Information on EC 3.5.1.1 - asparaginase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.5.1.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
asparaginase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-asparagine + H2O = L-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
carboxylic acid amide hydrolysis
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-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
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aspartate and asparagine metabolism
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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Cyanoamino acid metabolism
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L-asparagine degradation I
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L-asparagine degradation III (mammalian)
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Metabolic pathways
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NIL
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superpathway of L-aspartate and L-asparagine biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-asparagine amidohydrolase
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9015-68-3
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
isolated from gut contents of Mugil cephalus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from gut contents of Mugil cephalus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
comprehensive comparison shows that the Asparagus officinalis A7 variety has the highest asparaginase activity, while A1 has the lowest, regardless of the tissue type
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Azotobacter agilis
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MTCC 8574
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MTCC 8574
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L-asparaginase cultivated in the presence of the oxygen vectors liquid paraffin, silicone oil, and n-dodecane
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chlamydomonas sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Erwinia aroidea
Erwinia aroidea NRR LB-138
NRR LB-138
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Erwinia aroidea NRRL B-138
NRRL B-138
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
EC-I
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HAP, highest yield in aerobically grown cells in corn steep medium, addition of L-glutamic acid, L-methionine, and lactic acid enhances enzyme production, addition of glucose or sodium depresses enzyme production
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MB-20
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MB-20
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region, India
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Nocardia levis MK-VL_113
isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region, India
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Nocardiopsis alba NIOT-VKMA08
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
new world
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NRRL B771
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
7A
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GG13
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P-210
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MB-405
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MB-405
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ansA
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodosporidium toruloides
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Salmonella typhosa
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 6A
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine actinomycetes, soil isolate S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S8. K2, K4, K5, and K8, whereof S3, S4 and S6 are designated as Streptomyces spp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
TK-VL_333
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. fuscus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. fuscus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
out of the 40 strains isolated, six strains (LA-2, LA-8, LA-15, LA-20, LA29 and LA-35) show significant activity
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterobacteriaceae, bacterium isolated from cow dung, gene ansB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ansB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
the enzyme is a member of an increasing rhizobial-type family of L-asparaginases
metabolism
-
L-asparaginase is degraded by leukemic lysosomal cysteine proteases
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-L-Asn + H2O
benzyloxycarbonyl-Gly-L-Asp
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
beta-Asp-His + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate of ASPGA1 and ASPGB1, ASPGA1 has a 4fold substrate preference for beta-Asp-His over Asn
-
-
?
beta-aspartoethylamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
at 0.4% of the activity with L-Asn
-
-
?
beta-aspartomethylamide + H2O
L-Asp + ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
at 0.5% of the activity with L-Asn
-
-
?
beta-aspartopropylamide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
at 0.7% of the activity with L-Asn
-
-
?
beta-cyano-L-Ala + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
beta-L-Asp-L-Phe + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D-Asn + H2O
D-Asp + NH3
show the reaction diagram
D-asparagine + H2O
D-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
D-aspartic acid beta-hydroxamate + H2O
D-Asp + hydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
59% of the activity with L-Asn
-
-
?
D-glutamine + H2O
D-glutamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
diazo-4-oxo-L-norvaline + H2O
5-hydroxy-4-oxo-L-norvaline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
DL-Ala-DL-Asn + H2O
DL-Ala-DL-Asn + DL-Ala-DL-Asp
show the reaction diagram
-
-
75% Ala-Asp + 25% Ala-Asn
?
DL-aspartyl hydroxamate + H2O
DL-Asp + hydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
Gly-D-Asn + H2O
Gly-D-Asp + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Gly-L-Asn + H2O
Gly-L-Asp + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Asn + H2O
L-Asp + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Asp + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-asparagine + H2O
L-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-asparagine + H2O
L-aspartic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-aspartic acid + NH3
?
show the reaction diagram
L-aspartic acid beta-hydrazide + H2O
L-Asp + hydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
2% of the activity with L-Asn
-
-
?
L-aspartic acid beta-hydroxamate + H2O
L-Asp + hydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
L-aspartyl hydroxamate + H2O
L-aspartate + hydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
L-aspartyl-beta-hydroxamate + H2O
L-Asp + hydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
L-Gln + H2O
L-Glu + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Gln-L-Asn + H2O
L-Gln-L-Asp + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Glu-L-Asn + H2O
L-Glu-L-Asp + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-glutamic acid gamma-hydroxamate + H2O
L-Glu + hydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
1% of the activity with L-Asn
-
-
?
L-glutamine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamine + H2O
L-glutamate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
36% relative activity compared to L-asparagine as substrate
-
-
?
L-glutamine + H2O
L-glutamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamine + H2O
L-glutamic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamyl hydroxamate + H2O
L-glutamate + hydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
16% relative activity compared to L-asparagine as substrate
-
-
?
L-leucine amide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
5.3% of the activity with L-Asn
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine amide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
8.2% of the activity with L-Asn
-
-
?
N-acetyl-L-asparagine + H2O
N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N4-ethyl-L-asparagine
L-Asp + propylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
12% of the activity with L-Asn
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-
?
N4-methoxy-L-asparagine + H2O
L-Asp + O-methylhydroxylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
154% of the activity with L-Asn
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-
?
N4-methyl-L-asparagine
L-Asp + methylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
12% of the activity with L-Asn
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-
?
