Information on EC 3.2.1.68 - isoamylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.2.1.68
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
isoamylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of (1->6)-alpha-D-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin and their beta-limit dextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
-
-
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
-
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
O80403, -
;
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
starch biosynthesis
-
starch degradation II
-
trehalose biosynthesis V
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
glycogen 6-alpha-D-glucanohydrolase
Also readily hydrolyses amylopectin. Differs from EC 3.2.1.41 (pullulanase) and EC 3.2.1.142 (limit dextrinase) by its inability to hydrolyse pullulan, and by limited action on alpha-limit dextrins. Maltose is the smallest sugar it can release from an alpha-(1->6)-linkage.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
alkaline isoamylase
-
alkaliphilic Bacillus sp KSM-3309, isolated from soil
alkaline isoamylase
Bacillus sp. KSM-K16
-
alkaliphilic Bacillus sp KSM-3309, isolated from soil
-
alpha 1,6-glucan hydrolase
-
-
-
alpha-1,6-glucosidase
-
-
AtISA1
O04196
-
AtISA1/AtISA2 isoamylase
-
-
AtISA2
Q8L735
-
AtISA3
Q9M0S5
-
bacterial isoamylase
-
-
bacterial isoamylase
Bacillus sp. KSM-K16
-
-
-
bacterial isoamylase
-
-
bacterial isoamylase
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa JD210, Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1
-
-
-
Cythophaga isoamylase
-
-
debranching enzyme
-
-
-
-
glycogen 6-glucanohydrolase
-
-
glycogen 6-glucanohydrolase
-
-
-
glycogen 6-glucanohydrolase
-
-
glycogen 6-glucanohydrolase
-
-
glycogen 6-glucanohydrolase
-
-
glycogen 6-glucanohydrolase
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1, Pseudomonas amyloderamosa WU7211-2
-
-
-
glycogen alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase
-
-
glycogen alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase
-, O80403
-
glycogen alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0
-
glycogen alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase
-
-
glycogen alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase
-
-
glycogen debranching enzyme
-
-
glycogen debranching enzyme
-
-
-
glycogen-6-glucanohydrolase
-
-
glycogen-6-glucanohydrolase
P10342
-
glycogen-6-glucanohydrolase
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
P10342
-
-
glycogen-debranching enzyme
-
-
ISA
Q84UE6
-
ISA2
-
-
ISA3
-
-
isoamylase
-
-
isoamylase
-, O80403
-
isoamylase
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0
-
isoamylase 3
-
-
isoamylase II
-
-
isoamylase-type starch-debranching enzyme
Q84UE6
-
isoamylase1
-
-
isoamylase1
-
-
maize Sugary-1 isoamylase
-
-
OsISA1
O80403
-
OsISA2
-, O80403
-
pancreatic isoamylase isoA
-
-
plant isoamylase
-
-
-
potato isoamylase
-
-
Pseudomonas isoamylase
-
-
PvISA1
A4PIS8
-
PvISA2
A4PIS9
-
PvISA3
A4PIT0
-
rice isoamylase
-
-
SU1 isoamylase
-
-
TreX
-
gene name
TreX
-
gene name
-
TreX
-
trehalose gene cluster has isoamylase activities
yeast isoamylase
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9067-73-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
ecotype Columbia
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene treX, component of a treXYZ operon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene treX, component of a treXYZ operon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KSM.3309, gram-positive, isolated from soil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KSM.3309, gram-positive, isolated from soil; KSM-K16
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. KSM-K16
KSM-K16
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Erwinia chrysanthemi PY35
PY35
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
yeast, strain IGC 4051
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Nanicao
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Kinmaze
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Nipponbare
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Fujikari
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Nipponbare
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Nipponbare
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mutants sugary and shrunken, contain reduced activities of isoamylase1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
kidney bean
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
different isoforms Psisa1-Psisa3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gram-negative soil bacterium, strain SB-15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SMP1; strain JD210, isoamylase-hyperproducing mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KlC, revertant strain of Kl
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MI-414, isomylase-hyperproducing mutant of SB-15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WU-5315, isoamylase hyperproducing mutant derived from JD-210
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WU7211-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa JD210
strain JD210, isoamylase-hyperproducing mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa MI-414
strain MI-414, isomylase-hyperproducing mutant of SB-15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1
SMP1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa WU-5315
strain WU-5315, isoamylase hyperproducing mutant derived from JD-210
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa WU7211-2
strain WU7211-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme Stisa1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme Stisa2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
multimeric complex of Stisa1 and Stisa2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
potato, L. cul. var. 'Danshaku'
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform ISA2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
both overexpression and loss of function of isoamylase 3 in the endosperm generated pleomorphic amyloplasts and starch granules
physiological function
-
isoamylase 3 facilitates starch metabolism and affects morphological characteristics of plastids in rice. Both overexpression and loss of function of isoamylase 3 in the endosperm generates pleomorphic amyloplasts and starch granules
