Information on EC 3.2.1.81 - beta-agarase

Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Mark a special word or phrase in this record:
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.2.1.81
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
beta-agarase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
Hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-D-galactosidic linkages in agarose, giving the tetramer as the predominant product
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
Hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-D-galactosidic linkages in agarose, giving the tetramer as the predominant product
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
Q9RGX8, Q9RGX9
Hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-D-galactosidic linkages in agarose, giving the tetramer as the predominant product
show the reaction diagram
enzyme might be able to unwind the double-helical structure of substrate prior to the catalytic cleavage
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
agarose degradation
-
porphyran degradation
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
agarose 4-glycanohydrolase
Also acts on porphyran, but more slowly [1]. This enzyme cleaves the beta-(1->4) linkages of agarose in a random manner with retention of the anomeric-bond configuration, producing beta-anomers that give rise progressively to alpha-anomers when mutarotation takes place [6]. The end products of hydrolysis are neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose in the case of AgaA from the marine bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, and neoagarotetraose and neoagarobiose in the case of AgaB [6].
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
AgaA
Cellvibrio sp.
-
-
AgaA
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
AgaA
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
-
-
-
AgaA
-
-
AgaA
G3CHF0
-
AgaA
G3CHF0
-
-
AgaB
Zobellia galactanivorans KCTC 12921
-
-
-
AgaB34
A8W969
-
AgaB34
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
A8W969
-
-
AgaC
Q0KKW9
-
AgaD
-
-
agarase
-
-
-
-
Agarase 0107
-
-
-
-
agarase AG-a
-
-
agarase AG-a
-
-
-
AgaYT
Flammeovirga yaeyamensis YT
G0ZDR5
-
-
beta-agarase
Cellvibrio sp.
-
-
beta-agarase
-
-
-
beta-agarase
A1A3Y9
-
beta-agarase
-
-
beta-agarase
G3CHF0
-
beta-agarase
G3CHF0
-
-
beta-agarase A
Q9RGX9
-
beta-agarase B
Q9RGX8
-
beta-agarase C
Q0KKW9
-
beta-agarase D
-
-
beta-agarase-a
Q0KKW9
-
DagA
-
an endo-type beta-agarase
endo-type beta-agarase
G0ZDR5
-
endo-type beta-agarase
Flammeovirga yaeyamensis YT
G0ZDR5
-
-
endo-type beta-agarase
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
endo-type beta-agarase
Microbulbifer sp. CMC-5 (MTCC 9889)
-
-
-
PjaA
-
-
-
RagaA11
Agarivorans sp.
-
-
RagaA11
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
37288-57-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain AG LSL-1, enzyme is inducible by agar and not repressed by other simple sugars. NaCl is not required for growth or production of agarase. Enzyme belongs to group III beta-agarase family
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Acinetobacter sp. AG
strain AG LSL-1, enzyme is inducible by agar and not repressed by other simple sugars. NaCl is not required for growth or production of agarase. Enzyme belongs to group III beta-agarase family
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YKW-34
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YKW-34, isolated from gut of a turban shell
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
strain YKW-34
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
strain YKW-34, isolated from gut of a turban shell
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans sp.
strain HZ105
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans sp.
strain JA-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans sp.
strain JA-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans sp.
strain JAMB-A11
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans sp.
strain LQ48
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JA-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JAMB-A11
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain C-1; strain SY37-12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SY37-12; SY37-12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alteromonas sp. C-1
strain C-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alteromonas sp. SY37-12
strain SY37-12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alteromonas sp. SY37-12
strain SY37-12; SY37-12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MK03
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cellvibrio sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Flammeovirga yaeyamensis YT
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp.
JAMB-A94
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp.
strain JAMB-A3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp.
strain JAMB-A7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp.
strain JAMB-A94
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp. CMC-5 (MTCC 9889)
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
JAMB-A94
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
strain JAMB-A3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
strain JAMB-A7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
strain JAMB-A94
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JAMB-A94
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer thermotolerans JAMB-A94
strain JAMB-A94
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudoalteromonas antarctica N-1
strain N-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CY24
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudoalteromonas sp. JYBCL 1
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SK38
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain W7
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain W7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SK38
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain W7
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain W7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoforms Aga16B and Aga86E
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2-40 (ATCC 43961)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2-40, enzyme system consisting of beta-agarase I, beta-agarase II, and alpha-agarase, acting in concert
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain F-6
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JT0107
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PO-303
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PO-303
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain V134
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain V143
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain F-6
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JT0107
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain V134
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Vibrio sp. V143
strain V143
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dsij
Q9RGX9
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dsij DSMZ 12802 and CIP 106680
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme isomer
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme isomer A
Q9RGX9
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
formerly Cytophaga drobachiensis
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KCTC 12921
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Zobellia galactanivorans Dsij
Dsij
Q9RGX9
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Zobellia galactanivorans KCTC 12921
strain KCTC 12921
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
agar + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
-
-
?
agar + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agar + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity, the viscosity of the inoculated agar medium decreases by more than 60% after 20 h cultivation
-
-
?
agar + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp. CMC-5 (MTCC 9889)
-
-
-
-
?
agar + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pseudoalteromonas sp. JYBCL 1
-
100% activity, the viscosity of the inoculated agar medium decreases by more than 60% after 20 h cultivation
-
-
?
agar + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Alteromonas sp., Alteromonas sp. SY37-12
-
-
-
-
?
agar + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans sp.
-
-
-
-
?
agar + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
D7NPL0
-
-
-
?
agar + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agar + H2O
neoagarohexaose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agar + H2O
neoagarooctaose + neoagarohexaose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Q0KKW9, -
-
-
-
?
agaropectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Q9RGX8, -
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9KK55
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Q6F4N4
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp.
Q76DQ8
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
D7NPL0
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
G3CHF0
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
plus small amounts of neoagarohexaose and neoagarobiose
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Zobellia galactanivorans KCTC 12921
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Alteromonas sp. C-1
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
Q76DQ8
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Q9KK55
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer thermotolerans JAMB-A94
Q6F4N4
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
G3CHF0
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Alteromonas sp. SY37-12
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
Aga50D has unique exo-lytic activity and is able to produce neoagarobiose directly from agarose
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Acinetobacter sp. AG
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9KK55
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q21HB9, Q21LJ1
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q21HB4, Q21HC5, Q21LJ2
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
157% activity compared to agar
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pseudoalteromonas sp. JYBCL 1
-
157% activity compared to agar
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
main product
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + ?
