Information on EC 4.1.1.29 - Sulfinoalanine decarboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Euteleostomi

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
4.1.1.29
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
Sulfinoalanine decarboxylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
3-sulfino-L-alanine = hypotaurine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3-sulfino-L-alanine = hypotaurine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
stereochemistry, replacement of carboxyl by solvent hydrogen proceeds with retention of configuration
-
3-sulfino-L-alanine = hypotaurine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
reaction proceeds via radical mechanism
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Metabolic pathways
-
Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
-
taurine biosynthesis
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
3-sulfino-L-alanine carboxy-lyase (hypotaurine-forming)
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. Also acts on L-cysteate. The 1992 edition of the Enzyme List erroneously gave the name sulfoalanine decarboxylase to this enzyme.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
CAD
-
-
-
-
CADCase
-
-
-
-
CSAD
-
-
-
-
CSAD
-
-
CSAD
-
-
CSAD/CAD
-
-
-
-
CSADCase
-
-
-
-
CSADI
-
-
CSADII
-
-
CSD
-
-
-
-
CSD
Q2PFL0
-
CSD
Q8K566
-
CSD
no activity in Katsuwonus pelamis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Paralichthys olivaceus
-
-
Cysteic acid decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Cysteic decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase
Q2PFL0
-
Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase
-
-
Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase
-
-
Cysteine-sulfinate decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Cysteine-sulfinate decarboxylase
-
-
Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase
-
-
Decarboxylase, cysteinesulfinate
-
-
-
-
L-Cysteine sulfinate carboxy-lyase
-
-
-
-
L-Cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Sulfinoalanine decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
62213-10-9
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
patients suffering from autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Katsuwonus pelamis
no activity in liver and hepatopancreas
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Seriola quinqueradiata
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Thunnus thynnus
no activity in liver and hepatopancreas
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains: F344, Sprague-Dawley and F344/Brown-Norway hybrid
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
-
cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase is the main rate-limiting enzyme for taurine synthesis
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3-sulfino-L-alanine
hypotaurine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q2PFL0
-
-
-
?
Cysteic acid
2-Aminoethane sulfonate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Cysteic acid
2-Aminoethane sulfonate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Cysteic acid
2-Aminoethane sulfonate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Cysteic acid
2-Aminoethane sulfonate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
main enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway from Cys via cysteine sulfinate and hypotaurine to taurine
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
repressed by the action of the steroid family hormones triiodothyronine and estrogen
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
activity may be specifically regulated by sulfur amino acids metabolized by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent pathway of methionine metabolism
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
overexpression of the enzyme stimulated by hepatocarcinogenesis results in autoantibody production
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is responsible for biosynthesis of taurine
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is responsible for biosynthesis of taurine
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme initiates a pathway leading to taurine
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
thyroid hormone status modulates the activity of the enzyme
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfonate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfonate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
at 8.0% of the activity with L-cysteine sulfinate
-
-
-
Glu
4-Aminobutanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Glu
4-Aminobutanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-Glu is not decarboxylated
-
-
-
Glu
4-Aminobutanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-Glu is not decarboxylated
-
-
-
Glu
4-Aminobutanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
very slowly
-
-
L-Asp
beta-Ala + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. hypotaurine
-
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with D-cysteine sulfinate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8K566
rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of taurine which is essential for biological processes such as development of the brain and eye, reproduction, osmoregulation as well as the anti-inflammatory activity of leukocytes
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
main enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway from Cys via cysteine sulfinate and hypotaurine to taurine
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
repressed by the action of the steroid family hormones triiodothyronine and estrogen
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
activity may be specifically regulated by sulfur amino acids metabolized by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent pathway of methionine metabolism
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
overexpression of the enzyme stimulated by hepatocarcinogenesis results in autoantibody production
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is responsible for biosynthesis of taurine
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is responsible for biosynthesis of taurine
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme initiates a pathway leading to taurine
-
-
-
Cysteine sulfinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
thyroid hormone status modulates the activity of the enzyme
-
-
-
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Cysteine sulfinate
2-Aminoethane sulfinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
coenzyme
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Mn2+
-
activates enzyme form CSAD I and CSAD II
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
-
-
alpha-Methyl-DL-cysteine sulfinate
-
-
beta-DL-Homocysteine sulfonate
-
-
beta-Ethylidene-DL-aspartate
-
mechanism-based inhibitor
beta-Methyleneaspartate
-
potent irreversible
beta-Methyleneaspartate
-
mechanism-based
Cys
-
enzyme form CSAD II is inhibited, no effect on enzyme form CSAD I
cysteic acid
-
inhibits decarboxylation of cysteine sulfinic acid
cysteic acid
-
-
cysteic acid
-
-
cysteic acid
-
enzyme form CSAD II is inhibited, no effect on enzyme form CSAD I
D-Cysteine sulfinate
-
-
DL-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionate
-
-
Glu
-
brain enzyme
Glu
-
competitive with cysteic acid
Homocysteic acid
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
-
iodoacetic acid
-
-
L-cysteine sulfinate
-
inhibits decarboxylation of cysteic acid
L-cysteine sulfonate
-
-
L-Homocysteine sulfonate
-
-
Met
-
inhibits enzyme form CSAD I and CSAD II
NO
-
fusion protein with beta-galactosidase
noradrenaline
-