physiological function
Q84UE6
the isoamylase ISA1/ISA2 heteromeric complexes II and III are not required in maize endosperm for normal starch content and structure, and the ISA1 homomeric complex is sufficient for most ISA functions. ISA1 is required for the accumulation of ISA2, which is regulated posttranscriptionally, while the absence of ISA2 in isa2-339 mutants has no effect on the accumulation of ISA1 mRNA or protein
physiological function
-
the isoamylase 1 is essential for amylopectin biosynthesis and starch production in rice endosperm. Overexpression of the isoamylase 2 gene brings about a dramatic reduction in kernel size in the dry seed and the transformants contain less than 50% of the starch in the kernel, while the content of soluble sugars, including maltodextrins, malto-oligosaccharides, and simple sugars, increase by about 8fold when compared with the host cultivar Kinmaze
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
alpha-D-glucan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
cleavage of alpha-D-glucosidic linkages of certain branched alpha-D-glucans
-
-
?
alpha-limit dextrin + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-limit dextrin + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa, Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
P10342
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
O80403, -
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
waxy maize amylopectin, potato amylopectin, amylopectin beta-dextrin
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
specific cleavage of alpha 1,6-glucosidic inter-chain linkages producing essentially linear chains
-
-
-
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
-
r
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
-
-
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
-
-
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
hydrolysis of beta-limit dextrins forming maltotriose as main reaction product
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
hydrolysis of beta-limit dextrins forming maltotriose as main reaction product
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
hydrolysis of beta-limit dextrins forming maltotriose as main reaction product
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
isoamylase is a direct debranching enzyme with the ability to cleave all the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen both inner and outer branching points of soluble amylopectin
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
P10342
isoamylase is a direct debranching enzyme with the ability to cleave all the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen both inner and outer branching points of soluble amylopectin
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1
-
or the beta-limit dextrins, cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
-
-
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
P10342
isoamylase is a direct debranching enzyme with the ability to cleave all the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen both inner and outer branching points of soluble amylopectin
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Erwinia chrysanthemi, Erwinia chrysanthemi PY35
-
-
hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-linkages
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
-
-
-
?
amylopectin phi-dextrin + H2O
maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate on which all 3 types of debranching enzymes act
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
short chain
-
-
?
amylose-extender amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
O80403, -
-
-
-
?
beta limit dextrin + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
-
-
-
?
beta limit dextrin + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
O80403, -
from maize
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
-
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
best substrate
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
medium activity
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
maltose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa, Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
P10342
-
-
-
?
branched chain oligosaccharides + H2O
maltotriose + higher maltosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
no detectable maltose released, characteristic action is hydrolysis of alpha 1,6-glucosidic linkages, but alpha 1,6 glucosidic linkages attaching maltose residues to chains of alpha 1,4-linked glucose residues are not readily hydrolyzed
?
corn amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa, Pseudomonas amyloderamosa WU7211-2
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
59% of the activity with dextrin as substrate
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme activity 100%
-
-
?
di-O-alpha-maltosyl-beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
maltose + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Erwinia chrysanthemi, Erwinia chrysanthemi PY35
-
80% activity compared to amylopectin
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Q84UE6
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
P10342
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
-
r
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
oyster glycogen, glycogen beta-dextrin, rabbit liver glycogen
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
-
r
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
or the beta-limit dextrins
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1
-
cleaves the branching points completely in vitro, or the beta-limit dextrins
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
P10342
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
sugar immobilized on Sepharose 4B
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
iam gene induced by maltose
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
iam gene induced by maltose
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa JD210, Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1
-
iam gene induced by maltose
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa MI-414
-
iam gene induced by maltose
-
-
?