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp., Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
-
-
main product
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
A1E2B6, -
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
A8W969
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
agarase I, principal enzyme
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
A1E2A6
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
A8W969
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
agarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans sp., Agarivorans sp. JAMB-A11
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp., Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
about 75% neoagarobiose plus 25% neoagarotetraose
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-, G0ZDR5
-
main hydrolytic products
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Flammeovirga yaeyamensis YT
G0ZDR5
-
main hydrolytic products
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
-
-
about 75% neoagarobiose plus 25% neoagarotetraose
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarohexaose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarohexaose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
A8W969, -
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarohexaose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
A8W969
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarooctaose + neoagarodecaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarooctaose + neoagarodecaose
show the reaction diagram
A1A3Y9
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarooctaose + neoagarodecaose
show the reaction diagram
-
AgaB hydrolyzes the glycosylic bond with inversion of anomeric configuration
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarosebiose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans sp., Agarivorans sp. JA-1
-
-
main product
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Q9RGX8, Q9RGX9
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
A1E2B6, -
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
A5A6R7
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Q8GB62
-
47% neoagarotetraose and 45% neoagarotetraose
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
P48839
-
main hydrolysates of agarose by agarase AG-a are neoagarotetraose (48%), neoagarohexaose (50%), and neoagarobiose (2%)
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Q8GB62
-
predominant products
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose are the major products, neoagarooctaose is also observed as a minor end product
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
C9WIW7
the recombinant enzyme hydrolyzes the beta-1,4-glycosidic linkages of agarose, yielding neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose as the main products
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp. CMC-5 (MTCC 9889)
-
-
neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose are the major products, neoagarooctaose is also observed as a minor end product
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudoalteromonas antarctica N-1
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
P48839
-
main hydrolysates of agarose by agarase AG-a are neoagarotetraose (48%), neoagarohexaose (50%), and neoagarobiose (2%)
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
A1E2B6
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
2 neoagarooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Q0KKW9, -
rAgaC with low activity (0.05 U/ml) cleaves agarose into longer neoagarooligosaccharides. When activity is increased to 30 U/ml, neoagarooctaose is produced predominantly in addition to neoagarohexaose and neoagarotetraose
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose + neoagarooctaose
show the reaction diagram
Alteromonas sp., Alteromonas sp. C-1, Alteromonas sp. SY37-12
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Cellvibrio sp., Cellvibrio sp. KY-YJ-3
-
specific substrate
main products
-
?
alginate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
-
-
?
alkali treated porphyran + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
alkali treated porphyran + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
carboxymethyl cellulose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp., Microbulbifer sp. CMC-5 (MTCC 9889)
-
-
-
-
?
carrageenan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
-
-
?
neoagaro-oligosaccharides + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
from N2 to N22, reaction yield for neoagaro-oligosaccharides is 52.7% by 4 U/mg beta-agarase
-
-
?
neoagarodecaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
A1A3Y9
is a very poor substrate
-
-
?
neoagarododecaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
A1A3Y9
-
-
-
?
neoagarododecaose + H2O
neoagarohexaose + neoagarotetraose + neoagarooctaose
show the reaction diagram
Q0KKW9, -
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaitol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
D7NPL0
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
A8W969, -
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
A8W969
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans sp.
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarohexaose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarooctaose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
neoagarooctaose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
-
beta-agarose IIb
ir
neoagarooctaose + H2O
neoagarohexaose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
neoagarooctaose + H2O
neoagarohexaose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
-
beta-agarase I
ir
neoagarooctaose + H2O
neoagarohexaose + neoagarotetraose + neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarooctaose + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose + neoagarohexaose
show the reaction diagram
Q8GB62
-
-
-
?
neoagarotetradecaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
A1A3Y9
-
-
-
?
neoagarotetraose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans sp.
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarotetraose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarotetraose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarotetraose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neoagarotetraose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
-
-
-
-
?
polysaccharides with neoagarobiose units + H2O
neoagarobiose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
porphyran + H2O
neoagaro-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
porphyran + H2O
neoagaro-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
methylated, sulfated or unsubstituted
ir
porphyran + H2O
neoagaro-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
methylated, sulfated or unsubstituted
ir
porphyran + H2O
neoagaro-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
methylated, sulfated or unsubstituted
ir
porphyran + H2O
neoagaro-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
methylated, sulfated or unsubstituted
ir
porphyran + H2O
neoagaro-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
methylated, sulfated or unsubstituted
ir
porphyran + H2O
neoagarohexaose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
porphyran + H2O
neoagarooctaose + neoagarohexaose + neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Q0KKW9, -
-
-
-
?
xylan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp., Microbulbifer sp. CMC-5 (MTCC 9889)
-
-
-
-
?
chitin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Microbulbifer sp., Microbulbifer sp. CMC-5 (MTCC 9889)
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
carbohydrate binding modules of both isoforms Aga16B and Aga86E bind specifically to the non-reducing end of agarose chains, recognizing only the first repeat of the dissaccharide. The carbohydrate binding module targets the equatorial O4 and the axial O3 of the anhydro-L-galactose moiety
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no substrate: alginate, carboxymethyl cellulose, fucoidan, kappa-carrageenan, lambda-carrageenan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no substrate: kappa-carrageenan, alginate, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no substrate: neoagarotetraose, kappa-carrageenan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no substrate: neoagarotetraose, neoagarobiose, kappa-carrageenan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q0KKW9, -
cannot hydrolyze neoagarooctaose and smaller neoagarooligosaccharides nor kappa-carrageenan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
does not act on neoagarotetraose and neoagarobiose and kappa-carrageenan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A8W969, -
neoagarotetraose can not be further hydrolyzed into neoagarobiose even after long incubation time
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A1A3Y9
the agarase AgaB appears to have a large substrate binding cleft that accommodates 12 sugar units, with 8 sugar units toward the reducing end spanning subsites +1 to +8 and 4 sugar units toward the non-reducing end spanning subsites -4 to -1, and enzymatic cleavage taking place between subsites -1 and +1. The enzyme hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond with inversion of anomeric configuration. AgaB does not hydrolyze neoagarooctaose, kappa-carrageenan, lota-carrageenan, lambda-carrageenan, alginate, and chitosan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
D7NPL0
recombinant AgrP does not hydrolyze neoagarotetraose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
C9WIW7
when neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose are used as substrates for AgaA, no hydrolysis products are detected
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the agarase can saccharify Gelidium amansii directly, with an efficiency about half that compared with agar saccharification (47% activity compared to agar)
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Cellvibrio sp., Cellvibrio sp. KY-YJ-3
-
the purified agarase fails to carboxymethyl-cellulose, dextran, soluble starch, pectin, and polygalacturonic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Acinetobacter sp. AG
-
no substrate: kappa-carrageenan, alginate, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
-
no substrate: alginate, carboxymethyl cellulose, fucoidan, kappa-carrageenan, lambda-carrageenan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
A8W969
neoagarotetraose can not be further hydrolyzed into neoagarobiose even after long incubation time
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Pseudoalteromonas sp. JYBCL 1
-
the agarase can saccharify Gelidium amansii directly, with an efficiency about half that compared with agar saccharification (47% activity compared to agar)
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Q9RGX8, -
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
Zobellia galactanivorans KCTC 12921
-
-
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
neoagarotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
agarose + H2O
neoagarobiose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ba2+
-
slightly increases activity
Ca2+
Agarivorans sp.