Nalpha-acetyl-L-Asn + H2O
Nalpha-acetyl-L-Asp + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Nalpha-methyl-L-Asn + H2O
Nalpha-methyl-L-Asp + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
26% of the activity with L-Asn
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-
?
poly-L-asparagine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
succinamic acid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
at 20% of the activity with L-Asn
-
-
?
succinamic acid + H2O
succinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
threo-3-hydroxy-L-asparagine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
36% of the activity with L-Asn
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-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-asparagine + H2O
D-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 10% activity compared to L-asparagine
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-
?
L-Asn + H2O
L-Asp + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-asparagine + H2O
L-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-aspartic acid + NH3
?
show the reaction diagram
L-Gln + H2O
L-Glu + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamine + H2O
L-glutamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamine + H2O
L-glutamic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
CN-
-
enhances activity
diphosphate
-
stimulation
EDTA
-
inhibits enzyme, 1, 3, and 10 mM tested
Fe2+
about 203.7% activity at 10 mM
HPO42-
-
stimulation
I-
-
enhances activity
K3Fe(CN)6
-
stimulation
KCl
-
the catalytic activity of YpA does not vary significantly as a function of ionic strength at 100-3000 mM KCl
KI
-
stimulates activity
Li+
-
rapid and reversible activation
Ni2+
-
5 mM, 37C, 136% relative activity compared to the activity in absence of metal cations
Pb2+
-
stimulates activity
PO43-
-
enhances activity
Rb+
monovalent cation preference in order of decreasing efficiency is: K+, Na+, Rb+
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-amino-5-chloro-4-oxo pentanoic acid
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2-mercaptoethanol
2-mercaptomethanol
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3-Cyano-L-Ala
4-chloromercuribenzoate
-
complete inhibition at 0.5 mM
4-methylene-L-glutamine
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5-Bromo-4-oxo-L-norvaline
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5-Diazo-4-oxo-L-norvaline
6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine
-
-
Ag+
42% residual activity at 2 mM
aspartic acid
beta-aspartyl hydroxamate
48% inhibition at 5 mM
-
Bromoacetic acid
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Cr2+
37% residual activity at 2 mM
cysteine
complete inhibition at 1 mM
D-asparagine
39% inhibition at 5 mM
Dichromate
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diethyldicarbonate
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Dimethylsulfoxide
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dithiothreitol
DL-aspartate 3-hydroxamate
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-
DL-aspartyl hydroxamate
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-
ethylenediamine
-
weak
Glutaraldehyde
-
inhibits the enzyme during immobilization at concentrations above 0.2%
Gly methyl ester
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-
Gly-Gly
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-
H2O2
-
76% inhibition at 1.0 mM
hydroxylamine
-
-
iodoacetamide
iodoacetate
-
-
L-Asn
-
inhibits hydrolysis of diazo-4-oxo-L-norvaline
L-asparagine
-
substrate inhibition above 20 mM L-asparagine
Lactate
-
about 70% inhibition at 10 mM
N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinone
-
no effect up to 1 mM: Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+
-
N4-hydroxyethyl-L-asparagine
-
-
O-(diazoacetyl)-L-serine
-
-
oxylate
-
about 70% inhibition at 10 mM
-
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
p-mercuribenzoate
-
-
PBA
-
more than 80% residual activity at 10 mM
-
Phenylglyoxal
-
protection by substrate
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
-
more than 80% residual activity at 10 mM
Phospholipase C
-
-
-
PMSF
-
partial inactivation
potassium ferricyanide
-
-
pyruvate
Succinamide
-
weak
Triton X-100
-
-
Trypsin
-
the free enzyme is completely inactivated by trypsin within 10 min, while the immobilized enzyme is stable for 240 min with loss of 30% activity
-
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-amino-6-methyl-4-phenyl-2-thioxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester
-
enhances activity
2-mercaptoethanol
albumin
-
0.1 mg/ml, 3fold activation of L-asparaginase II
-
bovine serum albumin
-
slightly enhances activity
-
citrate
-
stimulates
dithiothreitol
-
enhances activity
glutathione
-
enhances activity
glycine
L-cysteine
-
activates 148% at 1 mM
L-cystine
-
causes an increase in Vmax value and a decrease in Km value, nonessential mode of activation
L-histidine
-
activates 148% at 1 mM
L-methionine
-
causes an increase in Vmax value and a decrease in Km value, nonessential mode of activation
Lipid
-
activates
liquid paraffin
-
6% (v/v) results in 34% increase in the L-asparaginase activity accompanied by a 48% increase in the production of cell mass at a 10 l scale
-
N-acetyl-L-cysteine
-
causes an increase in Vmax value and a decrease in Km value, nonessential mode of activation
n-dodecane
-
exhibit a stimulatory effect in L-asparaginase activity, ca. 104% compared to control
PCMB
-
slight stimulation
potassium iodide
231.68% activity at 1 mM
SDS
-
78% inhibition at 3.0 mM, 119% activation at 2.0 mM
silicone oil
-
exhibit a stimulatory effect in L-asparaginase activity, ca. 108% compared to control
-
sorbitol
-
30% w/v, activates more than 10fold
Tartrate
-
stimulation
Triton X-100
161.26% activity at 1% (v/v)
Tween-80
123.45% activity at 1% (v/v)
additional information