oyster gylcogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
O80403, -
-
-
-
?
panose + H2O
D-glucose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
acts very slowly, small amounts of product formed after 24 h
-
?
phythoglycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
phythoglycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
phythoglycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
highly branched polysaccharide, complete hydrolysis of the alpha-1,6-glucosidic bonds
-
-
?
phytoglycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
-
-
-
?
phytoglycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
little activty
-
-
?
phytoglycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
O80403, -
-
-
-
?
potato starch, boiled + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
best substrate
-
-
?
potato starch, boiled + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
little activity
-
-
?
potato starch, boiled + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
little activty
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
little activity
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
little activty
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
-
-
-
?
saccharose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
activity 67%
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch, immobilized on Sepharose 4B
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
debranching of Cassava starch in concert with pullulanase yielding resistant starch type III. Effects of starch concentration, isoamylase concentration and incubation time on hydrolysis of cassava starch, overview
-
-
?
starch + H2O
linear maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
O80403, -
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
activity 28%
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
direct debranching enzyme, attacks unmodified glycogen and/or amylopectin with hydrolysis of the 1,6-bond, smallest substrate is not known
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
direct debranching enzyme, attacks unmodified glycogen and/or amylopectin with hydrolysis of the 1,6-bond, smallest substrate is not known
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
distinguished from alpha-dextrin endo-1,6-alpha-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.41, by the inability of isoamylase to attack pullulan, and by limited action on alpha-limit dextrins, action on glycogen however is complete in contrast to limited action by alpha-dextrin glucanohydrolase, 1,6-linkage hydrolysed only at branch point
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
distinguished from alpha-dextrin endo-1,6-alpha-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.41, by the inability of isoamylase to attack pullulan, and by limited action on alpha-limit dextrins, action on glycogen however is complete in contrast to limited action by alpha-dextrin glucanohydrolase, 1,6-linkage hydrolysed only at branch point
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with pullulan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
involved in starch synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
involved in synthesis of reserve and leaf starches
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no substrate: dextran, amylose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no substrate: pullulan, glycogen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O04196, Q8L735, Q9M0S5
AtISA1 and AtISA2 are required for the production of a functional isoamylase-type of debranching enzyme named Iso1, the major isoamylase found in leaves. The absence of Iso1 leads to an 80% decrease in the starch content and to accumulation of water-soluble polysaccharides whose structure is similar to glycogen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AtISA1/AtISA2 isoamylase influences glucan branching pattern
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
glucan debranching occurs primarily at the granule surface via ISA3, but in its absence soluble branched glucans are debranched in the stroma via limit dextrinase. Isoamylase acts at the surface of the starch granule. Atisa3 mutants have more leaf starch and a slower rate of starch breakdown than wild-type plants
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
ISA1 activity plays a critical role in the stochastic process in starch synthesis in rice endosperm
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoamylase1 is directly involved in the synthesis of amylopectin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O04196, Q8L735, Q9M0S5
mutant lines carrying a defect in AtISA3 display a strong starch-excess phenotype at the end of both the light and the dark phases accompanied by a small modification of the amylopectin structure
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