-
10 mM, stimulates enzyme
Ca2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
stabilizes enzyme
Ca2+
-
slightly increases activity
Ca2+
P48839
1 mM, increases activity of agarase AG-b 1.2fold
Ca2+
-
100 mM Ca2+ activates the enzyme activity 1.5times
Ca2+
-
the activity and stability of the wild type enzyme at 45C with 1 mM CaCl2 are double those of the enzyme at 40C without CaCl2. Activities of both the wild type and mutant E99K/T307I enzymes increase in 1 mM CaCl2. The E99K/T307I mutant enzyme is stable at 55C with 1 mM CaCl2, reaching 260% of the activity the wild type enzyme held at 40C without CaCl2. No further increases in activity are observed in 10 mMCaCl2
Ca2+
D7NPL0
2 mM stimulates agarase activity by 5%
Ca2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
123% activity at 1 mM
CaCl2
-
slight activation
CaCl2
Agarivorans sp.
-
optimal activity in presence of 1 mM NaCl and 1 mM CaCl2
CaCl2
-
slightly enhances enzymatic activity
Co2+
-
135% activity at 1 mM
Cu2+
P48839
1 mM, increases activity of agarase AG-b 1.2fold
Fe2+
D7NPL0
2 mM stimulates agarase activity by 20%
K+
-
slightly activating
K+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
stabilizes enzyme
K+
-
10 mM, 205% of initial activity
K+
D7NPL0
2 mM stimulates agarase activity by 5%
Mg2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
stabilizes enzyme
Mg2+
-
10 mM, 137% of initial activity, 100 mM, 45% residual activity
Mg2+
D7NPL0
2 mM stimulates agarase activity by 5%
Mg2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
112% activity at 1 mM
Mn2+
P48839
1 mM, increases activity of agarase AG-b 1.4fold
Mn2+
C9WIW7
low concentration of Mn2+ have a slight positive effect on the AgaA activity (116% relative activity at 1 mM)
Na+
-
slightly activating
Na+
Agarivorans sp.
-
0.1 M, stimulates enzyme
Na+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
stabilizes enzyme
Na+
-
10 mM, 206% of initial activity
Na+
D7NPL0
2 mM stimulates agarase activity by 5%
NaCl
-
0.9 M
NaCl
Agarivorans sp.
-
optimal activity in presence of 1 mM NaCl and 1 mM CaCl2
NaCl
-
is required for activity, good production of agarase at NaCl concentration range from 1.5-3%. Maximum agarase production at 2.5% NaCl concentration
Mn2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
105% activity at 1 mM
additional information
-
no metal ions required for activity
additional information
A8W969, -
no activation of rAgaB34 by Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Ba2+
additional information
-
not affected by 10 mM Mn2+, Na+, K+, Ca+, and Mg2+
additional information
C9WIW7
no significant activation or inhibition of AgaA is observed by Na+, K+, Ca2+, Fe3+, and urea
additional information
-
Ca2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, or Zn2+ do not affect on the activity at a concentration of 0.2 mM
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethyl-amino-)propyl)carbonate
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM. 10-20% inhibition
5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
C9WIW7
53% residual activity at 10 mM
Ag+
P48839
5 mM, complete inhibition of agarase AG-b
AgNO3
-
1mM, complete inhibition
AgNO3
-
partially inhibits the activity
AlCl3
-
complete inhibition
AlCl3
-
completely inhibits the activity
Ba2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
85% residual activity at 1 mM
Ca2+
-
in higher concentrations, 10-20 mM
Ca2+
-
10 mM, no effect, 100 mM, 1.2% residual activity
Co2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Cu2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM, no residual activity
Cu2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM
Cu2+
A1A3Y9
slightly inhibits
Cu2+
-
3.2% residual activity at 10 mM
Cu2+
D7NPL0
complete inhibition at 2 mM
Cu2+
C9WIW7
69% residual activity at 10 mM
Cu2+
-
79% inhibition at 1 mM
Cu2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
CuCl2
-
2 mM, 76% inhibition
CuCl2
-
complete inhibition
CuCl2
-
1mM, complete inhibition
CuCl2
-
completely inhibits the activity
CuSO4
-
complete inhibition
CuSO4
-
1mM, complete inhibition
CuSO4
-
completely inhibits the activity
diethyl dicarbonate
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM, 10-20% inhibition
EDTA
A1A3Y9
slightly inhibits
EDTA
P48839
5 mM, 15% inhibition of agarase AG-b
EDTA
D7NPL0
2 mM inhibits the activity by 90%
EDTA
C9WIW7
69% residual activity at 10 mM
EDTA
-
the inhibition by 1 mM EDTA is almost completely recovered by the addition of Co2+ at a concentration of 0.2 mM
EDTA
Microbulbifer sp.
-
46% residual activity at 1 mM
EGTA
-
the inhibition by 1 mM EGTA is almost completely recovered by the addition of Co2+ at a concentration of 0.2 mM
Fe2+
-
-
-
Fe2+
-
50.5% residual activity at 10 mM
-
Fe2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
-
Fe3+
-
strong
-
Fe3+
P48839
1 mM, 65% inhibition of agarase AG-b
-
FeCl2
-
2 mM, 99% inhibition
FeCl3
-
partially inhibits the activity
Hg2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM, no residual activity
Hg2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM
Hg2+
Agarivorans sp.
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Hg2+
A1A3Y9
completely inhibits
Hg2+
P48839
5 mM, complete inhibition of agarase AG-b
Hg2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
HgCl2
-
2 mM, 100% inhibition
HgCl2
-
complete inhibition
HgCl2
-
1mM, complete inhibition
HgCl2
-
completely inhibits the activity
K+
-
94.9% residual activity at 100 mM
KCl
-
50% inhibition at 0.1 M
L-galactose 6-sulfate
-
-
Mg2+
-
10 mM, 137% of initial activity, 100 mM, 45% residual activity
Mg2+
C9WIW7
65% residual activity at 10 mM
Mn2+
-
in higher concentrations, 10-20 mM
Mn2+
A1A3Y9
slightly inhibits
Mn2+
-
45% residual activity at 100 mM
Mn2+
D7NPL0
2 mM inhibits the activity by 40%
Mn2+
-
56% inhibition at 1 mM
N-bromosuccinimide
Microbulbifer sp.
-
0.1 mM, no residual activity
N-bromosuccinimide
Microbulbifer sp.
-
0.1 mM
N-bromosuccinimide
Agarivorans sp.
-
0.1 mM
N-bromosuccinimide
Microbulbifer sp.
-
enzyme protected of inhibition by agarose oligosaccharides
N-bromosuccinimide
Microbulbifer sp.
-
complete inhibition at 0.1 mM
NaCl
-
at low concentrations, 1%, no effect between 3-8%
NaCl
-
50% inhibition at 0.1 M
NaCl
-
no agarase activity at a 6% NaCl concentration
NaCl
Microbulbifer sp.
