Information on EC 3.5.1.19 - nicotinamidase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.5.1.19
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
nicotinamidase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
nicotinamide + H2O = nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
nicotinamide + H2O = nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
the active site Cys159, conserved and essential, is located at the N-terminus of a6 at one side of the active site with the Zn2+ ion positioned on the other side. The metal ion is bound tightly in the AbPncA active site. The reaction proceeds in a four-stage mechanism via a tetrahedral and an acyl intermediate, overview
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of peptide bond
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
aldoxime degradation
-
Metabolic pathways
-
NAD salvage pathway I
-
Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
-
pyridine nucleotide cycling (plants)
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
nicotinamide amidohydrolase
-
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
nicotinamidase
-
-
nicotinamidase
-
-
nicotinamidase
-
-
nicotinamidase PNC-1
-
-
nicotinamidase Pnc1p
-
-
nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase
-
-
nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase
-
-
nicotinamide amidase
-
-
-
-
nicotinamide deaminase
-
-
-
-
nicotinamide deaminase
-
-
Nicotine deamidase
-
-
-
-
Pnc1
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
-
-
pyrazinamidase
-
-
PZAase
-
a single enzyme accounts for both pyrazinamidase activity and nicotinamidase activity
YNDase
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9033-32-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain 544, ATCC 23448, gene pncA, a facultative intracellular pathogen
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 544, ATCC 23448, gene pncA, a facultative intracellular pathogen
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli K12
K12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Micrococcus lysodeiktikus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain GDI 211
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas sp. GDI 211
strain GDI 211
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CA401, strain FA18, strain FA64, strain FA86, strain FA131, strain 569B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
the generation of nicotinamidase null mutants leads to a decrease in NAD+ content, associated with a metabolic shutdown-like phenotype with an extensive lag phase of growth. The null mutants are also unable to establish a sustained infection in a mouse model
malfunction
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
the generation of nicotinamidase null mutants leads to a decrease in NAD+ content, associated with a metabolic shutdown-like phenotype with an extensive lag phase of growth. The null mutants are also unable to establish a sustained infection in a mouse model
-
metabolism
-
the enzyme catalyzes the deamination of nicotinamide, which is an important step in the NAD+ salvage pathway. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis the enzyme converts the nicotinamide analogue prodrug pyrazinamide into the bacteriostatic pyrazinoic acid, hence the alternative name, pyrazinamidase, PncA
metabolism
-
nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, Nampt, the equivalent enzyme in nicotinamide recycling to NAD+ in vertebrates, can functionally substitute for PNC-1
physiological function
-
the reaction product pyrazinoic acid inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis type I fatty acid synthase, represses mycolic acid biosynthesis, and appears to affect membrane energetics and acidification of the cytoplasm
physiological function
-
consistent with its centrality to NAD+ homeostasis, nicotinamidase is essential for viability
physiological function
-
Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase is required for late-stage intravectorial development in Phlebotomus perniciosus. Nicotinamide degradation by the parasitic nicotinamidase is important during blood meal digestion and especially for establishing mature infection after blood meal defecation
physiological function
-
Leishmania nicotinamidase is essential for NAD+ production and parasite proliferation
physiological function
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
Leishmania nicotinamidase is essential for NAD+ production and parasite proliferation
-
metabolism
-
the enzyme is involved in the NAD+ salvage pathway
additional information
-
a correlation between the limited detected expression patterns of the PNC-1a and b promoters and the function of PNC-1 in development is not obvious
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-methylnicotinamide + H2O
1-methylnicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
12% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
4-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
20% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
4-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
5% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
4-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
6.5% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
137% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
206% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
221% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
646% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methylnicotinamide + H2O
5-methylnicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-methylnicotinamide + H2O
5-methylnicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
163% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
330% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
51% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
80% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-aminopyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
20% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-aminopyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
36% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-aminopyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
45% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-chloropyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
1.8% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-chloropyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
17% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
11% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
40% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
45% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
benzamide + H2O
benzoate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ethyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
0.86% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
ethyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
2.3% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
ethyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
4.4% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
methyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
15% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
methyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3.5% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q97PM2, -
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
59.5% of the activity with pyrazinamide
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is involved in the pyridine nucleotide cycle
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is induced at high nicotinamide concentrations
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme of the pyridine nucleotide cycle is not controlled by end-product repression
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is involved in NAD+ biosynthesis
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
