoate
Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus
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-
55
4-hydroxybenzoate
Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus
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-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00025
-
crude cell extract, at 30C
0.00506
-
after purification, at 30C
0.012
-
phenylphosphate carboxylation
2.5
uninduced, 4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
6
3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate-induced, 4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
11
BsdCD, genes encoding the BsdCD are heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli from the plasmid pTrcHisC, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
13.7
-
at 30C, pH 7.0, crude cell extract
14
BsdCD, genes encoding the BsdCD are heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli from the plasmid pTrcHisC, 4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
15
uninduced, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
16
BsdBCD, genes encoding the BsdBCD are expressed in Escherichia coli from the plasmid pUC18, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
17.8
-
at 30C, pH 7.0, after 1.5fold purification
23
BsdBCD, genes encoding the BsdBCD are expressed in Escherichia coli from the plasmid pUC18, 4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
25
3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate-induced, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
30
4-hydroxybenzoate-induced, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
31
4-hydroxybenzoate-induced, 4-hydroxybenzoate as substrate
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 6.5
-
broad
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.6 - 5.9
-
isoeolctric focusing
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8569
bsdD, calculated
64000
-
SDS-PAGE
280000
-
gel filtration
315800
-
calculated from amino acid sequence
350000
-
gradient PAGE, gel filtration
372000
-
gel-filtration HPLC
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hexamer
-
6 * 57000, SDS-PAGE
homohexamer
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 7.3
-
stable for 2 h
4740
6
-
11-40C, stable for more than 24 h
4740
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
11 - 40
-
pH 6.0, stable for more than 24 h
20
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when the enzyme is incubated at temperatures up to 20C for 30 min, activity is barely decreased
30 - 60
-
treatment at 30, 40, 50, and 60C causes 32, 43, 96, and 100% losses of the initial activity, respectively
40 - 50
-
loses more than 50% decarboxylase activity at 40C for 5 min, and less than 25% enzyme activity remains after incubation at 50C for 5 min
50
-
half-life: 12 h
56
-
half-life: 15 min
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
extremely sensitive to oxygen, in contact with air, loss of activity within a few hours
-
oxygen sensitive, loss of 50% of activity after 1 h in presence of air at 4C compared to no activity lost after 7 days under anaerobic conditions at 4C
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oxygen-sensitive
Q4R101 and Q9S4M7 and Q4R102
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
half-life in air-saturated solution: less than 1 min
-
4742
oxygen-sensitive, 50% loss of activity when exposed to air at 5C for 2 h
-
4740
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, gas atmosphere N2/H2, 95%:5%, in potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.8, stable for months
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DEAE-Sephacel column chromatography, phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography, and butyl-Toyopearl 650M column chromatography
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under anaerobic conditions (oxygen-free N2) at 4C by affinity chromatography
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-
Q4R101 and Q9S4M7 and Q4R102
expressed in Escherichia coli
expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3)
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APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
biotechnology
-
use of enzyme for conversion of phenol into 4-hydroxybenzoic acid
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