-
60% residual activity at 1 mM, 72% residual activity at 10 mM, 91% residual activity at 100 mM, 83% residual activity at 1 M, complete inhibition at 3 M
NH4Cl
-
50% inhibition at 0.1 M
Pb(CH3COO)2
-
complete inhibition
Pb(CH3COO)2
-
1mM, complete inhibition
Pb(CH3COO)2
-
completely inhibits the activity
Pb2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM, no residual activity
Pb2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM
PbCl2
-
2 mM, 98% inhibition
SDS
-
0.1% SDS completely inhibits the activity
SDS
P48839
5 mM, 16% inhibition of agarase AG-b
SDS
C9WIW7
71% residual activity at 10 mM
SDS
Microbulbifer sp.
-
complete inhibition at 1% (w/v)
sodium dodecylsulfate
-
2 mM, 100% inhibition
sodium dodecylsulfate
-
0.1%, complete inhibition
Zn2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM, no residual activity
Zn2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
1 mM
Zn2+
-
9.3% residual activity at 10 mM
Zn2+
D7NPL0
2 mM inhibits the activity by 80%
Zn2+
Microbulbifer sp.
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
ZnCl2
-
2 mM, 96% inhibition
ZnCl2
-
complete inhibition
ZnCl2
-
1mM, complete inhibition
ZnCl2
-
completely inhibits the activity
ZnSO4
-
complete inhibition
ZnSO4
-
1mM, complete inhibition
ZnSO4
-
completely inhibits the activity
MnCl2
-
partially inhibits the activity
additional information
Microbulbifer sp.
-
not inhibitory: sodium dodecylsulfate up to 30 mM, EDTA up to 100 mM, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+
-
additional information
-
not inhibitory: p-chloromercuribenzoate, EDTA
-
additional information
Microbulbifer sp.
-
not inhibited by iodoacetamide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol (each at 1 mM), EDTA (100 mM) and 30 mM SDS
-
additional information
Agarivorans sp.
-
strong resistance to Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ at 1 mM, iodoacetamide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, dithiothreitol and 2-mercaptoethanol, SDS at 30 mM
-
additional information
Microbulbifer sp.
-
not inhibited by EDTA, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and surfactants at high concentrations
-
additional information
-
NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and BaCl2 negligibly affect the enzymatic activity
-
additional information
A8W969, -
no inhibition of rAgaB34 by metal ions Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Ba2+, chelators (EDTA and EGTA), reducing reagents (beta-mercaptoethanol and DTT), and detergents (SDS and urea)
-
additional information
-
EDTA and EGTA do not affect on the activity at a concentration of 0.2 mM
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
-
30% increase in activity
beta-mercaptoethanol
C9WIW7
beta-mercaptoethanol even at a low concentration of 10 mM increases the activity of AgaA by 23%
CaCl2
-
stimulation
dithiothreitol
-
30% increase in activity
dithiothreitol
C9WIW7
dithiothreitol even at a low concentration of 10 mM increases the activity of AgaA by 21%
EDTA
-
reverses inhibition by bivalent metal cations
NaCl
-
maximum activity in presence of 2% NaCl
NaCl
Microbulbifer sp.
-
145% activity at 500 mM NaCl
EDTA
Microbulbifer sp.
-
stabilizes enzyme
additional information
A8W969, -
no activation of rAgaB34 by chelators (EDTA and EGTA), reducing reagents (beta-mercaptoethanol and DTT), and detergents (SDS and urea)
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0182
-
agarose
-
in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 40C
0.024
-
agarose
A8W969, -
-
4.2
-
agarose
-
in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0), at 30C
1
-
liquid-phase agarose
-
AgaB
-
12.81
-
neoagarodecaose
A1A3Y9
-
12.39
-
neoagarododecaose
A1A3Y9
-
1.7
-
neoagarohexaose
-
-
8.36
-
neoagarotetradecaose
A1A3Y9
-
2
-
liquid-phase agarose
-
AgaAc
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Km value for agarose is 1.1 mg/ml
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
ratio of Km/kcat value for hydrolysis of neoagarohexaose and neoagarotetraose is 4040 and 810 per s and M, respectively
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Km value of the catalytic module for agarose is 2.33 mg/ml
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
22
-
agarose
-
in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0), at 30C
41
-
agarose
A8W969, -
-
0.19
-
neoagarodecaose
A1A3Y9
-
4.77
-
neoagarododecaose
A1A3Y9
-
5.16
-
neoagarotetradecaose
A1A3Y9
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5.3
-
agarose
-
in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0), at 30C
6543
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.1
-
NH4Cl
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.04
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
culture supernatant, pH 7.0, 30C
0.1
-
-
AgaB, 1 ml of 0.125% melted agarose, 44C, pH 7.5
0.16
-
-
AgaAc, 1 ml of 0.125% melted agarose, 44C, pH 7.5
0.7
-
Cellvibrio sp.
-
crude enzyme from culture fluid, in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 35C
0.872
-
-
cell lysate
1.2
-
-
wild-type
4.13
-
-
concentrated agarase solution
4.22
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
after 103.5fold purification, pH 7.0, 30C
9.3
-
-
-
14.2
-
-
pH 7.0, 40C
16.4
-
-
pH 7.5, 40C
16.4
-
-
18.8fold purified enzyme
16.9
-
A8W969, -
culture fluid
25.5
-
-
40C, pH 8.0
36
-
Q8GB62
mutant enzyme V109G/V110C/T111H/S112L, in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 0.25% (w/v) agarose at 40C for 10 min
43.3
-
-
-
57.45
-
-
agarase Hz-c, 13.9fold purified
63.6
-
-
catalytic module
76.8
-
-
agarase Hz-b, 18.6fold purified
83.5
-
-
35C, pH 7.0
84.2
-
Cellvibrio sp.
-
after 120.2fold purification, in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 35C
167
-
Agarivorans sp.
-
pH 8.0, 40C
204.4
-
D7NPL0
using agar as substrate, in pH 5.5 acetate buffer, at 45C
207.5
-
D7NPL0
using agarose as substrate, in pH 5.5 acetate buffer, at 45C
230.1
-
P48839
agarase AG-a
242.2
-
A8W969, -
15fold purified rAgaB34, with agarose as substrate at 40C
329
-
-
recombinant AgaC
371
-
Agarivorans sp.
-
50 mM N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid-NaOH buffer, pH 7.8, containing 10 mM CaCl2, 0.1 mM NaCl, 40C
466
-
Q8GB62
mutant enzyme N103T, in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 0.25% (w/v) agarose at 40C for 10 min
475
-
Q8GB62
mutant enzyme S182I, in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 0.25% (w/v) agarose at 40C for 10 min
482
-
Q8GB62
wild type enzyme, in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 0.25% (w/v) agarose at 40C for 10 min
517.3
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
pH 7.0, 55C
517.3
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
1600
-
-
purified refolded AgaB
5000
-
A1A3Y9
recombinant AgaB 476fold purified
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.2
-
-
porphyran as substrate
5.5
-
-
-
6
9
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
6
-
-
in imidazol or acetate buffers
6
-
-
-
6.5
7.5
A5A6R7
native enzyme
6.7
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
beta-agarase I and IIb
6.8
-
-
porphyran as substrate
7
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
7
-
-
; in presence of 2% NaCl
7
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
Britton-Robinson universal buffers, 50C
7
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
7
-
-
narrow
7
-
P48839
agarase AG-a
7
-
A8W969, -
-
7
-
A8W969
recombinant enzyme
7
-
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
7
-
Microbulbifer sp.