contributes to the intracellular replication and infectivity of Brucella abortus in mice
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
nicotinamide is a by-product of the Sir2 deacetylase reaction and is a natural Sir2 inhibitor, Pnc1, therefore, positively regulates Sir2-mediated silencing and longevity by preventing the accumulation of intracellular nicotinamide during times of stress, PNC1 specifically prevents nicotinamide-induced inhibition of telomeric and rDNA silencing in vivo, overview, the enzyme is involved in the NAD+ biosynthesis and salvage, pathway overview
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in the trigonelline biosynthesis, assay with radiolabeled substrate
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
Pnc1 stimulates Sir2, an NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, and prevents the accumulation of nicotinamide
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
active site structure, overview
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas sp. GDI 211
-
-, 59.5% of the activity with pyrazinamide
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli K12
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-, contributes to the intracellular replication and infectivity of Brucella abortus in mice
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
as nicotinamide is an inhibitor of Arabidopsis seed germination, enzyme activity is important for germination
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme involved in the NAD salvage pathway
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
NH3 + nicotinic acid
show the reaction diagram
P53184, -
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
NH3 + nicotinic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenol + H2O
phenol + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl nicotinate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
13% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
phenyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3.1% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
the natural resistance of Mycobacterium kansasii to pyrazinamide is due to a deficient pyrazinamidase activity of nicotinamidase
-
-
-
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
a nicotinamide prodrug. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis the enzyme converts the nicotinamide analogue prodrug pyrazinamide into the bacteriostatic pyrazinoic acid, hence the alternative name, pyrazinamidase, PncA
a bacteriostatic drug
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas sp. GDI 211
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
NH3 + pyrazinoic acid
show the reaction diagram
P53184, -
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
NH3 + pyrazinoic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
-
-
-
?
pyridine-3-carbothioamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
44% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
thionicotinamide + H2O
pyridine-3-carbothioic O-acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
6500% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
changes in trigonelline content and nicotinic acid metabolism during germination, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
nicotinamidase cannot hydrolyze 1-methyl isonicotinamide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
nicotinamidase cannot hydrolyze 1-methylisonicotinamide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with nicotinamide mononucleotide and NAD+
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
4-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
12% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
4-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
20% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
4-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
5% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
4-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
6.5% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
137% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
206% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
221% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methoxypyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
646% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
163% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
330% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
51% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
5-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
80% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-aminopyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
20% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-aminopyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
36% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-aminopyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
45% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-chloropyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
1.8% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-chloropyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
17% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
11% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
40% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
6-methylpyridine-3-carboxamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
45% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
ethyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
0.86% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
ethyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
2.3% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
ethyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
4.4% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
methyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
15% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
methyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3.5% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q97PM2, -
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is involved in the pyridine nucleotide cycle
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is induced at high nicotinamide concentrations
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme of the pyridine nucleotide cycle is not controlled by end-product repression
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is involved in NAD+ biosynthesis
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
contributes to the intracellular replication and infectivity of Brucella abortus in mice
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
nicotinamide is a by-product of the Sir2 deacetylase reaction and is a natural Sir2 inhibitor, Pnc1, therefore, positively regulates Sir2-mediated silencing and longevity by preventing the accumulation of intracellular nicotinamide during times of stress, PNC1 specifically prevents nicotinamide-induced inhibition of telomeric and rDNA silencing in vivo, overview, the enzyme is involved in the NAD+ biosynthesis and salvage, pathway overview
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in the trigonelline biosynthesis
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
as nicotinamide is an inhibitor of Arabidopsis seed germination, enzyme activity is important for germination
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme involved in the NAD salvage pathway
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
NH3 + nicotinic acid
show the reaction diagram
P53184, -
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
NH3 + nicotinic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas sp. GDI 211
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide + H2O
nicotinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
contributes to the intracellular replication and infectivity of Brucella abortus in mice
-
-
?
phenyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
13% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
phenyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3.1% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
a nicotinamide prodrug. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis the enzyme converts the nicotinamide analogue prodrug pyrazinamide into the bacteriostatic pyrazinoic acid, hence the alternative name, pyrazinamidase, PncA
a bacteriostatic drug
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
NH3 + pyrazinoic acid
show the reaction diagram
P53184, -
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
NH3 + pyrazinoic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrazinamide + H2O
pyrazinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
-
-
-
?
pyridine-3-carbothioamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
44% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
methyl pyridine-3-carboxylate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
6500% activity compared to nicotinamide
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
changes in trigonelline content and nicotinic acid metabolism during germination, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
nicotinamidase cannot hydrolyze 1-methyl isonicotinamide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
nicotinamidase cannot hydrolyze 1-methylisonicotinamide
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
activation
Co2+
-
enhances activity
Co2+
Q97PM2, -
addition of Co2+ after metal removement results in 13% activity
Fe2+
-
activates
Fe2+
Q97PM2, -
addition of Fe2+ after metal removement results in 13% activity
Fe2+
-
the enzyme contains 0.47 M of Fe2+ per mol of enzyme
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
activation
Mg2+
-
required
Mn2+
-
activation
Mn2+
-
enhances activity
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
Q97PM2, -
addition of Mn2+ after metal removement results in 27% activity
Ni2+
-
enhances activity
Zn2+
-
activates, best cation, the active site Cys159 is located at the N-terminus of a6 at one side of the active site with the Zn2+ ion positioned on the other side. The metal ion is bound tightly in the AbPncA active site
Zn2+
Q97PM2, -
contains zinc, highest level of activity in the presence of Zn2+
Zn2+
-
contains tightly bound zinc. Addition of 2 mM ZnCl2 fails to increase the activity of the wild type enzyme
Mn2+
-
the enzyme contains 0.44 M Mn2+ per mol of enzyme
additional information
-
PncA is a divalent cation-dependent enzyme
additional information
Q97PM2, -
addition of Fe3+ or Ni2+ after metal removement results in no detectable activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2,2'-dipyridyl
-
Mg2+ reverses inhibition
2-chloropyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
3-(3-pyridyl)-1-propanol
-
moderate
3-Acetylpyridine
-
moderate
3-Acetylpyridine
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
competitive
3-Acetylpyridine
-
competitive inhibition
3-aminomethylpyridine
-
potent
3-chloropyridine
-
moderate
3-Cyanopyridine
-
potent
3-hydroxypyridine
-
-
3-indolepropionic acid
-
inhibits amidase and esterase activity
3-pyridine carbonitrile
-
reversible, competitive inhibitor
-
3-pyridine carboxaldehyde
-
competitive inhibitor
3-Pyridineacetonitrile
-
moderate
3-pyridinealdoxime
-
potent
3-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde
-
potent
3-Pyridylcarbinol
-
potent
4-aminonicotinamide
-
potent
5-bromopyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
potent inhibitor
-
5-methoxynicotinaldehyde
Q97PM2, -
competitive inhibitor
-
5-Methylnicotinamide
-
competitive
5-Methylnicotinamide
-
moderate
5-methylpyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
potent inhibitor
-
6-fluoropyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
-
-
8-hydroxyquinoline
-
-
benzaldehyde
-
competitive inhibition
Benzoic acid
-
inhibits amidase and esterase activity
Carbobenzoxyamido-2-phenyl-ethyl-chloromethyl-ketone
-
-
Cu2+
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
CuSO4
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
-
dithiothreitol
-
-
EDTA
-
2 mM, no effect
EDTA
-
0.02 mM, 46% inhibition
EDTA
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
Fe2+
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
-
Fe2+
-
-
-
Fe2+
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
FeCl2
-
guanidinium hydrochloride
-
3.4 M, complete inhibition
HgCl2
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
Hydrocinnamic acid
-
inhibits amidase and esterase activity
iodoacetamide
-
reversible, competitive inhibitor
Isoniazid
-
moderate
N,N'-diethylnicotinamide
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
competitive
N2-ethylnicotinamide
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
competitive
N2-methylnicotinamide
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
competitive
NAD+
-
competitive with respect to nicotinamide
nicotinal hydroxamic acid
-
moderate
nicotinaldehyde
Q97PM2, -
competitive inhibitor
nicotinaldehyde
-
most potent inhibitor
Nicotinamide
-
inhibits esterolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate
nicotinamide analogs
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
analogs with a trivalent nitrogen, competitive inhibition
-
nicotinic acid
-
inhibits amidase and esterase activity
nicotinic acid
-
competitive inhibition
nicotinic acid hydrazide
-
potent
nicotinic acid hydrazide
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
competitive
nipecotamide
-
moderate
o-bromobenzamide