TreX from Sulfolobus solfataricus shows dual activities for alpha-1,4-transferase, EC 2.4.1.25 and alpha-1,6-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.68, bifunctional mechanism, substrate glycogen, overview. TreX exhibits two different active-site configurations depending on its oligomeric state
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoamylase is one of the starch-debranching enzymes which catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages specific in alpha-glucans including amylopectin, branched starch, and glycogen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoform Psisa2 most likely does not have catalytic activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity towards pullulan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P10342
no activity towards pullulan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
recombinant isoamylase 3 does not readily hydrolyze red pullulan and amylose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoamylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkage specifically in amylopectin, glycogen and derived oligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa WU7211-2
-
isoamylase is one of the starch-debranching enzymes which catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages specific in alpha-glucans including amylopectin, branched starch, and glycogen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Erwinia chrysanthemi PY35
-
no substrate: dextran, amylose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
P10342
no activity towards pullulan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoamylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkage specifically in amylopectin, glycogen and derived oligosaccharides
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Q84UE6
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7, -
involved in starch synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
involved in synthesis of reserve and leaf starches
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O04196, Q8L735, Q9M0S5
AtISA1 and AtISA2 are required for the production of a functional isoamylase-type of debranching enzyme named Iso1, the major isoamylase found in leaves. The absence of Iso1 leads to an 80% decrease in the starch content and to accumulation of water-soluble polysaccharides whose structure is similar to glycogen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AtISA1/AtISA2 isoamylase influences glucan branching pattern
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
glucan debranching occurs primarily at the granule surface via ISA3, but in its absence soluble branched glucans are debranched in the stroma via limit dextrinase. Isoamylase acts at the surface of the starch granule. Atisa3 mutants have more leaf starch and a slower rate of starch breakdown than wild-type plants
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
ISA1 activity plays a critical role in the stochastic process in starch synthesis in rice endosperm
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoamylase1 is directly involved in the synthesis of amylopectin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O04196, Q8L735, Q9M0S5
mutant lines carrying a defect in AtISA3 display a strong starch-excess phenotype at the end of both the light and the dark phases accompanied by a small modification of the amylopectin structure
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoamylase is one of the starch-debranching enzymes which catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages specific in alpha-glucans including amylopectin, branched starch, and glycogen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoamylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkage specifically in amylopectin, glycogen and derived oligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa WU7211-2
-
isoamylase is one of the starch-debranching enzymes which catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages specific in alpha-glucans including amylopectin, branched starch, and glycogen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoamylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkage specifically in amylopectin, glycogen and derived oligosaccharides
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
CaCl2
-
5 mM, 120% of activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2Mo2O7
-
1 mM 22% inhibition, 10 mM 100% inhibition
-
2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene
-
-
2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide
-
-
ammonium sulfate
-
0.5 M, 30% residual activity
beta-cyclodextrin
-
29%, slightly inhibitory at 10 mM
cellobiose
-
10 mM, 0.4% amylose, relative activity 88%
corn amylose
-
-
-
Cu2+
-
relative activity 78%
CuCl2
-
1 mM, 30% inhibition
CuCl2
-
0.1 mM reduce activity to 3%
CuCl2
-
5 mM, 30% residual activity
cyclomaltoheptaose
-
10 mM, 0.4% amylose, relative activity 93%
D-glucono-delta-lactone
-
relative activity 87%