Q76DQ8
-
7
-
A1E2B6, -
-
7
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
7
-
Cellvibrio sp.
-
-
7.2
-
-
porphyran
7.2
-
-
-
7.4
-
-
porphyran as substrate
7.5
8
Agarivorans sp.
-
Britton-Robinson universal buffers, MOPS and N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid-NaOH buffer
7.5
-
-
in Tris buffer, activity significant lower
7.5
-
A5A6R7
recombinant enzyme
7.5
-
G3CHF0
-
7.6
-
-
-
7.8
-
Q9KK55
-
8
-
-
-
8
-
Agarivorans sp.
-
-
8
-
A8W969
native enzyme
8
-
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
8
-
A1E2B6, -
-
9
-
-, Q9KK55
-
additional information
-
-
mutant L122Q/N446I has comparable optimum pH as the wild-type
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
8
-
-
4
9
-
the enzyme shows more than 90% activity between pH 5.0 and 8.0. More than 50% of the agarase activity is lost below pH 4.0 and above pH 9.0
4.5
7.5
D7NPL0
the enzyme retains its activity up to 60% at pH 4.5-7.5
5
10
P48839
pH 5.0: about 65% of maximal activity, pH 10.0: about 75% of maximal activity, agarase AG-a
5
8.5
-
in imidazol or acetate buffers
5
9
-
about 60% of activity
5.5
7.5
Cellvibrio sp.
-
the agarase exhibits more than 90% of the maximum activity in the pH range of 5.5 to 7.5
5.5
8
-
-
6
8
Microbulbifer sp.
-
the agarase retains more than 70% of its original activity at pH 6.0 and 8.0
6
9
-
more than 80% of maximum activity
6
9
-
more than 80% of the maximal activity retained
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
40
-, Q9KK55
recombinant enzyme
30
-
-
neoagarohexaose
30
-
-
-
30
-
A8W969, -
-
30
-
A8W969
recombinant enzyme
30
-
Q9KK55
-
30
-
A1E2B6, -
-
34
-
-
porphyran as substrate
35
-
-
in assays with agar as substrate, to avoid gelling
35
-
-
-
35
-
Cellvibrio sp.
-
-
38
55
A5A6R7
native enzyme
38
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
beta-agarase I
40
41
-
-
40
-
-
a higher rate of reaction for 1 h
40
-
-
-
40
-
Agarivorans sp.
-
50 mM N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid-NaOH buffer, pH 7.8, containing 10 mM CaCl2, 0.1 mM NaCl
40
-
-
-
40
-
Agarivorans sp.
-
-
40
-
-
mutant L122Q/N446I has comparable temperature profiles as the wild-type
40
-
-
-
40
-
P48839
agarase AG-a
40
-
Q8GB62
around 40C
40
-
A8W969
native enzyme
40
-
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
; recombinant enzyme
40
-
A1E2B6, -
-
40
-
A5A6R7
recombinant enzyme
40
-
G3CHF0
-
43
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
beta-agarase IIb
50
-
Microbulbifer sp.
Q76DQ8
-
50
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
96% of the agarase activity is still observed at 60C
54
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
55
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
55
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
15 min in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.0
60
-
Agarivorans sp.
-
more than 70% of maximum activity
70
-
Agarivorans sp.
-
more than 50% of maximum activity
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
-
-
30% of maximum activity
25
40
-
the enzyme works efficiently in the range of 25-40C and shows maximum activity at 40C but loses essentially all of its activity at 60C
25
70
P48839
25C: about 60% of maximal activity, 70C: about 80% of maximal activity, agarase AG-a
30
-
-
90% of maximum activity
40
50
Cellvibrio sp.
-
the agarase exhibits more than 90% of the maximum activity in the temperature ranging from 40C to 50C
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4.1
-
-
calculated
4.14
-
-
-
5.4
-
Q8GB62
calculated from amino acid sequence
5.9
-
D7NPL0
calculated from amino acid sequence
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Microbulbifer sp.
-
extracellular, using Bacillus subtilis as the host; isolated from the sediment in Suruga bay, Japan, at a depth of 2406m
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Agarivorans sp.
-
isolated from the sediment of south side of the Kuril trench, Japan, at a depth of 4152 m
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Microbulbifer sp.
-
isolated from the sediment in Sagami bay, Japan, at a depth of 1174m
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
isolated from the sediment of south side of the Kuril trench, Japan, at a depth of 4152 m
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
-
extracellular, using Bacillus subtilis as the host; isolated from the sediment in Sagami bay, Japan, at a depth of 1174m; isolated from the sediment in Suruga bay, Japan, at a depth of 2406m
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Microbulbifer sp.
-
using Bacillus subtilis as the host
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
;
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cellvibrio sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Acinetobacter sp. AG
-
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
-
;
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alteromonas sp. C-1
-
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alteromonas sp. SY37-12
-
;
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
-
using Bacillus subtilis as the host
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Microbulbifer thermotolerans JAMB-A94, Pseudoalteromonas antarctica N-1, Pseudomonas sp. W7, Vibrio sp. JT0107, Vibrio sp. V134
-
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Saccharophagus degradans (strain 2-40 / ATCC 43961 / DSM 17024)
Saccharophagus degradans (strain 2-40 / ATCC 43961 / DSM 17024)
Saccharophagus degradans (strain 2-40 / ATCC 43961 / DSM 17024)
Saccharophagus degradans (strain 2-40 / ATCC 43961 / DSM 17024)
Zobellia galactanivorans (strain DSM 12802 / CIP 106680 / NCIMB 13871 / Dsij)
Zobellia galactanivorans (strain DSM 12802 / CIP 106680 / NCIMB 13871 / Dsij)
Zobellia galactanivorans (strain DSM 12802 / CIP 106680 / NCIMB 13871 / Dsij)
Zobellia galactanivorans (strain DSM 12802 / CIP 106680 / NCIMB 13871 / Dsij)
Zobellia galactanivorans (strain DSM 12802 / CIP 106680 / NCIMB 13871 / Dsij)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
13400
-
-
AgaAc, calculated by sequence
20000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
21000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
26500
-
-
gel filtration
28000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
29000
-
-
calculation from sequence of DNA
31000
-
Q9RGX8, Q9RGX9
recombinant enzyme
32000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
32000
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
SDS-PAGE
32150
-
-
AgaAc, ESI MS
33000
-
D7NPL0
subunit, calculated from amino acid sequence
35130
-
-
calculation from sequence of an open reading frame
36000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
37000
-
-, Q9KK55
recombinant enzyme
39500
-
-
SDS-PAGE
39500
-
-
-
40010
-
-
AgaB, ESI MS
47200
-
C9WIW7
SDS-PAGE
47240
-
-
sequence analysis
48000
-
Q8GB62
purified recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
48000
-
Q6F4N4
recombinant enzyme
48200
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
calculated from sequence
48400
-
Q8GB62
calculated from amino acid sequence
49000
-
-
gel filtration
49000
-
Microbulbifer sp.