-
moderate
p-nitrophenol
-
inhibits amidase and esterase activity
PCMB
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
Pyrazinamide
-
moderate
Pyrazinamide
-
the natural resistance of Mycobacterium kansasii to pyrazinamide is due to a deficient pyrazinamidase activity of nicotinamidase
pyrazinecarbonitrile
-
irreversible inactivator
-
pyrazinoic acid
-
competitive inhibition
Sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate
-
-
sulfhydryl reagents
-
-
Thionicotinamide
-
moderate
Triton X-100
-
0.1%, 24% inhibition
Urea
-
8 M, complete inhibition
Urea
-
1 M, 20% inhibition
Zn2+
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
ZnCl2
additional information
-
pyridine nitrogen and the carbonyl carbon of nicotinamide are involved in substrate-enzyme binding, and the enzyme exhibits steric hindrance in binding nicotinamide analogues with substituents at the 1-position, 5-position, and 6-positions of the pyridine ring
-
additional information
-
enzyme is not a subject to feedback inhibition
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 3-hydroxypyridine
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by nicotinic acid
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 3-hydroxypyridine and 2-chloropyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 3-hydroxypyridine and 6-fluoropyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 10 mM EDTA
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
EDTA
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
less than 0.5 mM, slight enhancement of deaminase activity
Serum albumin
-
0.02%, 9% activation
-
additional information
-
stress suppresses the inhibitory effect of nicotinamide through the induction of PNC1 expression
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.36
-
5'-methylnicotinamide
-
-
0.061
-
5-Methylnicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0002
-
Nicotinamide
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
0.0018
-
Nicotinamide
-
Km below 0.0018 mM, mutant enzyme D51N, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0024
-
Nicotinamide
-
Km below 0.0024 mM, mutant enzyme D51A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0027
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.0027
-
Nicotinamide
-
Km below 0.0027 mM, mutant enzyme H94A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0029
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
0.003
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.005
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
0.006
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
0.0065
-
Nicotinamide
-
Km below 0.0065 mM, mutant enzyme K122A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C; mutant enzyme H53A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0096
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0106
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.013
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme H57D, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
0.014
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
0.033
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
0.033
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
0.0367
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.07
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
0.076
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme isoform PNC2, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.113
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme isoform PNC1, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.118
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
0.13
-
Nicotinamide
-
enzyme in crude lysates
0.21
-
Nicotinamide
-
about 3fold higher than with pyrazinamide as substrate
0.65
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
50
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
0.016
-
Pyrazinamide
-
mutant enzyme H57D, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
0.056
-
Pyrazinamide
-
-
0.157
-
Pyrazinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.3
-
Pyrazinamide
-
-
0.3
-
Pyrazinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
0.025
-
Benzamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.75
-
5-Methylnicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0088
-
Benzamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0005
-
Nicotinamide
-
kcat below 0.0005 s-1, mutant enzyme C167A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0006
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme D8E, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0009
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme D8A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C; mutant enzyme D8N, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C; mutant enzyme K122R, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.003
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.007
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme D51A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.014
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme H53A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.02
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme H94A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.044
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme K122A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.064
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme D51N, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.28
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme isoform PNC2, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.3
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.5
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme H57D, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
0.69
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.93
-
Nicotinamide
-
-
2.1
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
3.1
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme isoform PNC1, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
3.1
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
3.8
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.1
-
Pyrazinamide
-
mutant enzyme H57D, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
2.56
-
Pyrazinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
3.8
-
Pyrazinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0086
-
1-methylnicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0
0.061
-
5-Methylnicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
5380
29
-
5-Methylnicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
5380
0.025
-
Benzamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
7323
0.35
-
Benzamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
7323
0.0096
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
14486
2.2
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme H53A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
14486
6.7
-
Nicotinamide
-
kcat/Km above 6.7 (1/sec*mM), mutant enzyme K122A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
14486
7.4
-
Nicotinamide
-
kcat/Km above 7.4 (1/sec*mM), mutant enzyme H94A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
14486
8.3
-
Nicotinamide
-
kcat/Km above 8.3 (1/sec*mM), mutant enzyme D51A, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
14486
35
-
Nicotinamide
-
kcat/Km above 35 (1/sec*mM), mutant enzyme D51N, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
14486
37
-
Nicotinamide
-
mutant enzyme H57D, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
14486
72
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
14486
220
-
Nicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
14486
0.157
-
Pyrazinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
15981
6.2
-
Pyrazinamide
-
mutant enzyme H57D, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
15981
13
-
Pyrazinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
15981
16
-
Pyrazinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
15981
0.05
-
Thionicotinamide
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
17148
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.37
-
2-chloropyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
5
-
2-chloropyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.316
-
3-Acetylpyridine
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.085
-
3-Cyanopyridine
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.5
-
3-Cyanopyridine
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
1
-
3-Cyanopyridine
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
2
-
3-Cyanopyridine
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.1
-
3-pyridine carbonitrile
-
Ki about 0.1 mM, wild type enzyme, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
-
0.00029
-
3-pyridine carboxaldehyde
-
wild type enzyme, in 100 mM HEPES at pH 8.0 and 25C
0.00044
-
4-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
isoform PNC2, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.001
-
4-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.05
-
4-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.068
-
4-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.153
-
4-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.00059
-
5-bromopyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.004
-
5-bromopyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.000023
-
5-methylnicotinaldehyde, 5-methylpyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.00019
-
5-methylpyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.00065
-
5-methylpyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.000039
-
5-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.000056
-
5-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.00014
-
5-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
isoform PNC2, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.00031
-
5-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
isoform PNC1, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.00085
-
5-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.0038
-
5-O-methylnicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.004
-
6-fluoropyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.018
-
6-fluoropyridine-3-carbaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.01
-
acetylpyridine
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.046
-
acetylpyridine
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.06
-
acetylpyridine
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.342
-
acetylpyridine
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
-
0.0206
-
benzaldehyde
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.000011
-
nicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.000022
-
nicotinaldehyde
-
isoform PNC2, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.000034
-
nicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.00011
-
nicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.00011
-
nicotinaldehyde
-
isoform PNC1, in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.00094
-
nicotinaldehyde
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