reversed by addition of 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
O2
-
fusion protein with beta-galactosidase
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
Penicillamine
-
reversed by addition of 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Sulfhydryl reducing agents
-
required, e.g. dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol, reduced glutathione
-
additional information
-
CSAD protein level increases during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and is significantly increased when cells achieve a mature adipocyte phenotype
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.66
-
cysteic acid
-
-
0.037
-
cysteine sulfinate
-
-
0.11
-
cysteine sulfinate
-
minor enzyme form
0.121
-
cysteine sulfinate
-
major enzyme form
0.17
-
cysteine sulfinate
-
-
0.94
-
cysteine sulfinate
-
-
0.18
-
cysteine sulfinic acids
-
-
-
0.2
-
cysteine sulfinic acids
-
-
-
0.536
-
cysteine sulfonate
-
minor enzyme form
0.644
-
cysteine sulfonate
-
major enzyme form
2.9
-
Glu
-
brain enzyme
0.22
-
L-cysteic acid
-
-
0.4
-
L-cysteic acid
-
liver enzyme
4
-
L-cysteic acid
-
brain enzyme
0.14
-
L-cysteine sulfinic acid
-
liver enzyme
2
-
L-cysteine sulfinic acid
-
brain enzyme
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.2
-
NO
-
CSADII fusion protein with beta-galactosidase
0.3
-
NO
-
CSADI fusion protein with beta-galactosidase
0.22
-
O2
-
CSADII fusion protein with beta-galactosidase
0.3
-
O2
-
CSADI fusion protein with beta-galactosidase
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.072
-
-
-
0.21
-
-
-
0.238
-
-
-
0.772
-
-
-
1.67
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
HPLC method for assaying is applicable to study the dietary regulation of cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase in rat tissues
additional information
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7
-
-
L-cysteine sulfinic acid, cysteic acid
7
-
-
enzyme form CSAD II
7.2
-
-
-
7.2
-
-
enzyme form CSAD I
7.4
-
-
L-cysteine sulfinic acid, cysteic acid, liver enzyme
7.4
-
-
L-cysteic acid
7.6
-
-
L-cysteine sulfinic acid, brain enzyme
additional information
-
-
-
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.6
8
-
about 75% of maximal activity at pH 5.6 and at pH 8.0
additional information
-
-
-
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons, hypothalamus, striatum, midbrain, hippocampus, cerebral cortex
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cerebellum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
astrocytes in the cerebellum and hippocampus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
strictly localized in astrocytes in the cerebellum and in the hippocampus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
immunocytochemical visualization of sulfinoalanine decarboxylase with a specific antiserum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
glial localization in cerebellum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
CSD is expressed in the glandular epithelium of the bulbourethral gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
level of enzyme mRNA and protein increases from testis to epididymis to ductus deferens, main cell types containing enzyme are Leydig cells of testis, epithelial cells and some stromal cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
; level of enzyme mRNA and protein increases from testis to epididymis to ductus deferens, main cell types containing enzyme are Leydig cells of testis, epithelial cells and some stromal cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
taurine depletion significantly elevates both hepatic and renal CSAD activity above the values for cats having normal taurine status
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
restricted localization of CSD mRNA in the cortical and medullary proximal straight tubules
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
female livers contain only 5% of the cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity of male livers
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activity is almost constant throughout the fish growth cycle, CDS does not seem to be responsible for low production of taurine in juvenile fish
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
taurine depletion significantly elevates both hepatic and renal CSAD activity above the values for cats having normal taurine status
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme activity is sifgnificantly lower in aged F344 rats but not in Sprague-Dawley and F344/Brown-Norway hybrid
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
CSD is expressed in the epithelial cells of the intermediate segments of prostate gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
concentrated in the inner plexiform layer, in the amacrine cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
CSD is expressed in the tall columnar cells of the seminal vesicle
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
; level of enzyme mRNA and protein increases from testis to epididymis to ductus deferens, main cell types containing enzyme are Leydig cells of testis, epithelial cells and some stromal cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
tissue specificity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
53000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
55000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
56000
-
-, Q2PFL0
CSD-FLAG fusion protein, SDS-PAGE
56200
-
-, Q2PFL0
calculated from sequence
63000
-
-
gel filtration
66000
-
-
gel filtration
70000
-
-
nondenaturing PAGE
75000
-
-, Q2PFL0
CDO-CSD fusion protein, SDS-PAGE
79600
-
-
gel filtration
82100
-
-, Q2PFL0
CDO-CSD fusion protein, predicted
90000
-
-
nondenaturing PAGE
96000
-
-
analytical ultracentrifugation
100000
-
-
gel filtration, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, nondenaturing PAGE
105000
-
-
nondenaturing PAGE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-, Q2PFL0
x * 56000, SDS-PAGE, CSD-FLAG fusion protein
dimer
-
2 * 55000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 53000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 43000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 70000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 51000, SDS-PAGE
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
57
-
-
thermal inactivation at
59
-
-
thermal inactivation at
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate protects against denaturation by heat or urea
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate stabilizes
-
sulfhydryl reagents are necessary to maintain maximal activity throughout purification
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20°C, with EDTA, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and dithiothreitol, 3-5 mg of protein, 25-30% loss of activity
-
-20°C, 30% loss of activity after 10 days, complete loss of activity after 6 weeks
-
4°C, 15% loss of activity after 6 weeks
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
5 distinct enzyme species
-
multiple isoforms
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
subcloned into an expression vector, pESC-TRP, for Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-, Q2PFL0
-
Q8K566
expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 cells
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-, Q2PFL0
CDO-CSD fusion protein, cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
medicine
Q9Y600
3.6% of patients suffering from autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 are positive for antibodies against the enzyme. Antibodies cross-react with glutamic acid decarboxylase, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and histidine decarboxylase