Q76DQ8
recombinant enzyme
50000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
50000
-
-
gel filtration
50000
-
A8W969
-
50900
-
A1A3Y9
sequence analysis
51000
-
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
51000
-
A5A6R7
recombinant enzyme
51200
-
C9WIW7
calculated from amino acid sequence
52000
-
-
gel filtration
52000
-
-
-
52000
-
A1E2B6, -
-
58000
-
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
59000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
59000
-
-, Q9KK55
recombinant enzyme
60000
-
Q9RGX8, Q9RGX9
recombinant enzyme
61000
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
gel filtration, beta-agarase IIb
63000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
63600
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
analytical ultracentrifugation, beta-agarase IIb
64000
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
SDS-PAGE, beta-agarase IIb
64000
-
Q21HB4, Q21HC5, Q21LJ2
recombinant enzyme
65020
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
calculated from sequence
72000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
72500
-
D7NPL0
maltose binding protein-fused enzyme, SDS-PAGE
82000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
84000
-
-
His-tagged recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
86000
-
Q21HB9, Q21LJ1
recombinant enzyme
87000
-
Q21HB9, Q21LJ1
recombinant enzyme
87500
-
A5A6R7
native enzyme
89000
-
Q21HB4, Q21HC5, Q21LJ2
recombinant enzyme
100000
-
-
PAGE
100000
-
-, G0ZDR5
gel filtration
105000
-
-
-
105000
-
Agarivorans sp.
-
SDS-PAGE
106100
-
-
sequence analysis
107000
-
A1E2B6, -
-
109000
-
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
recombinant enzyme
113000
-
-
gel filtration
113000
-
-
gel filtration
127000
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
gel filtration, beta-agarase I
140000
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
SDS-PAGE, beta-agarase I
146000
-
Q21HB4, Q21HC5, Q21LJ2
recombinant enzyme
180000
-
-
gel filtration
210000
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
analytical ultracentrifugation, beta-agarase I
353000
-
-
AgaB, calculated by sequence
539000
-
-
AgaA, calculated by sequence
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Microbulbifer sp.
-
x * 32000, mass spectrometry
?
-
x * 98000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 71000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 39500, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE, x * 50350, calculated, recombinant protein including Huis-tag
?
-
x * 106062, calculated, x * 120000, SDS-PAGE of recombinant protein
?
-
x * 50824, calculated
?
Agarivorans sp.
-
x * 109450, calculated, x * 109000, SDS-PAGE
?
P48839
x * 54000, agarase AG-a, SDS-PAGE
?
A8W969, -
x * 49000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 92000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 20000, SDS-PAGE
?
G3CHF0
x * 110000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 32000, mature protein, SDS-PAGE
?
Microbulbifer sp.
-
x * 59000, SDS-PAGE
?
Cellvibrio sp.
-
x * 70000, SDS-PAGE
?
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
-
x * 49000, SDS-PAGE
-
?
-
x * 109450, calculated, x * 109000, SDS-PAGE
-
?
Alteromonas sp. SY37-12
-
x * 39500, SDS-PAGE
-
?
-
x * 70000, SDS-PAGE
-
?
Microbulbifer sp. CMC-5 (MTCC 9889)
-
x * 59000, SDS-PAGE
-
?
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
-
x * 32000, mass spectrometry
-
?
-
x * 71000, SDS-PAGE
-
?
-
x * 110000, SDS-PAGE
-
?
-
x * 54000, agarase AG-a, SDS-PAGE
-
?
Vibrio sp. V143
-
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE, x * 50350, calculated, recombinant protein including Huis-tag
-
dimer
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
alpha2, 2 * 14000, agarase I
dimer
-
AgaB, gel filtration and ESI MS
homodimer
-, G0ZDR5
2 * 50000, SDS-PAGE; 2 * 57400, calculated from amino acid sequence
homodimer
Flammeovirga yaeyamensis YT
-
2 * 50000, SDS-PAGE; 2 * 57400, calculated from amino acid sequence
-
monomer
-
1 * 92000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
AgaA, gel filtration and ESI MS
monomer
-
1 * 47000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
A1A3Y9
1 * 50400, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 100000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 120000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
presence of three extracellular agarases (HZ-a, HZ-b and HZ-c), 1 * 58000, SDS-PAGE of HZ-b, 1 * 54000, SDS-PAGE of HZ-b
monomer
Acinetobacter sp. AG
-
1 * 100000, SDS-PAGE
-
monomer
Agarivorans albus YKW-34
-
1 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
-
additional information
-
N-terminal amino acid sequence
additional information
-
carbohydrate binding modules of both isoforms Aga16B and Aga86E bind specifically to the non-reducing end of agarose chains, recognizing only the first repeat of the dissaccharide
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
proteolytic modification
Microbulbifer sp.
-
digestion during excretion
proteolytic modification
Microbulbifer sp. JAMB-A94
-
digestion during excretion
-
glycoprotein
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
galactose, N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine
proteolytic modification
-
-
proteolytic modification
-
sequence contains a signal peptide of 29 amino acids
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
sitting drop vapor diffusion method, using 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.0, 30% PEG 4000, 0.1 M ammonium sulfate and 15% glycerol
-
carbohydrate binding module CBM6-2 of isoform Aga16B in complex with neoagarohexaose. The carbohydrate binding module targets the equatorial O4 and the axial O3 of the anhydro-L-galactose moiety
-
E147S mutant in complex with agaro-octaose, 1.7 A resolution, structure determination by molecular replacment, hanging drop vapor duffusion method, 20.5C, 30% PEG 4000, 200 mM ammonium acetate, 100 mM sodium acetate
Q9RGX9
hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using 28-34% (w/v) PEG 8000 and 0.1 M imidazole pH 8.0, at 19C
Q9RGX8, -
inactive mutant A-E174S, in complex with agaro-octaose
-
recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli
Q9RGX8, Q9RGX9
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
3
11
C9WIW7
AgaA still retains more than 95% activity after incubation at pH 3.0-11.0 for 1 h
3
11
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
4
10
P48839
4C, 6 h, stable in the pH range of 4.010.0, agarase AG-a
4
8
A5A6R7
-
4
9
-
12 h, 25C, retains more than 80% of activity
5
8
Microbulbifer sp.
Q76DQ8
-
5
9
A8W969, -
-
5.5
11
-
stable at 25C for 24 h
5.5
11
-
after preincubated at various pHs at 25C for 12 h
5.7
10.6
A1A3Y9
retains more than 95% activity
6
11
Agarivorans sp.
