Information on EC 3.2.1.67 - galacturan 1,4-alpha-galacturonidase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.2.1.67
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
galacturan 1,4-alpha-galacturonidase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]n + H2O = [(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]n-1 + D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Metabolic pathways
-
-
pectin degradation III
-
-
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
poly[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide] galacturonohydrolase
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9045-35-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain CCT 3232
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CCT 3232
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from decomposing materials
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from decomposing materials
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain N12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain N12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. KSM-P443
KSM-P443
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain RCK. 1.7fold increase in production of an alkaline exo-polygalacturonase under solid-state fermentation is obtained by optimizing medium components by response surface methodology
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 781, isolated from bovine rumen
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 781, isolated from bovine rumen
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ACM61449
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ACM61449
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fungal plant pathogen, bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fomitopsis cytisina
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geotrichum lactis
yeast-like fungus, ATCC48590
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene pgu B
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Klebsiella sp. Y1 CGMCC 4433
gene pgu B
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
apple, Borkh. cv Cox Orange Pippin
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Linn cv. Nam Dok Mai
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
liverwort, cell line HYH-2F
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Monascus sp.
strain N8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Monascus sp. N8
strain N8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
banana, var. GROS MICHEL
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from acidic wastewater sample (pH 3.0) collected from a tin mine in Yunnan province, China
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain RFC
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain RFC3, isolated from decaying vegetables in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Olomoucka ´ dlouha´
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
peach
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tomato
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain QM9414
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain QM9414
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Yersinia enterolytica
enteropathogen, ATCC 49397
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
corn
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
metabolism
isozyme protein-protein interaction network analysis, overview; isozyme protein-protein interaction network analysis, overview
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)2 + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)3 + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)3 + H2O
galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)4 + H2O
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)3 + D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)4 + H2O
D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)4 + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)5 + H2O
D-galactopyranuronic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)5 + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)5 + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)2 + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)3 + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)4
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)6 + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)6 + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + (1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)5
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)7 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)7 + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)8 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)8 + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)9 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Fomitopsis cytisina
-
-
-
-
?
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)n + H2O
beta-D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
inversion of configuration during hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-linkage
-
-
?
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)n + H2O
D-galacturonate + digalacturonic acid + trigalacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)n + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
4,5-dehydrogalacturonosyl-alpha-D-trigalacturonic acid + H2O
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)3
show the reaction diagram
-
4,5-unsaturated tetragalacturonic acid
-
?
alpha-1,4-polygalacturonic acid
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
apple pectin + H2O
galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
arabinogalactan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
exopolygalacturonase still contains arabanase activity, limits the usefulness on any pectic polysaccharide with arabinose residues
-
-
-
citric pectin + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
citric pectin + H2O
galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
dextrose agar + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
potato dextrose agar, low activity
-
-
?
digalacturonate + H2O
2 galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
esterified pectin + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
GalAalpha(1->4)GalAalpha(1->4)GalA + H2O
GalAalpha(1->4)GalA + D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oligo-D-galacturonate + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranuronide + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + 4-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
pectic acid + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
pectic acid + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
pectic acid + H2O
D-galacturonide + ?
show the reaction diagram
pectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
pectin + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
pectin + H2O
digalacturonate + D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
pectin + H2O
digalacturonate + D-galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
pectin + H2O
galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonate + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
sodium polypectate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
sodium polypectate + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
sodium polypectate + H2O
galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tetragalacturonic acid + H2O
galacturonic acid + trigalacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
modelling of substrate binidng, structure, overview
-
-
?
xylogalacturonan + H2O
xylogalacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
terminal galacturonic acid residue carries a single xylose substitution
-
?