0.0014
-
nicotinaldehyde
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
0.12
-
nicotinic acid
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
2
-
nicotinic acid
-
in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.3 at 25C
6.7
-
pyrazinoic acid
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), at 25C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
2.17
-
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
37.6
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
8.5
-
amidase activity
6.5
-
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
6.6
-
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-
6.8
7.5
-
-
7.2
-
-
-
7.5
-
-
-
7.5
-
-
assay at
8
10
-
esterase
8
-
-
around pH 8.0
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5
10.5
-
pH 5.0: about 70% of maximal activity, pH 10.5: about 75% of maximal activity
5.5
9.5
-
pH 5.5: about 60% of maximal activity, pH 9.5: about 45% of maximal activity
7
11
-
pH 7.0: about 35% of maximal activity, pH 11.0: about 30% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
55
80
-
about 35% of maximal activity at 55C and at 80C
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
C1300 neuroblastoma M1 clonal cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activity during germination, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highest level of expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
no activity detected in: kidney, spleen, heart, brain, testis, muscle, lung and pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the pathogen is cultured in human HeLa cells and in murine bone marrow macrophages, co-localizes with host late endosomes or lysosomes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
expressed in all tissues
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the pathogen is cultured in human HeLa cells and in murine bone marrow macrophages, co-localizes with host late endosomes or lysosomes
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
under physiological conditions, the enzyme displays a diffuse, mainly cytosolic localization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
under physiological conditions, the enzyme displays a diffuse, mainly cytosolic localization
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secreted isoform of PNC-1
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Acinetobacter baumannii (strain AYE)
Acinetobacter baumannii (strain AYE)
Pyrococcus horikoshii (strain ATCC 700860 / DSM 12428 / JCM 9974 / NBRC 100139 / OT-3)
Pyrococcus horikoshii (strain ATCC 700860 / DSM 12428 / JCM 9974 / NBRC 100139 / OT-3)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c)
Streptococcus mutans serotype c (strain ATCC 700610 / UA159)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20890
-
-
determined by analytical ultracentrifugation and mass spectrometry
30000
-
-
gel filtration
30000
-
-
gel filtration
43000
-
-
gel filtration
47000
-
-
gel filtratrion and analytical ultracentrifugation
48000
-
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
gel filtration
211000
-
-
gel filtration
230000
-
-
gel electrophoresis
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 60000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 48000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 22900, calculated from amino acid sequence; x * 24000, SDS-PAGE
?
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
x * 22900, calculated from amino acid sequence; x * 24000, SDS-PAGE
-
dimer
-
2 * 26000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
Pseudomonas sp. GDI 211
-
2 * 26000, SDS-PAGE
-
homotetramer
Q97PM2, -
4 * 21400, calculated from amino acid sequence
monomer
-
1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
4 * 60000, rabbit, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
2 * 65000 + 2 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
glycoprotein
-
contains 1.7% w/w mannose and 1.5% w/w N-acetylglucosamine
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
sitting-drop-based and sparse-matrix screening , using 0.7 M Na-citrate and 0.1 M HEPES (pH 7.5)
-
in complex with nicotinaldehyde, hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using 1.6 M NaOAc, 10% (w/v) ethylene glycol, and 0.1 M HEPES (pH 7.4)
-
resolution 2.9 Angstrom
-
a trapped nicotinoyl-thioester complexed with wild type enzyme and C136S mutant in complex with nicotinamide, hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using 18-22% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, 0.2-0.3 M NaCl and 0.2 M sodium malonate, pH 6.3, at 18C
Q97PM2, -
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5
10
-
37C, 1 h, stable
7
9.5
-
37C, 10 min, stable
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
37
-
-
half-life: 2 h, stable in presence of 0.05 mM nicotinamide
37
-
-
stable for more than 3 h
40
-
-
pH 6.8, in presence of Co2+, 10 min, stable up to
50
-
-
5 min, 50% loss of activity
50
-
-
10 min, 27% loss of activity
55
-
-
half-life: 2.5 min
60
-
-
10 min, 76% loss of activity
65
-
-
half-life: 1 min
70
-
-
10 min, complete loss of activity
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
inactivated by dialysis in absence of Mn2+. After overnight dialysis in presence of Mn2+ almost all activity is retained. A dialysis against 0.01 M maleate buffer, pH 6.5, containing 0.005 mM HgCl2 results in complete retention of activity
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
freezing and defreezing inactivates
-
enzyme is stable in buffer solution containing Co2+ and Ni2+