-
retaining 70% of original activity
6
9
-
beyond this values the enzyme is rather unstable
6
9
A8W969
-
7
8.6
G3CHF0
the enzyme is most stable from pH 7.0 to 8.6
7.1
8.2
-
-
7.1
8.2
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
-
7.1
8.2
Q9KK55
-
8
9
-, Q9KK55
-
8
-
-
the enzyme is stable at pH 8.0 after 30 min incubation
additional information
-
-
mutant L122Q/N446I has comparable pH stability as the wild-type
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
30
Q8GB62
the enzyme retains its activity when the temperature was between 4 and 30C for 1 h
20
45
-
heat treatment in the range of 20-40C does not affect the residual activity of the enzyme. Only 45% of the activity is retained after heating at 50C for 1 h
25
-
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
stable up to 25C
30
-
-
inhibition above 30C, after 20 min 35C 50% of activity
30
-
A1E2B6, -
stable up to 40C
35
-
-
stable up to
35
-
A1A3Y9
retains more than 90% activity until 35C
35
-
P48839
30 min, about 15% loss of activity, agarase AG-a
35
-
-
stable up to 35C
37
-
-
stable under 37C
37
-
-
stable below
37
-
-
stable under 37C after a incubation of 10 min
37
-
-, Q9KK55
stable up to 37C
40
-
-
not stable above
40
-
-
loss in activity 5%
40
-
-
stable up to
40
-
-
activity decreases sharply at temperatures higher than 40C
40
-
-
stable up to 40C
40
-
-
the enzyme is stable at up to 40C after 30 min incubation
40
-
G3CHF0
the enzyme is most stable below 40C
45
-
-
about 50% of activity
45
-
Agarivorans sp.
-
retaining 85% of original activity after 15 min in 50 mM N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid-NaOH buffer containing 0.1 M NaCl and 10 mM CaCl2 at pH 7.8
45
-
-
10 min, stable
45
-
P48839
30 min, about 35% loss of activity, agarase AG-a
45
-
A5A6R7
stable up to 45C
47.5
-
-
loss in activity 53%
50
60
-
mutant enzymes E99K, T307I and E99K/T307I are stable up to 50C, the melting temperature of E99K/T307I is increased by 5.2C over that of the wild type enzyme (54.6C). The E99K/T307I mutant enzyme is stable at 55C with 1 mM CaCl2, reaching 260% of the activity the wild type enzyme held at 40C without CaCl2
50
60
Microbulbifer sp.
-
the agarase is thermally stable up to 50C, with 62% of its residual activity is retained and 45% of the agarase activity is still retained at 60C. The agarase activity is completely abolished at 70C
50
-
-
20% residual activity
50
-
-
15 min, 30% residual activity
50
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
half-life of 8.7 h
50
-
-
1 h, 95% residual activity. Inactivation above 50C
50
-
A8W969, -
-
50
-
A8W969
stable up to 50C
50
-
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
stable up to 50C
50
-
-
stable up to 50C
50
-
Microbulbifer sp.
Q76DQ8
stable up to 50C
55
-
-
about 25% of activity
55
-
P48839
30 min, about 60% loss of activity, agarase AG-a
55
-
D7NPL0
the enzyme is stable below 55C for 1 h
60
-
-
inactive after 15 min
60
-
-
-
60
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
stable up to
60
-
P48839
30 min, about 80% loss of activity, agarase AG-a
60
-
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
70% activity at 60C
60
-
Q6F4N4
stable up to 60C
65
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
15 min, 80% residual activity
65
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
retains 80% of original activity after 25 min
70
-
-
1 min, 20% residual activity
additional information
-
-
mutant L122Q/N446I has higher thermostability than wild-type AgaB. Melting temperature of S2 is 4.6C higher than that of wild-type AgaB, and the half-life of mutant L122Q/N446I is 350 min at 40C, which is 18.4fold longer than that of the wild-type enzyme. Mutant N446I has similar enhanced thermostability as mutant L122Q/N446I. L122Q shows similar thermostability with wild-type AgaB. Half-life of mutant N446V at 40C is 18.2fold longer than that of wild-type AgaB. Half-life of mutant N446L at 40C is 12.9fold longer than that of wild-type AgaB
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
maintains more than half of its maximum activity at an NaCl concentration of 4 M
-
the agarase shows almost the same activity in both the 0 mM and 1000 mM NaCl solutions, and even
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
4C, Tris-HCl with 0.4 M NaCl, pH 7.5, more than 6 months
-
-20C, more than 2 years
-
-20C, at least 6 months
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
-20C, 20 mM Tris-HCl, more than 12 months
-
4C, 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer, more than 12 months
-
4C, pH 7.5 (phosphate buffer), 6 months, agarase AG-a loses 8% activity
P48839
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
from culture supernatant
-
rAgaB34 purified by ultrafiltration and on Ni+ column, 15fold with a yield of 80%
A8W969, -
isolated from the sediment of south side of the Kuril trench, Japan, at a depth of 4152 m, purification by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column, dialysis
Agarivorans sp.
-
recombinant protein isolated from culture broth
Agarivorans sp.
-
to homogeneity directly from the native-PAGE without stained by Coomassie brilliant blue, agarase Hz-b 18.6fold purified and agarase Hz-c 13.9fold purified
-
Ni-NTA column chromatography
C9WIW7
; ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephacryl S-100HR, ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose
-
ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex gel filtration
-
ammonium sulfate precipitation, Toyopearl QAE-550C column chromatography, Toyopearl HW-55F column chromatography, and Mono-Q column chromatography
Cellvibrio sp.
-
His-trap HP Ni2+ column chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration
-, G0ZDR5
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
isolated from the sediment in Suruga bay, Japan, at a depth of 2406m, purification by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Toyopearl 650M, gel filtration
Microbulbifer sp.
-
ultrafiltration, DEAE Sepharose column chromatography and Sephacryl S-300HR gel filtration
Microbulbifer sp.
-
nickel-affinity column chromatography, HiTrap DEAE column chromatography, and Superdex 200 gel filtration
-
using the pMAL protein fusion and purification system
D7NPL0
476fold and with a final yield of 21.2%, by ammonium sulfate precipitation, weak anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration
A1A3Y9
ammonium sulfate precipitation, phenyl Sepharose column chromatography, and Superdex 75 gel filtration
Q8GB62
recombinant AgaB and mutants purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, weak anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration. Mutant S2 purified about 476.5fold, with a final yield of 20.9%
-
to electrophoretic purity by immobilized metal affinity chromatography
-
-
Pseudomonas-like bacterium
-
HisTrap column chromatography
-
agarose bead chromatography
-
17.9fold with a final yield of 23.3%
-
18.8fold and with a final yield of 16.8% by anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies
-
Ni-NTA column chromatography
G3CHF0
ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sepharose CL6B, anion-exchange Mono Q HR5, Ni-NTA column, AgaB further gel filtration with Sephacryl S200
-
chitin bead column chromatography
-
Ni affinity column chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration
Q9RGX8, -
Ni-NTa affinity chromatography and exclusion chromatography with Sephacryl S100
Q9RGX9
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
DNA fragments (3.0-8.0 kb) ligated into vector pUC18 and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5alpha. Vector pUSH1, which produces a derivative of rAgaB34 with a 6 His tag at its C-terminal, transformed into Escherichia coli DH5alpha
A8W969, -
expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha cells
A8W969
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells; expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha cells
Agarivorans sp.