D-glucose
-
10 mM, 0.4% amylose, relative activity 95%
EDTA
-
5 mM, 80% residual activity
guanidine hydrochloride
-
3 M, activity completely lost
Hg2+
-
52% inhibition
HgCl2
-
0.1 mM 34% inhibition; 1 mM, 41% inhibition
HgCl2
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Iodine
-
relative activity 93%
iodoacetate
-
10 mM, 13% inhibition
iodoacetate
-
21%, slight inhibition
isomaltose
-
10 mM, 0.4% amylose, relative activity 82%
maltose
-
10 mM, inhibition slightly, with 0.4% amylose relative activity 90%
maltotetraose
-
10 mM, 0.4% amylose, relative activity 50%
maltotriose
-
competitive inhibitor
maltotriose
-
10 mM, 0.4% amylose, relative activity 53%
MgCl2
-
5 mM, 70% residual activity
N-bromosuccinimide
-
0.01 mg abolishes enzyme activity almost completely
NaF
-
1 mM, 19% inhibition
oligosaccharides with alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
reversible inactivation
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
1 mM 34% inhibition; 1 mM, complete inhibition
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
Phenylmercuriacetate
-
-
SDS
-
0,1%, activity completely lost
sodium dodecylsulfate
-
1 mM, no residual activity
Succinic anhydride
-
relative activity 94%
Urea
-
20% activity retained
xylose
-
10 mM, 0.4% amylose, relative activity 97%
ZnCl2
-
5 mM, 20% residual activity
MnCl2
-
5 mM, 80% residual activity
additional information
-
inhibitory effect of pressure and agitation speed on isoamylase activity in supercritical CO2, overview
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
polyethyleneglycol 2000
-
maximal activation of 58% at 0.04% PEG 2000 Da
Triton X-100
-
reagent in the preincubation mixture at concentrations 0.05-1% activates the enzyme by 45-72%
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00012
-
Amylopectin
O80403, -
hetero-oligomer; hetero-oligomer
0.00025
-
Amylopectin
O80403, -
homo-oligomer
0.00002
-
amylose-extender amylopectin
O80403, -
hetero-oligomer; hetero-oligomer
0.00004
-
amylose-extender amylopectin
O80403, -
homo-oligomer
0.00018
-
beta-limit dextrin
O80403, -
hetero-oligomer; hetero-oligomer
0.00062
-
oyster glycogen
O80403, -
hetero-oligomer; hetero-oligomer
-
0.00067
-
oyster glycogen
O80403, -
homo-oligomer
-
0.0054
-
phytoglycogen
O80403, -
hetero-oligomer; hetero-oligomer
-
0.0065
-
phytoglycogen
O80403, -
homo-oligomer
-
0.00021
-
beta-limit dextrin
O80403, -
homo-oligomer
additional information
-
additional information
-
potatoamylopectin 0.59 mg/ml-1, oyster glycogen 0.45 mg/ml-1
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
amylopectin 7.2 mg/ml-1, phytoglycogen 11.9 mg/ml-1, beta-limit dextrin 13.1 mg/ml-1, glycogen 21.8 mg/ml-1
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.77
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
pullulan as substrate
0.95
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
pullulan as substrate; pullulan as substrate
3
-
-
pullulan, recombinant isoamylase
3.51
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
amylopectin as substrate
6.58
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
beta limit dextrin as substrate; beta limit dextrin as substrate
8.95
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
gylcogen as substrate; gylcogen as substrate
14.98
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
amylopectin as substrate; amylopectin as substrate
17.16
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
gylcogen as substrate
29.05
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
beta limit dextrin as substrate
51.2
-
-
rabbit liver glycogen
54.6
-
-
amylose, recombinant isoamylase
120
-
-
potato starch, recombinant isoamylase
154
-
-
rice starch, recombinant isoamylase
172
-
-
corn amylopectin, recombinant isoamylase
174
-
-
rabbit liver glycogen, recombinant isoamylase
182
-
-
oyster glycogen, recombinant isoamylase
469
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
3
4
-
starch, 0.1 M acetate-HCl buffer, pH 3.5, 0.1 M phosphate-citric acid buffer, pH 4
5.5
6
-
amylopectin
5.5
-
-
assay at
5.6
-
-
starch
6
7
-
-
6.3
-
-
only isoamylase with neutral pH optimum
6.5
7
-
-
6.5
7.5
O80403, -
;
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
1
5
-
starch, 0.1 M acetate-HCl buffer
2.2
7.8
-
0.1 M phosphate-citric acid buffer
4
8
-
not active below, amylopectin
7.5
9.5
-
-
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
37
-
-
30
-
-
-
30
-
O80403, -
homo-oligomer
40
-
O80403, -
hetero-oligomer; hetero-oligomer
52
-
-
starch, 10 min reaction at pH 3.5
55
-
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
60
-
not active above, starch
40
70
-
assay at
60
-
-
not active above, amylopectin
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
TreX may be located at the cell surface due to the proline-rich region
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
TreX may be located at the cell surface due to the proline-rich region
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