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]2 + H2O
2 D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]3 + H2O
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]2 + D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]n + H2O
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]n-1 + D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
citric pectin + H2O
galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
pectic acid + H2O
D-galacturonide + ?
show the reaction diagram
pectin + H2O
galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]n + H2O
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]n-1 + D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ba2+
-
10 mM, increased the enzyme activity by 96%
Br-
-
activates by 10% at 10 mg/ml
Ca2+
-
Ca2+ enhances the stability of enzyme, and its activity by 10% at 2 mM and 10 mM, and by 30% at 5 mM
Cu2+
-
activates
F-
-
activates by 17% at 10 mg/ml
K+
-
activates by 17% at 10 mg/ml
NH4+
-
activates
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-bromo-2,5-pyrolidinedione
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
slight inhibition
beta-glycosylamine
-
of ammonium D-galactopyranuronate, competitive inhibition
-
citrate
D-galactopyranuronic acid
D-galacturonate
product inhibition
glucose
Geotrichum lactis
-
catabolite repression, even in presence of inducers
KMnO4
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
N-bromosuccinimide
-
0.5 mM, 67% inhibition
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
0.5 mM, 29% inhibition
Pd2+
-
0.5 mM, 40-50% inhibition
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
-
Diethylpyrocarbonate
-
-
dithiothreitol
HgCl2
-
0.01 mM, 3.4fold increase in activity, exo-PG2, no effect with exo-PG1
L-tryptophan
-
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.34 - 2.8
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)2
0.19 - 0.97
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)3
0.1 - 0.29
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)4
0.077 - 0.53
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)5
0.057 - 0.44
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)6
0.029 - 0.32
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)7
0.02 - 0.159
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)8
0.012 - 6
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)n
0.012 - 0.9
pectic acid
0.49
Pectin
Geotrichum lactis
-
-
0.016 - 0.055
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]2
-
0.0092
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]3
isozyme RPG15, pH 4.0, 30°C
-
additional information
additional information
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.17 - 182
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)2
0.44 - 685
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)3
0.52 - 829
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)4
0.57 - 934
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)5
0.59 - 821
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)6
0.33 - 860
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)7
0.31 - 843
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)8
936
(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide)n
Thermotoga maritima
-
30 mM phosphate buffer pH 6.5, 80°C
770
citric pectin
Aspergillus giganteus
-
pH 6.0, 55°C
-
690
polygalacturonic acid
Aspergillus giganteus
-
pH 6.0, 55°C
3.9 - 10.3
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]2
-
10.7
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]3
Rhizopus oryzae
Q5W9U0
isozyme RPG15, pH 4.0, 30°C
-
393.3 - 4068
[(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]n
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
additional information
Aspergillus niveus
-
58.7 mg/ml/s with [(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]n, pH 4.0, 50°C
2
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.501 - 0.886
D-galacturonate
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.44
-
2 several forms of exo-D-galacturonanase
0.56
-
2 several forms of exo-D-galacturonanase
0.6
-
pH 4.5, 30°C
0.69
-
pentagalacturonic acid
1.44
-
digalacturonic acid
1.7
-
sodium pectate
1.9
-
sodium pectate
2.35
-
crude extract, at pH 6.0 and 30°C
2.86
-
-
3.8
-
enzyme form PGII
5.36
-
crude enzyme, at pH 5.5, 37°C
5.45
-
digalacturonic acid
7.5
-
enzyme form PGI
13.5
-
exo-PG1, pH 4.0, 40°C
16
-
-
26.99
-
crude enzyme, at pH 4.5 and 40°C
31.4
-
exo-PG2, pH 4.0, 40°C
34.7
-
cell-free broth
47
purified recombinant His-tagged enzyme, substrate [(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonide]n, pH 6.0, 40°C
54
-
pH 6.8, 30°C
54.3
-
purified enzyme, pH 4.8, 45°C, substrate polygalacturonic acid
60.5
-
with citrus polygalacturonic acid, pH 5.0, 50°C
98.49
-
after 42.91fold purification, at pH 6.0 and 30°C
246
-
after 9.1fold purification, at pH 4.5 and 40°C
298.5
-
purified native enzyme
346.4
-
purified native enzyme
418.6
-
12fold purified enzyme
419.4
-
purified enzyme
5352
-
pH 5.5, 60°C
12860
-
purified enzyme, at pH 5.5, 37°C
additional information
-
with pectin as substrate: wild-type strain 97.8 U/ml, mutant strain M3 105.0 U/ml, mutant strain GH56 105.2 U/ml, and mutant strain Guserbiot 2.230 95.1 U/ml. Mutant strain M3 yields of enzyme activity is 1111.7 U/g on sugar beet and 142.1 U/g on apple pomace, while the wild-type strain gives 718.1 U/g and 240.0 U/g for sugar beet and apple pomace, respectively. Comprisons with commercial pectinases, overview
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4.4
-
depending upon chain length, digalacturonate, tetragalacturonate
4.5 - 5.5
-
polygalacturonate
4.5 - 5
-
polygalacturonic acid
4.5
-
in sodium citrate and sodium acetate buffers
4.5 - 5.5
4.6
-
depending upon chain length, hexagalacturonate, heptagalacturonate
4.9
-
polygalacturonate
5.1
-
pectate, native enzyme
5.8
-
exo-PGIII
6.3 - 6.6
-
digalacturonate
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
2 - 12
35% of maximal ativity within this range
2.8 - 10
-
PGase I
3 - 10
-
the enzyme shows the highest activity between pH 4.5 and pH 5.5, and more than 80% between pH 5.0 and pH 6.5. At pH 3.0-4.5, the enzyme shows about 73% activity, at pH 10.0 44% activity
3.4 - 3.8
-
exo-PG1
3.4 - 4.2
-
exo-PG2
3.5 - 6.5
-
over 50% of maximal acitivity at pH 3.5-6.0, 32% at pH 6.5
3.5 - 6.5
-
-
3.5 - 7
Geotrichum lactis
-
-
4 - 8
-
50% of maximal activity at pH 8.0, profile, overview
4 - 7.5
-
polygalacturonate
4.5 - 7.5
-
activity range, profile, overview
4.5 - 6
5 - 8
-
pH 5.0: about 50% of maximal activity, pH 8.0: about 55% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
25
-
assay at
50 - 60
-
PGase I
60 - 70
-
pectate, optimum temperature for enzyme action
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0 - 70
activity range, recombinant enzyme
20 - 70
-
PGase I
30 - 50
-
50°C 50% activity retained
30 - 60
-
activity range, profile overview
35 - 75
-
activity range, profile, overview
35 - 65
-
35°C: about 65% of maximal activity, 65°C: about 50% of maximal activity
35 - 70
-
profile, overview
45 - 65
60
-
not active above, digalacturonate
65 - 75
-
over 90% of maximal activity within this range
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4
Fomitopsis cytisina
-
isoelectric focusing
4.37
-
isoelectric focusing
5.5
sequence calculation
5.79
isozyme MpPG3, sequence calculation
6.5
-
isoelectric focusing
6.6
-
isoelectric focusing
7.6
-
isoelectric focusing
7.8
-
isoelectric focusing
8
-
isoelectric focusing
8.3
calculated from amino acid sequence; calculated from amino acid sequence
8.47
isozyme MpPG1, sequence calculation
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Fomitopsis cytisina
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the enzyme is produced during the whole growth phase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Geotrichum lactis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
24100
-
x * 24100, SDS-PAGE
29300
-
x * 29300, SDS-PAGE
30750
-
mass spectrometry
32000
-
gel filtration
34000
-
1 * 34000 + 1 * 69000, SDS-PAGE
39400
-
x * 39400, SDS-PAGE
39850
x * 39850, about, isozyme MpPG1, sequence calculation, isozyme MpPG1
40200
-
x * 40200, deduced from gene sequence, mature enzyme
42000
-
1 * 42000, PGase I, SDS-PAGE and PAGE
43130
x * 43130, about, isozyme MpPG3, sequence calculation
47000
-
gel filtration
48000
-
gel filtration
51300
-
x * 51300, deduced from genen sequence
51700
calculated from amino acid sequence and determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; calculated from amino acid sequence and determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
53000
Geotrichum lactis
-
gel filtration
54000
-
gel filtration
55000
-
gel filtration
65000
-
1 * 65000, SDS-PAGE