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
photooxidation of two His residues by methylene blue leads to loss of deaminase activity
-
246572
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
0C, phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, weak loss of activity
-
-20C, 50% loss of activity after 4 weeks
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
-20C, 50% glycerol, stable for months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
nickel-based affinity chromatography
-
-
Flavobacterium peregrinum
-
Ni-NTA agarose column chromatography
-
Ni-NTA column chromatography
-
nickel chelate chromatography and molecular sieve
-
immobilized metal affinity chromatography
-
Ni-NTA column chromatography and Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration
-
recombinant His-tagged wild-type and mutant enzymes from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography
-
Ni-NTA resin column chromatography
Q97PM2, -
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
-
isolation of a pnc-1a promoter consisting of exon 1a and the intervening region between exon 1a and the adjacent gene, expression as GFP-fusion protein. Expression of His-tagged PNC proteins in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
a single enzyme accounts for both pyrazinamidase activity and nicotinamidase activity
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
gene PNC1, expression of His-tagged wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta 2(DE3) pLysS cells
Q97PM2, -
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
C161A
Leishmania infantum MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP-263
-
inactive
-
C138A
-
significant decrease in enzyme activity
D49A
-
significant decrease in enzyme activity
D8A
-
significant decrease in enzyme activity
H51A
-
significant decrease in enzyme activity
H57A
-
significant decrease in enzyme activity
H57D
-
the mutant has reduced Mn2+ content and shows a 6fold and 38fold decrease in kcat value for nicotinamide and pyrazinamide, respectively
H71A
-
significant decrease in enzyme activity
K96A
-
significant decrease in enzyme activity
S104A
-
partial loss of enzyme activity
S95A
-
partial loss of enzyme activity
C167A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, inactive mutant, no rescue the inhibition of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, i.e. HDAC, activity of Sir2 by nicotinamide
C167A
-
the mutant shows most strongly decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme (below the assay detection limit)
D51A
-
the zinc-binding mutant shows decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme
D51N
-
the zinc-binding mutant shows decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme
D8A
-
the mutant shows 770fold decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme
D8E
-
the mutant shows 100fold decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme
D8N
-
the mutant shows 1000fold decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme
H53A
-
the zinc-binding mutant shows decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme
H94A
-
the zinc-binding mutant shows decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme
K122A
-
the mutant shows 16fold decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme
C136A
-
the mutant is unable to catalyze nicotinamide hydrolysis
C136S
-
the mutant is unable to catalyze nicotinamide hydrolysis
C136S
Q97PM2, -
inactive
K103A
-
the mutant has only 0.15% of the catalytic activity of the native enzyme
R97A
-
the mutant is a robust nicotinamidase and is nearly as good as the native enzyme
additional information
-
a gene disruption PncA mutant, a nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase mutant, fails to replicate in HeLa cells and shows lower replication rates compared to the wild-type in macrophages, the mutant does not co-localize with host late endosomes or lysosomes, effects of gene disruption in vivo and in vitro, overview
additional information
-
a gene disruption PncA mutant, a nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase mutant, fails to replicate in HeLa cells and shows lower replication rates compared to the wild-type in macrophages, the mutant does not co-localize with host late endosomes or lysosomes, effects of gene disruption in vivo and in vitro, overview
-
additional information
-
mutations in PNC-1 cause developmental and functional defects in the reproductive system. The development of the gonad is delayed, four uterine cells die by necrosis and the mutant animals are egg-laying defective. The temporal delay in gonad development results from depletion of the salvage pathway product NAD+, whereas the uv1 cell necrosis and egg-laying defects result from accumulation of the substrate nicotinamide, phenotype, overview. The bacterial food source partially compensates for pnc-1 reproductive defects. Although the secreted isoform is sufficient to rescue all phenotypes, the concentrations of NAD+ and nicotinamide in the cytoplasm and/or cellular organelles presumably elicit phenotypes
K122R
-
the mutant shows 770fold decreased kcat value compared to the wild type enzyme
additional information
-
PNC1 overexpression suppresses the inhibitory effect of exogenously added nicotinamide on silencing, life span, and Hst1-mediated transcriptional repression
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
drug development
-
enzyme is involved in the activation of the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide
analysis
-
determination of nicotinamide