granule like structures inside the choloplast
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa JD210, Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1
-
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
50000
-
-
2 subunits, not linked covalently
65000
-
-
gel filtration, 0.5-m Bio-Gel A
65000
-
-
SDS-PAGE, gel filtration
75000
-
-
SU1
79000
-
-
maize gene su1 recombinant polypeptide, expressed in E. coli
80000
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
gel permeation chromatography
80810
-
-
SB-15, DNA sequence analysis
83000
-
-
SDS-PAGE, co-purified with a second minor band of 75000, probably C-terminal truncation of the native enzyme in vivo or during purification
83000
-
-
-
86000
94000
-
SB-15, gel filtration, SDS-PAGE
86000
94000
-
86000, undegraded polypeptide chain, SDS-PAGE
88000
-
-
calculated by comparison with standard proteins
90000
-
-
undegraded polypeptide chain
94000
-
-
native enzyme, centrifugation analysis
94000
-
-
native enzyme, centrifugation analysis; sedimentation equilibrium
95000
-
-
gel electrophoresis, low speed sedimentation
120000
-
-
-
141000
-
-
isoamylase II, gel filtration
178000
-
-
native enzyme
300000
-
Q84UE6
wild type endosperm contains three high molecular mass ISA complexes resolved by gel filtration and native-PAGE. Two complexes of approximately 400 kDa contain both isoform ISA1 and isoform ISA2, and an approximately 300 kDa complex contains isoform ISA1 but not isoform ISA2
340000
-
-
native enzyme, gel filtration, TSKgel G3000SWxl
370000
-
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
gel permeation chromatography; gel permeation chromatography
400000
-
Q84UE6
wild type endosperm contains three high molecular mass ISA complexes resolved by gel filtration and native-PAGE. Two complexes of approximately 400 kDa contain both isoform ISA1 and isoform ISA2, and an approximately 300 kDa complex contains isoform ISA1 but not isoform ISA2
420000
-
O80403, -
SDS-PAGE, homooligomer, five OsISA1
490000
-
-
native enzyme, gel filtration, TSKgel G4000SWxl
510000
-
O80403, -
SDS-PAGE, heterooligomer, hetero-hexamer composed of five OsISA1 and one OsISA2; SDS-PAGE, heterooligomer, hetero-hexamer composed of five OsISA1 and one OsISA2
520000
-
-
gel filtration
830000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 74100, deduced from gene sequence, x * 74000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 83400, deduced from genen sequence
?
-
x * 83000, SDS-PAGE
?
P10342
x * 95000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 79000, SDS-PAGE
?
Erwinia chrysanthemi PY35
-
x * 74100, deduced from gene sequence, x * 74000, SDS-PAGE
-
?
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
-
x * 95000, SDS-PAGE
-
dimer
-
1 * 83000 + 1 * 95000
dimer
-
2 * 46000, sedimentation equilibrium; 2 * 52000, gel filtration; dimers probably obtained by partial proteolytic degradation
dimer
-
2 * 46000, sedimentation equilibrium; 2 * 50000, not linked covalently
dimer or tetramer
-
the enzyme exists in two oligomeric states in solution, as a dimer and tetramer
homooligomer
-
-
monomer
-
gel electrophoresis
monomer
-
purified enzyme has monomeric structure
monomer
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
1 * 60000, SDS-PAGE
oligomer
-
probably homo-tetramer and homohexamer
oligomer
O80403, -
heterooligomer OsISA1-OsISA2 6*85000, HPLC gel filtration; homooligomer OsISA1 5 * 830000 and heterooligomer OsISA1-OsISA2 6 * 85000, HPLC gel filtration
tetramer
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
heterotetramer with PvISA1, 2 * 87000 PyISA1 and 2 * 93000 PvISA2, SDS-PAGE; heterotetramer with PvISA2, 2 * 87000 PvISA1 and 2 * 93000 PvISA2, SDS-PAGE
monomer
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1
-
-
-
additional information
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7
associated with Stisa1 to form a multimeric complex; associated with Stisa2 to form a multimeric complex
additional information
-
enzymic activity lies within a 88000 Da subunit of a multimeric enzyme complex
additional information
-
ISA1 and ISA2 proteins are subunits of the same enzyme
additional information
-
the structural lid, amino acids 99-97, at the active site generated by the tetramerization is closely associated with the bifunctionality and in particular with the alpha-1,4-transferase activity
additional information
-
isozymes Psisa1, Psisa2, and Psisa3, structure comparisons
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
crystallized from ammonium sulfate solution, crystals belong to orthorhombic space group P212121
-
TreX in complex with an acarbose ligand, microbatch method under oil at 18C, dimeric crystal from 16% PEG 8000, 0.2 M NaCl, and 0.1 M CHES buffer, pH 9.5, tetrameric crystal form from 2.2 M ammonium phosphate and 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.5. For the acarbose intermediate complex crystal, 0.1% acarbose is added to the protein, followed by incubation for 1 h prior to the setup of the crystal in 8% PEG 3000, 0.2M lithium sulfate, and 0.1 M imidazole buffer, pH 8.0, cyroprotection by 20% glycerol in mother liquor, in both crystal forms, the asymmetric unit consists of one dimer, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.8-3.0 A resolution
