Information on EC 3.6.99.B1 - aminophospholipid translocase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.6.99.B1
preliminary BRENDA-supplied EC number
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
aminophospholipid translocase
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
bidirectional NEM-insensitive transbilayer flipping of glycerophospholipids in the endoplasmic reticulum and at the cell surface without requiring energy supply by ATP hydrolysis
show the reaction diagram
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transbilayer phospholipid translocation
show the reaction diagram
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
gene ITB2 encoding isozyme ALA3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 1E51
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 1E51
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Xenopus laevis
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain sec61
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YCF40
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
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mutants defective in genes VPS51, VPS52, VPS53, and VPS54, encoding the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, the Rab family small GTPase Ypt6p, its guanine nucleotide exchange factor proteins, or Tlg2p t-SNARE, show abberrant intracellular localization of Dnf1p and Dnf2p
metabolism
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aminophospholipid translocase returns externalized phosphatidylserine to the inner membrane, and phospholipid scramblase, PLSCR, equilibrates phospholipids across the membrane
physiological function
additional information
the loss of ITB2/ALA3 function leads to aberrant trichome expansion, reduced primary root growth and longer root hairs
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-lauroyl-2-(1'-pyrenebutyroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/in
1-lauroyl-2-(1'-pyrenebutyroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/out
show the reaction diagram
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i.e. pyrene-10-PC, development of a transbilayer lipid flip-flop assay in PLS3 proteoliposomes, overview
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r
1D-myo-inositol 1-O-myristoyl-2-O-[6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino-hexanoyl]-sn-glycer-3-yl]-phosphate/in
1D-myo-inositol 1-O-myristoyl-2-O-[6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino-hexanoyl]-sn-glycer-3-yl]-phosphate/out
show the reaction diagram
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fluorescence-labeled substrate, proteoliposomes generated from flippase-enriched Triton X-100 extract of endoplasmic reticulum or native endoplasmic vesicles, overview
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-
?
1D-myo-inositol 1-O-[1-[6'-([6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino]-hexanoyl]amino)hexanoyl]-2-O-stearoyl-sn-glycer-3-yl]-phosphate/in
1D-myo-inositol 1-O-[1-[6'-([6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino]-hexanoyl]amino)hexanoyl]-2-O-stearoyl-sn-glycer-3-yl]-phosphate/out
show the reaction diagram
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fluorescence-labeled substrate, proteoliposomes generated from flippase-enriched Triton X-100 extract of endoplasmic reticulum or native endoplasmic vesicles, overview
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?
1D-myo-inositol 3-O-myristoyl-2-O-[6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino-hexanoyl]-sn-glycer-1-yl]-phosphate/in
1D-myo-inositol 3-O-myristoyl-2-O-[6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino-hexanoyl]-sn-glycer-1-yl]-phosphate/out
show the reaction diagram
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fluorescence-labeled substrate, proteoliposomes generated from flippase-enriched Triton X-100 extract of endoplasmic reticulum or native endoplasmic vesicles, overview
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-
?
1D-myo-inositol 3-O-[1-[6'-([6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino]-hexanoyl]amino)hexanoyl]-2-O-stearoyl-sn-glycer-1-yl]-phosphate/in
1D-myo-inositol 3-O-[1-[6'-([6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino]-hexanoyl]amino)hexanoyl]-2-O-stearoyl-sn-glycer-1-yl]-phosphate/out
show the reaction diagram
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fluorescence-labeled substrate, proteoliposomes generated from flippase-enriched Triton X-100 extract of endoplasmic reticulum or native endoplasmic vesicles, overview
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-
?
1L-myo-inositol 1-O-[1-[6'-([6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino]-hexanoyl]amino)hexanoyl]-2-O-stearoyl-sn-glycer-3-yl]-phosphate/in
1L-myo-inositol 1-O-[1-[6'-([6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino]-hexanoyl]amino)hexanoyl]-2-O-stearoyl-sn-glycer-3-yl]-phosphate/out
show the reaction diagram
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fluorescence-labeled substrate, proteoliposomes generated from flippase-enriched Triton X-100 extract of endoplasmic reticulum or native endoplasmic vesicles, overview
-
-
?