A1E2A6, -, C9WIW7
expression in Bacillu subtilis strain DB104
Agarivorans sp.
-
expression in Bacillus subtilis
Agarivorans sp.
-
expression in Escherichia coli
Agarivorans sp.
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
C9WIW7
expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha cells
Cellvibrio sp.
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-, G0ZDR5
-
Microbulbifer sp.
-
expressed in Bacillus subtilis
Microbulbifer sp.
Q76DQ8
expression in Bacillus subtilis ISW 1214
Microbulbifer sp.
-
expressed in Bacillus subtilis
Q6F4N4
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
agaB gene inserted into vector pBV220, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as a fusion protein bearing a C-terminal hexahistidine tag
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
Q8GB62
ligated into pBluescript II KS(+), and transferred into Escherichia coli DH5alpha, forming a genomic DNA library. Cloned into the pET-24a(+) vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells
A1A3Y9
mutants cloned into vector pET-24a (+) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Expression of the agaB gene in vector pBS-ks(sv) and transformed to the Escherichia coli DH5alpha strain
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells; expressed in Escherichia coli JM83 cells
-, Q9KK55
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli EPI300 cells; expressed in Escherichia coli EPI300 cells; expressed in Escherichia coli EPI300 cells
Q21HB4, Q21HC5, Q21LJ2
expressed in Escherichia coli EPI300 cells; expressed in Escherichia coli EPI300 cells
Q21HB9, Q21LJ1
expressed in Streptomyces lividans strain TK24
-
expression in Streptomyces lividans, natural Dag-
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells; expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha cells
A1E2B6, -
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
G3CHF0
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli of full-length protein, of the catalytic module, and of the carbohydrate binding module
-
ligated into a pET22b(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) competent cells
-
PCR product cloned into a pT7Blue-2 vector. Amplified DNA fragment digested with NdeI and XhoI and ligated into a pET22b(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
-
the deduced enzyme protein contains a N-terminal signal peptide of 29 amino acid residues, followed by a 266 amino acid sequence that is homologous to catalytic module of family 16 glycoside hydrolases, a bacterial immunoglobulin group 2-like domain of 52 amino acid residues, two carbohydratebinding modules of family 6 separated from Big-2-like domain by nine times repeated GDDTDP amino acid sequence. Expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells
A5A6R7
AgaA, AgaB and truncated form of AgaA referred to as AgaAc with His tag, overexpression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha cells; expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha cells
Q9RGX8, Q9RGX9
expression in Escherichia coli XL21 Blue and ORIGAMI (DE3) pLysS cells
Q9RGX9
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
L122Q
-
shows similar thermostability with wild-type AgaB, raises specific activity 1.3fold
L122Q/N446I
-
has higher thermostability and slightly increased specific activity (1.1fold) than wild-type AgaB. Melting temperature of S2 is 4.6C higher than that of wild-type AgaB, and the half-life of S2 is 350 min at 40C, which is 18.4fold longer than that of the wild-type enzyme. Comparable pH stability and optimum pH and temperature profiles as the wild-type
N103T
Q8GB62
the mutant shows specific activity similar to the wild type enzyme
N446I
-
has similar enhanced thermostability as mutant L122Q/N446I, and decreased specific activity by 10-20% as compared to the wild-type
N446L
-
the half-life at 40C is 12.9fold longer than that of wild-type AgaB
N446V
-
the half-life at 40C is 18.2fold longer than that of wild-type AgaB
S182I
Q8GB62
the mutant shows specific activity similar to the wild type enzyme
E147S
Q9RGX9
inactive mutant
E99K
-
the mutant shows 140% relative activity compared to the wild type enzyme
T307I
-
the mutant shows 190% relative activity compared to the wild type enzyme
E99K
Zobellia galactanivorans KCTC 12921
-
the mutant shows 140% relative activity compared to the wild type enzyme
-
E99K/T307I
Zobellia galactanivorans KCTC 12921
-
the mutant shows 200% relative activity compared to the wild type enzyme
-
T307I
Zobellia galactanivorans KCTC 12921
-
the mutant shows 190% relative activity compared to the wild type enzyme
-
V109G/V110C/T111H/S112L
Q8GB62
the mutant shows severely reduced specific activity
additional information
-
construction of two C-terminally truncated forms of enzyme lacking 127 and 182 amino acids, the protein lacking 127 amino acids has a lower Km than wild type and higher thermal stability at 50C
additional information
-
construction of two C-terminally truncated forms of enzyme lacking 127 and 182 amino acids, the protein lacking 127 amino acids has a lower Km than wild type and higher thermal stability at 50C
-
additional information
-
expression in Escherichia coli of full-length protein, of the catalytic module, and of the carbohydrate binding module. The catalytic module alone exhibits 50fold higher acivity than the full-length enzyme
E99K/T307I
-
the mutant shows 200% relative activity compared to the wild type enzyme
additional information
-
inactive mutant A-E147S, crystallization data
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
industry
Agarivorans sp.
-
use of enzyme as a cosmetic additive. The oligosaccharides produced by the enzyme have a whitening effect and inhibit tyrosinase activity in the murine melanoma cell line, B16F10. They are not cytotoxic to B16F10 or normal cells
industry
-
strain HZ105 may be useful to produce stable agarases
industry
-
use of enzyme as a cosmetic additive. The oligosaccharides produced by the enzyme have a whitening effect and inhibit tyrosinase activity in the murine melanoma cell line, B16F10. They are not cytotoxic to B16F10 or normal cells
-
industry
-
approaches for the preparation of a series of neoagaro-oligosaccharides by beta-agarase digestion. This system may be applicable in the production of oligosaccharides by beta-agarase digestion from natural sources such as algae
synthesis
Q8GB62
use of enzyme for preparation of neoagarohexaose and neoagarotetraose and separation of neoagaro-oligosaccharides by consecutive column chromatography
industry
-
creation of a thermostable mutant L122Q/N446I of beta-agarase AgaB by directed evolution. The higher thermostability of mutant L122Q/N446I, in conjunction with its high specific activity and product specificity, will allow this enzyme to have potentials in industrial applications
analysis
-
use of enzyme in agarolysis for recovery of DNA from agarose gels, and use of enzyme as a reporter in the construction of a secretion signal trap, a simple and efficient molecular tool for the selction of genes encoding secretion proteins from both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
analysis
Vibrio sp. V143
-
use of enzyme in agarolysis for recovery of DNA from agarose gels, and use of enzyme as a reporter in the construction of a secretion signal trap, a simple and efficient molecular tool for the selction of genes encoding secretion proteins from both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
-