-
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5
11.5
-
more than 50% of the original activity detectable between pH 6.6-10.5
6.5
7
-
assayed at 22C enzyme displays broader activity and stability optima of pH 5.0 -7.5
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
-
recombinant wild-type and His-tagged enzyme are more stable at room temperature than at 4C
10
40
-
temperature treatment does not influence the enzyme activity
21
-
-
recombinant wild-type and His-tagged enzyme are more stable at room temperature than at 4C
40
50
O80403, -
hetero-oligomer, loss of 50% activity; hetero-oligomer, loss of 50% activity
40
-
-
stable up to 40C, at temperature below 30C and above 65C enzyme is almost inactive
40
-
O80403, -
homooligomer, complete loss of activity
45
-
-
not stable above
50
-
-
amylopectin, incubated in the absence of substrate enzyme stable only up to 45C
60
-
-
activity decreased about 95%
65
-
-
heating 10 min at 65C results in complete loss of activity
75
-
-
2 h, recombinant wild-type enzyme and His-tagged enzyme are sstable
80
-
-
2 h, recombinant wild-type enzyme and His-tagged enzyme are sstable
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
very unstable, even at low temperatures
-
Pseudomonas isoamylase immobilized physically by raw starch adsorption results in an increase in pH and temperature stability and a retention of about 75% of activity even after 75 days
P10342
quite stable in maltose-containing buffer
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-80C, two weeks, 30% loss of activity
-
4C for 5 months 85% enzyme activity retained, preservation with 0.1% potassium sorbate isoamylase activity was not reduced until 2 months of incubation
-
4C several months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE cellulose column chromatography, CM-cellulose column chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex gel filtration
-
HitrapQ column chromatography and TSKgel DEAE-5PW gel filtration
-
wild type enzyme by HitrapQ HP and TSKgel G3000SWXL column chromatography, recombinant OsISA2 by HitrapQ HP column chromatography; wild type enzyme by HitrapQ HP and TSKgel G3000SWXL column chromatography, recombinant OsISA2 by HitrapQ HP column chromatography
O80403, -
Q sepharose column chromatography; Q sepharose column chromatography; Q sepharose column chromatography
A4PIS8, A4PIS9, A4PIT0, -
raw starch desorption adsorption
P10342
partial
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7
recombinant protein by His tag column chromatography
-
recombinant wild-type and His-tagged enzyme
-
recombinant wild-type and mutant enzymes from Escherichia coli by nickel affinity chromatography
-
HiTrapQ column chromatography and Superdex 200 gel filtration
Q84UE6
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV310, GFP/GUS promoter fusion constructs for AtISA1, AtISA2, AtISA3 into Arabidopsis thaliana using the floral dip method
-
gene treX, component of a treXYZ operon, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison, genetic organization in the treXYZ operon, overview
-
iam gene cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli JM101, pMON17481, production of a nonsecreted signal peptide-less isoamylase
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Star cells
-
expression of OsISA2 in Escherichia coli; expression of OsISA2in Escherichia coli
O80403, -
isoamylase gene is a single copy in rice genome, located on chromsome 8
-
cloning of cDNAs of different isoforms, Psisa1-Psisa3, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons, overview
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
P10342
plasmid pIAM275, pUC9 carrying iam gene, Escherichia coli, recominant plasmid does not direct the synthesis of isoamylase in Escherichia coli , sequenced
-
-
Q84YG5, Q84YG6, Q84YG7
cloned to an expression vector with a T7lac promoter. Both wild-type and His-tagged isoamylases are expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expression of in Escherichia coli
-
expression of wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli, sequence comparison
-
introduction of ISA1 gene from Triticum aestivum (TaISA1 from the D genome donor Aegilops tauschii) into a rice sugary-1 mutant line EM914 in which starch is completely replaced by phytoglycogen in the endosperm
-
gene su1, expressed in Escherichia coli, pAR4
-
recombinant GST-ISA2 fusion protein is expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta DE3-pLysS cells
Q84UE6
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
the isoform ISA1 transcript level is low during starch degradation
Q84UE6