1L-myo-inositol 3-O-[1-[6'-([6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino]-hexanoyl]amino)hexanoyl]-2-O-stearoyl-sn-glycer-1-yl]-phosphate/in
1L-myo-inositol 3-O-[1-[6'-([6-[(7-nitro-2-oxa-1,3-diazolobenz-4-yl)amino]-hexanoyl]amino)hexanoyl]-2-O-stearoyl-sn-glycer-1-yl]-phosphate/out
show the reaction diagram
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fluorescence-labeled substrate, proteoliposomes generated from flippase-enriched Triton X-100 extract of endoplasmic reticulum or native endoplasmic vesicles, overview
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-
?
ATP + H2O + 1-oleoyl-2-[6-(7-nitrol-2-1,3-benzonadiol-4-yl)amino]-sn-glycerophosphocholine/out
ADP + phosphate + 1-oleoyl-2-[6-(7-nitrol-2-1,3-benzonadiol-4-yl)amino]-sn-glycerophosphocholine/in
show the reaction diagram
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-
?
ATP + H2O + 1-oleoyl-2-[6-(7-nitrol-2-1,3-benzonadiol-4-yl)amino]-sn-glycerophosphoethanolamine/out
ADP + phosphate + 1-oleoyl-2-[6-(7-nitrol-2-1,3-benzonadiol-4-yl)amino]-sn-glycerophosphoethanolamine/in
show the reaction diagram
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?
di-C4-phosphatidylcholine/out
di-C4-phosphatidylcholine/in
show the reaction diagram
long-chain phospholipid/out
long-chain phospholipid/in
show the reaction diagram
Man5GlcNAc2-diphosphate-dolichol/out
Man5GlcNAc2-diphosphate-dolichol/in
show the reaction diagram
peptidoglycan lipid II/out
peptidoglycan lipid II/in
show the reaction diagram
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?
phosphatidylcholine/in
phosphatidylcholine/out
show the reaction diagram
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proteoliposomes generated from aminophospholipid translocase-enriched Triton X-100 extract of endoplasmic reticulum
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?
phosphatidylcholine/out
phosphatidylcholine/in
show the reaction diagram
phosphatidylethanolamine/in
phosphatidylethanolemine/out
show the reaction diagram
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proteoliposomes generated from aminophospholipid translocase-enriched Triton X-100 extract of endoplasmic reticulum
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-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine/out
phosphatidylethanolamine/in
show the reaction diagram
phosphatidylserine/in
phosphatidylserine/out
show the reaction diagram
phosphatidylserine/out
phosphatidylserine/in
show the reaction diagram
phospholipid/in
phospholipid/out
show the reaction diagram
phospholipid/out
phospholipid/in
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
phosphatidylcholine/out
phosphatidylcholine/in
show the reaction diagram
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?
phosphatidylserine/in
phosphatidylserine/out
show the reaction diagram
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?
phosphatidylserine/out
phosphatidylserine/in
show the reaction diagram
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bidirectional transport, the enzyme controls the level of phosphatidylserine exposed to the platelet surface antagonizing to the aminophospholipid translocase activity, overview
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r
phospholipid/in
phospholipid/out
show the reaction diagram
phospholipid/out
phospholipid/in
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Mg2+
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additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride
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flippase activity for 1-oleoyl-2-[6-(7-nitrol-2-1,3-benzonadiol-4-yl)amino]-sn-glycerophosphoethanolamine is inhibited by 72% at 5 mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride, flippase activity for 1-oleoyl-2-[6-(7-nitrol-2-1,3-benzonadiol-4-yl)amino]-sn-glycerophosphocholine is inhibited by 75% at 5 mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
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flippase activity for 1-oleoyl-2-[6-(7-nitrol-2-1,3-benzonadiol-4-yl)amino]-sn-glycerophosphoethanolamine is inhibited by 80% at 20 mM 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), flippase activity for 1-oleoyl-2-[6-(7-nitrol-2-1,3-benzonadiol-4-yl)amino]-sn-glycerophosphocholine is inhibited by 60% at 20 mM 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
Bcl-2
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PLS3 and tBid may form a bidirectional positive feedback loop that is antagonized by Bcl-2
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diethyldicarbonate
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rat liver contains two populations, DEPC-sensitive and DEPC-insensitive, of flippases, which can be in a different of DEPC sensitivity or be two different proteins
EDTA
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NEM
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rat liver contains two populations of, NEM-sensitive and NEM-insensitive, flippases, which can be in a different of NEM sensitivity or be two different proteins
S-nitroso-L-cysteine-ethyl ester
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i.e. SNCEE, causes intracellular and extracellular trans-nitrosylation of proteins, respectively. Nitrosative stress inhibits the enzyme, and SNCEE causes significant S-nitrosylation/oxidation of thiols in HL-60 cells. SNCEE also strongly inhibites APLT, activated scramblase, and causes PS externalization, reversible by DTT