isoform ISA2 transcript is relatively abundant during periods of either starch biosynthesis or catabolism
Q84UE6
the isoform ISA1 transcript level is elevated in tissues where starch is synthesized
Q84UE6
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
mutant sta8, about 35% residual enzymic activity, loss of two out of three activity bands in zymogram gels, loss of about 50% of mass of the multimeric complex
additional information
-
Cassava starch is debranched by treatment with isoamylase and pullulanase and the yield of resistant starch type III, method optimization with respect to starch solids concentration, incubation time, and enzyme concentration using central composite rotatable design
additional information
-
transgenic plants expressing antisense RNA for Stisa1 or Stisa2, accumulate small amounts of soluble glucan and large numbers of tiny starch granules
additional information
-
mutations in the N-terminal region result in a sharp increase in alpha-1,4-transferase activity and a reduced level of alpha-1,6-glucosidase activity, overview
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
analysis
-
bioinformatics, microarray and reporter gene analyses reveal that AtISA1 and AtISA2, AtISA2 and AtISA3 or AtISA1, AtISA2 and AtISA3 are coexpressed under certain conditions
detergent
-
effective additive in dishwashing and laundry detergents
nutrition
-
-
detergent
Bacillus sp. KSM-K16
-
effective additive in dishwashing and laundry detergents
-
analysis
-
structural determination of glycogen and starch components
nutrition
-
industrial production of various syrups from starch
medicine
-
diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in humans
nutrition
-
production of high-maltose syrups and highly purified maltose by a combination of debranching enzymes
analysis
-
elucidating of the finestructures of various polysaccharides
analysis
-
Di-O-a-maltosyl-beta-cyclodextrin is fromed via a transglycosylation reaction using TreX, a Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 debranching enzyme, isoamylase is used to examine the structure of the product and to produce branched cyclodextrins via reverse reaction
analysis
-
composition and starch molecular structure of eight rice varieties are studied, rice starches were debranched using isoamylase, different amount and size of longbranch chain of amylopectin influences the compactness of starch structure
nutrition
-
industrial production of amylose, maltose and D-glucose from starch, alone or in combination with beta-amylase and glucoamylase production
nutrition
-
industrial production of amylose, maltose and D-glucose from starch, alone or in combination with beta-amylase and glucoamylase production; strain MI-414 for industrial use, produces 10fold more isoamylase than SB-15
analysis
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa JD210
-
-
-
analysis
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa MI-414
-
elucidating of the finestructures of various polysaccharides
-
nutrition
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa MI-414
-
industrial production of amylose, maltose and D-glucose from starch, alone or in combination with beta-amylase and glucoamylase production; strain MI-414 for industrial use, produces 10fold more isoamylase than SB-15
-
analysis
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1
-
-
-
nutrition
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SMP1
-
-
-
degradation
-
thermophilic enzyme shows a potential to be used in industry to degrade the debranching points of starch at a high temperature
food industry
-
saccharification potential of isoamylases is employed in food industry for preparation of high glucose syrup, maltose, maltitol, trehalose, cyclodextrin and resistant starch from starch
additional information
-
isoamylase can potentially be used in the elucidation of fine structures of polysaccharides and related alpha-glucans and can be also be used as effective additive in dishwashing and laundry detergents
food industry
P10342
saccharification potential of isoamylases is employed in food industry for preparation of high glucose syrup, maltose, maltitol, trehalose, cyclodextrin and resistant starch from starch
additional information
P10342
isoamylase can potentially be used in the elucidation of fine structures of polysaccharides and related alpha-glucans and can be also be used as effective additive in dishwashing and laundry detergents
food industry
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
-
saccharification potential of isoamylases is employed in food industry for preparation of high glucose syrup, maltose, maltitol, trehalose, cyclodextrin and resistant starch from starch
-
additional information
Pseudomonas amyloderamosa SB-15
-
isoamylase can potentially be used in the elucidation of fine structures of polysaccharides and related alpha-glucans and can be also be used as effective additive in dishwashing and laundry detergents
-