additional information
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
tBid
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PLS3 and tBid may form a bidirectional positive feedback loop that is antagonized by Bcl-2
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WAH-1
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a mitochondrial apoptogenic factor, a homologue of the apoptosis-inducing factor, AIF, required for externalization of phosphatidylserine to the cell surface of apoptotic cells. The Wah-1 effect is specific and independent of age, phenotypes of siRNA mutants and overexpressing mutants, overview
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additional information
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
additional information
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.2
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assay at
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
22
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assay at
23
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assay at
25
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assay at
35
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assay at
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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promyelocytic leukemia cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
lipoprotein
phosphoprotein
PLSCR1 is phosphorylated by PKCdelta at Thr-161 during PKC-delta induced apoptosis; PLSCR3 is phosphorylated by PKCdelta at Thr-21 during PKC-delta induced apoptosis
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
4°C, 35 days, stored erythrocytes show nearly no enzyme activity, but the activity can be restored, overview
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
membrane vesicle preparation from strain 1E51, purification by Triton X-100 extraction, glycerol fradient fractionation, and ion exchange chromatography, and reconstitution of the active enzyme in proteoliposomes, overview
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native enzyme from liver endoplasmic reticulum
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partially by microsome preparation
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DNA and amino acid sequence analysis
DNA and amino acid sequence analysis, PLSCR1, PLSCR2 and PLSCR4 are closely clustered on the small arm of chromosome 3q23; DNA and amino acid sequence analysis, PLSCR1, PLSCR2 and PLSCR4 are closely clustered on the small arm of chromosome 3q23
DNA and amino acid sequence analysis, PLSCR1, PLSCR2 and PLSCR4 are closely clustered on the small arm of chromosome 3q23; DNA and amino acid sequence analysis, PLSCR1, PLSCR2 and PLSCR4 are closely clustered on the small arm of chromosome 3q23; DNA and amino acid sequence analysis, PLSCR1, PLSCR2 and PLSCR4 are closely clustered on the small arm of chromosome 3q23. The region comprising residues M86-E118 in PLSCR1 interacts with the promoter of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1; DNA and amino acid sequence analysis, PLSCR3 is localized to chromosome 17
gene ITB2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phenotypic and genetic analyses of multiple itb2 alleles, including the T-DNA insertion alleles, ITB2 gene structure, intron positions, and ITB2 fine mapping and mutation mapping, overview
genes DNF1 and DNF2, expression of EGFP-tagged Dnf1p and Dnf2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutant strains vps51DELTA, vps52DELTA, vps53DELTA, and vps54DELTA
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PLSCR1 DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, co-expression of PLSCR1 as maltose-binding-protein fusion protein and GST-tagged DNA topoisomerase II in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), expression of a human B lymphocyte library, ATCC 87003, and DNA topoisomerase II from HeLa cells in the yeast two hybrid system, interaction analysis, identification of PLSCR1 as binding protein, overview
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
F258V
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site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of the calcium binding motif abolishes the lipid flip-flop activity of PLS3, a dominant negative mutant of PLS3, expression of the PLS3(F258V) mutant in HEK-293 cells results in a phenotype still consistent with low PLS3 activity despite the presence of normal PLS3 in these cells due to spontaneous rate of flip-flop
additional information
Renatured/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
preparation of proteoliposomes for enzyme reconstitution using microsome and liposomes, overview
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purification and reconstitution of the active enzyme in proteoliposomes, overview
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reconstitution of the purified native enzyme in proteoliposomes using phospholipids and Triton X-100 at pH 7.5 and 22°C
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APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
molecular biology
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phosphatidylserine exposure by Tat-1 is an early in vivo marker of apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans